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Steel Making

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Making Steel Balls


Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, stock
less than 9/16-in. comes in coils. Stock 5/8-in. and larger comes
in rods. Ball stock is designated in thousandths so that 5/8-in.
rods are known as 0.625-in. stock.

Steel for making balls of average size is made up of:

Carbon 0.95 to 1.05 per cent
Silicon 0.20 to 0.35 per cent
Manganese 0.30 to 0.45 per cent
Chromium 0.35 to 0.45 per cent
Sulphur and phosphorus not to exceed 0.025 per cent

For the larger sizes a typical analysis is:

Carbon 1.02 per cent
Silicon 0.21 per cent
Manganese 0.40 per cent
Chromium 0.65 per cent
Sulphur 0.026 per cent
Phosphorus 0.014 per cent

Balls 5/8 in. and below are formed cold on upsetting or heading
machines, the stock use is as follows:

Diameter of Diameter of Diameter of Diameter of
ball, inch stock inch ball, inch stock, inch
1/8 0.100 5/16 0.235
5/32 0.120 3/8 0.275
3/16 0.145 7/16 0.320
7/32 0.170 1/2 0.365
1/4 0.190 9/16 0.395
9/32 0.220 5/8 0.440

For larger balls the blanks are hot-forged from straight bars.
They are usually forged in multiples of four under a spring hammer
and then separated by a suitable punching or shearing die in a
press adjoining the hammer. The dimensions are:

Diameter of ball, Diameter of die, Diameter of stock,
inch inch inch
3/4 0.775 0.625
7/8 0.905 0.729
1 1.035 0.823

Before hardening, the balls are annealed to relieve the stresses
of forging and grinding, this being done by passing them through a
revolving retort made of nichrome or other heat-resisting substance.
The annealing temperature is 1,300 deg.F.

The hardening temperature is from 1,425 to 1,475 deg.F. according to
size and composition of steel. Small balls, 5/16 and under, are
quenched in oil, the larger sizes in water. In some special cases
brine is used. Quenching small balls in water is too great a shock
as the small volume is cooled clear through almost instantly. The
larger balls have metal enough to cool more slowly.

Balls which are cooled in either water or brine are boiled in water
for 2 hr. to relieve internal stresses, after which the balls are
finished by dry-grinding and oil-grinding.

The ball makers have an interesting method of testing stock for
seams which do not show in the rod or wire. The Hoover Steel Ball
Company cut off pieces of rod or wire 7/16 in. long and subject
them to an end pressure of from 20,000 to 50,000 lb. A pressure
of 20,000 lb. compresses the piece to 3/16 in. and the 50,000 lb.
pressure to 3/32 in. This opens any seam which may exist but a
solid bar shows no seam.

Another method which has proved very successful is to pass the
bar or rod to be tested through a solenoid electro-magnet. With
suitable instruments it is claimed that this is an almost infallible
test as the instruments show at once when a seam or flaw is present
in the bar.

Next: The Forging Of Steel

Previous: Heat Treatment Of Axles

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