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Steel Making

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Making Steel Balls


Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, stock
less than 9/16-in. comes in coils. Stock 5/8-in. and larger comes
in rods. Ball stock is designated in thousandths so that 5/8-in.
rods are known as 0.625-in. stock.

Steel for making balls of average size is made up of:

Carbon 0.95 to 1.05 per cent
Silicon 0.20 to 0.35 per cent
Manganese 0.30 to 0.45 per cent
Chromium 0.35 to 0.45 per cent
Sulphur and phosphorus not to exceed 0.025 per cent

For the larger sizes a typical analysis is:

Carbon 1.02 per cent
Silicon 0.21 per cent
Manganese 0.40 per cent
Chromium 0.65 per cent
Sulphur 0.026 per cent
Phosphorus 0.014 per cent

Balls 5/8 in. and below are formed cold on upsetting or heading
machines, the stock use is as follows:

Diameter of Diameter of Diameter of Diameter of
ball, inch stock inch ball, inch stock, inch
1/8 0.100 5/16 0.235
5/32 0.120 3/8 0.275
3/16 0.145 7/16 0.320
7/32 0.170 1/2 0.365
1/4 0.190 9/16 0.395
9/32 0.220 5/8 0.440

For larger balls the blanks are hot-forged from straight bars.
They are usually forged in multiples of four under a spring hammer
and then separated by a suitable punching or shearing die in a
press adjoining the hammer. The dimensions are:

Diameter of ball, Diameter of die, Diameter of stock,
inch inch inch
3/4 0.775 0.625
7/8 0.905 0.729
1 1.035 0.823

Before hardening, the balls are annealed to relieve the stresses
of forging and grinding, this being done by passing them through a
revolving retort made of nichrome or other heat-resisting substance.
The annealing temperature is 1,300 deg.F.

The hardening temperature is from 1,425 to 1,475 deg.F. according to
size and composition of steel. Small balls, 5/16 and under, are
quenched in oil, the larger sizes in water. In some special cases
brine is used. Quenching small balls in water is too great a shock
as the small volume is cooled clear through almost instantly. The
larger balls have metal enough to cool more slowly.

Balls which are cooled in either water or brine are boiled in water
for 2 hr. to relieve internal stresses, after which the balls are
finished by dry-grinding and oil-grinding.

The ball makers have an interesting method of testing stock for
seams which do not show in the rod or wire. The Hoover Steel Ball
Company cut off pieces of rod or wire 7/16 in. long and subject
them to an end pressure of from 20,000 to 50,000 lb. A pressure
of 20,000 lb. compresses the piece to 3/16 in. and the 50,000 lb.
pressure to 3/32 in. This opens any seam which may exist but a
solid bar shows no seam.

Another method which has proved very successful is to pass the
bar or rod to be tested through a solenoid electro-magnet. With
suitable instruments it is claimed that this is an almost infallible
test as the instruments show at once when a seam or flaw is present
in the bar.

Next: The Forging Of Steel

Previous: Heat Treatment Of Axles

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