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   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...



Making Steel Balls






Category: THE FORGING OF STEEL

Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, stock
less than 9/16-in. comes in coils. Stock 5/8-in. and larger comes
in rods. Ball stock is designated in thousandths so that 5/8-in.
rods are known as 0.625-in. stock.

Steel for making balls of average size is made up of:

Carbon 0.95 to 1.05 per cent
Silicon 0.20 to 0.35 per cent
Manganese 0.30 to 0.45 per cent
Chromium 0.35 to 0.45 per cent
Sulphur and phosphorus not to exceed 0.025 per cent

For the larger sizes a typical analysis is:

Carbon 1.02 per cent
Silicon 0.21 per cent
Manganese 0.40 per cent
Chromium 0.65 per cent
Sulphur 0.026 per cent
Phosphorus 0.014 per cent

Balls 5/8 in. and below are formed cold on upsetting or heading
machines, the stock use is as follows:

TABLE 14.--SIZES OF STOCK FOR FORMING BALLS ON HEADER
-------------------------------------------------------
Diameter of Diameter of Diameter of Diameter of
ball, inch stock inch ball, inch stock, inch
----------------------------------------------------
1/8 0.100 5/16 0.235
5/32 0.120 3/8 0.275
3/16 0.145 7/16 0.320
7/32 0.170 1/2 0.365
1/4 0.190 9/16 0.395
9/32 0.220 5/8 0.440
-------------------------------------------------------

For larger balls the blanks are hot-forged from straight bars.
They are usually forged in multiples of four under a spring hammer
and then separated by a suitable punching or shearing die in a
press adjoining the hammer. The dimensions are:

-----------------------------------------------------------
Diameter of ball, Diameter of die, Diameter of stock,
inch inch inch
---------------------------------------------------------
3/4 0.775 0.625
7/8 0.905 0.729
1 1.035 0.823
-----------------------------------------------------------

Before hardening, the balls are annealed to relieve the stresses
of forging and grinding, this being done by passing them through a
revolving retort made of nichrome or other heat-resisting substance.
The annealing temperature is 1,300 deg.F.

The hardening temperature is from 1,425 to 1,475 deg.F. according to
size and composition of steel. Small balls, 5/16 and under, are
quenched in oil, the larger sizes in water. In some special cases
brine is used. Quenching small balls in water is too great a shock
as the small volume is cooled clear through almost instantly. The
larger balls have metal enough to cool more slowly.

Balls which are cooled in either water or brine are boiled in water
for 2 hr. to relieve internal stresses, after which the balls are
finished by dry-grinding and oil-grinding.

The ball makers have an interesting method of testing stock for
seams which do not show in the rod or wire. The Hoover Steel Ball
Company cut off pieces of rod or wire 7/16 in. long and subject
them to an end pressure of from 20,000 to 50,000 lb. A pressure
of 20,000 lb. compresses the piece to 3/16 in. and the 50,000 lb.
pressure to 3/32 in. This opens any seam which may exist but a
solid bar shows no seam.

Another method which has proved very successful is to pass the
bar or rod to be tested through a solenoid electro-magnet. With
suitable instruments it is claimed that this is an almost infallible
test as the instruments show at once when a seam or flaw is present
in the bar.





Next: The Forging Of Steel

Previous: Heat Treatment Of Axles



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