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Steel Making

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Manganese
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Pyrometers
Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...



Making Steel Balls






Category: THE FORGING OF STEEL

Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, stock
less than 9/16-in. comes in coils. Stock 5/8-in. and larger comes
in rods. Ball stock is designated in thousandths so that 5/8-in.
rods are known as 0.625-in. stock.

Steel for making balls of average size is made up of:

Carbon 0.95 to 1.05 per cent
Silicon 0.20 to 0.35 per cent
Manganese 0.30 to 0.45 per cent
Chromium 0.35 to 0.45 per cent
Sulphur and phosphorus not to exceed 0.025 per cent

For the larger sizes a typical analysis is:

Carbon 1.02 per cent
Silicon 0.21 per cent
Manganese 0.40 per cent
Chromium 0.65 per cent
Sulphur 0.026 per cent
Phosphorus 0.014 per cent

Balls 5/8 in. and below are formed cold on upsetting or heading
machines, the stock use is as follows:

TABLE 14.--SIZES OF STOCK FOR FORMING BALLS ON HEADER
-------------------------------------------------------
Diameter of Diameter of Diameter of Diameter of
ball, inch stock inch ball, inch stock, inch
----------------------------------------------------
1/8 0.100 5/16 0.235
5/32 0.120 3/8 0.275
3/16 0.145 7/16 0.320
7/32 0.170 1/2 0.365
1/4 0.190 9/16 0.395
9/32 0.220 5/8 0.440
-------------------------------------------------------

For larger balls the blanks are hot-forged from straight bars.
They are usually forged in multiples of four under a spring hammer
and then separated by a suitable punching or shearing die in a
press adjoining the hammer. The dimensions are:

-----------------------------------------------------------
Diameter of ball, Diameter of die, Diameter of stock,
inch inch inch
---------------------------------------------------------
3/4 0.775 0.625
7/8 0.905 0.729
1 1.035 0.823
-----------------------------------------------------------

Before hardening, the balls are annealed to relieve the stresses
of forging and grinding, this being done by passing them through a
revolving retort made of nichrome or other heat-resisting substance.
The annealing temperature is 1,300 deg.F.

The hardening temperature is from 1,425 to 1,475 deg.F. according to
size and composition of steel. Small balls, 5/16 and under, are
quenched in oil, the larger sizes in water. In some special cases
brine is used. Quenching small balls in water is too great a shock
as the small volume is cooled clear through almost instantly. The
larger balls have metal enough to cool more slowly.

Balls which are cooled in either water or brine are boiled in water
for 2 hr. to relieve internal stresses, after which the balls are
finished by dry-grinding and oil-grinding.

The ball makers have an interesting method of testing stock for
seams which do not show in the rod or wire. The Hoover Steel Ball
Company cut off pieces of rod or wire 7/16 in. long and subject
them to an end pressure of from 20,000 to 50,000 lb. A pressure
of 20,000 lb. compresses the piece to 3/16 in. and the 50,000 lb.
pressure to 3/32 in. This opens any seam which may exist but a
solid bar shows no seam.

Another method which has proved very successful is to pass the
bar or rod to be tested through a solenoid electro-magnet. With
suitable instruments it is claimed that this is an almost infallible
test as the instruments show at once when a seam or flaw is present
in the bar.





Next: The Forging Of Steel

Previous: Heat Treatment Of Axles



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