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Steel Making

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Making Steel Balls


Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, stock
less than 9/16-in. comes in coils. Stock 5/8-in. and larger comes
in rods. Ball stock is designated in thousandths so that 5/8-in.
rods are known as 0.625-in. stock.

Steel for making balls of average size is made up of:

Carbon 0.95 to 1.05 per cent
Silicon 0.20 to 0.35 per cent
Manganese 0.30 to 0.45 per cent
Chromium 0.35 to 0.45 per cent
Sulphur and phosphorus not to exceed 0.025 per cent

For the larger sizes a typical analysis is:

Carbon 1.02 per cent
Silicon 0.21 per cent
Manganese 0.40 per cent
Chromium 0.65 per cent
Sulphur 0.026 per cent
Phosphorus 0.014 per cent

Balls 5/8 in. and below are formed cold on upsetting or heading
machines, the stock use is as follows:

Diameter of Diameter of Diameter of Diameter of
ball, inch stock inch ball, inch stock, inch
1/8 0.100 5/16 0.235
5/32 0.120 3/8 0.275
3/16 0.145 7/16 0.320
7/32 0.170 1/2 0.365
1/4 0.190 9/16 0.395
9/32 0.220 5/8 0.440

For larger balls the blanks are hot-forged from straight bars.
They are usually forged in multiples of four under a spring hammer
and then separated by a suitable punching or shearing die in a
press adjoining the hammer. The dimensions are:

Diameter of ball, Diameter of die, Diameter of stock,
inch inch inch
3/4 0.775 0.625
7/8 0.905 0.729
1 1.035 0.823

Before hardening, the balls are annealed to relieve the stresses
of forging and grinding, this being done by passing them through a
revolving retort made of nichrome or other heat-resisting substance.
The annealing temperature is 1,300 deg.F.

The hardening temperature is from 1,425 to 1,475 deg.F. according to
size and composition of steel. Small balls, 5/16 and under, are
quenched in oil, the larger sizes in water. In some special cases
brine is used. Quenching small balls in water is too great a shock
as the small volume is cooled clear through almost instantly. The
larger balls have metal enough to cool more slowly.

Balls which are cooled in either water or brine are boiled in water
for 2 hr. to relieve internal stresses, after which the balls are
finished by dry-grinding and oil-grinding.

The ball makers have an interesting method of testing stock for
seams which do not show in the rod or wire. The Hoover Steel Ball
Company cut off pieces of rod or wire 7/16 in. long and subject
them to an end pressure of from 20,000 to 50,000 lb. A pressure
of 20,000 lb. compresses the piece to 3/16 in. and the 50,000 lb.
pressure to 3/32 in. This opens any seam which may exist but a
solid bar shows no seam.

Another method which has proved very successful is to pass the
bar or rod to be tested through a solenoid electro-magnet. With
suitable instruments it is claimed that this is an almost infallible
test as the instruments show at once when a seam or flaw is present
in the bar.

Next: The Forging Of Steel

Previous: Heat Treatment Of Axles

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