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Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...



Quenching






Category: CASE-HARDENING OR SURFACE-CARBURIZING

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from the pot,
especially if the case is of any appreciable depth. The texture
of carbon steel will be weakened by the prolonged high heat of
carburizing, so that if we need a tough core, we must reheat it
above its critical range, which is about 1,600 deg.F. for soft steel,
but lower for manganese and nickel steels. Quenching is done in
either water, oil, or air, depending upon the results desired.
The steel is then very carefully reheated to refine the case, the
temperature varying from 1,350 to 1,450 deg.F., depending on whether
the material is an alloy or a simple steel, and quenched in either
water or oil.



There are many possibilities yet to be developed with the carburizing
of alloy steels, which can produce a very tough, tenacious austenitic
case which becomes hard on cooling in air, and still retains a
soft, pearlitic core. An austenitic case is not necessarily file
hard, but has a very great resistance to abrasive wear.

The more carbon a steel has to begin with the more slowly will it
absorb carbon and the lower the temperature required. Low-carbon
steel of from 15 to 20 points is generally used and the carbon
brought up to 80 or 85 points. Tool steels may be carbonized as
high as 250 points.

In addition to the carburizing materials given, a mixture of 40
per cent of barium carbonate and 60 per cent charcoal gives much
faster penetration than charcoal, bone or leather. The penetration
of this mixture on ordinary low-carbon steel is shown in Fig. 32,
over a range of from 2 to 12 hr.





Next: Effect Of Different Carburizing Material

Previous: Carburizing Material



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