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   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Making Steel Balls


Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, stock
less than 9/16-in. comes in coils. Stock 5/8-in. and larger comes
in rods. Ball stock is designated in thousandths so that 5/8-in.
rods are known as 0.625-in. stock.

Steel for making balls of average size is made up of:

Carbon 0.95 to 1.05 per cent
Silicon 0.20 to 0.35 per cent
Manganese 0.30 to 0.45 per cent
Chromium 0.35 to 0.45 per cent
Sulphur and phosphorus not to exceed 0.025 per cent

For the larger sizes a typical analysis is:

Carbon 1.02 per cent
Silicon 0.21 per cent
Manganese 0.40 per cent
Chromium 0.65 per cent
Sulphur 0.026 per cent
Phosphorus 0.014 per cent

Balls 5/8 in. and below are formed cold on upsetting or heading
machines, the stock use is as follows:

Diameter of Diameter of Diameter of Diameter of
ball, inch stock inch ball, inch stock, inch
1/8 0.100 5/16 0.235
5/32 0.120 3/8 0.275
3/16 0.145 7/16 0.320
7/32 0.170 1/2 0.365
1/4 0.190 9/16 0.395
9/32 0.220 5/8 0.440

For larger balls the blanks are hot-forged from straight bars.
They are usually forged in multiples of four under a spring hammer
and then separated by a suitable punching or shearing die in a
press adjoining the hammer. The dimensions are:

Diameter of ball, Diameter of die, Diameter of stock,
inch inch inch
3/4 0.775 0.625
7/8 0.905 0.729
1 1.035 0.823

Before hardening, the balls are annealed to relieve the stresses
of forging and grinding, this being done by passing them through a
revolving retort made of nichrome or other heat-resisting substance.
The annealing temperature is 1,300 deg.F.

The hardening temperature is from 1,425 to 1,475 deg.F. according to
size and composition of steel. Small balls, 5/16 and under, are
quenched in oil, the larger sizes in water. In some special cases
brine is used. Quenching small balls in water is too great a shock
as the small volume is cooled clear through almost instantly. The
larger balls have metal enough to cool more slowly.

Balls which are cooled in either water or brine are boiled in water
for 2 hr. to relieve internal stresses, after which the balls are
finished by dry-grinding and oil-grinding.

The ball makers have an interesting method of testing stock for
seams which do not show in the rod or wire. The Hoover Steel Ball
Company cut off pieces of rod or wire 7/16 in. long and subject
them to an end pressure of from 20,000 to 50,000 lb. A pressure
of 20,000 lb. compresses the piece to 3/16 in. and the 50,000 lb.
pressure to 3/32 in. This opens any seam which may exist but a
solid bar shows no seam.

Another method which has proved very successful is to pass the
bar or rod to be tested through a solenoid electro-magnet. With
suitable instruments it is claimed that this is an almost infallible
test as the instruments show at once when a seam or flaw is present
in the bar.

Next: The Forging Of Steel

Previous: Heat Treatment Of Axles

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