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Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...



It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from the pot,
especially if the case is of any appreciable depth. The texture
of carbon steel will be weakened by the prolonged high heat of
carburizing, so that if we need a tough core, we must reheat it
above its critical range, which is about 1,600 deg.F. for soft steel,
but lower for manganese and nickel steels. Quenching is done in
either water, oil, or air, depending upon the results desired.
The steel is then very carefully reheated to refine the case, the
temperature varying from 1,350 to 1,450 deg.F., depending on whether
the material is an alloy or a simple steel, and quenched in either
water or oil.

There are many possibilities yet to be developed with the carburizing
of alloy steels, which can produce a very tough, tenacious austenitic
case which becomes hard on cooling in air, and still retains a
soft, pearlitic core. An austenitic case is not necessarily file
hard, but has a very great resistance to abrasive wear.

The more carbon a steel has to begin with the more slowly will it
absorb carbon and the lower the temperature required. Low-carbon
steel of from 15 to 20 points is generally used and the carbon
brought up to 80 or 85 points. Tool steels may be carbonized as
high as 250 points.

In addition to the carburizing materials given, a mixture of 40
per cent of barium carbonate and 60 per cent charcoal gives much
faster penetration than charcoal, bone or leather. The penetration
of this mixture on ordinary low-carbon steel is shown in Fig. 32,
over a range of from 2 to 12 hr.

Next: Effect Of Different Carburizing Material

Previous: Carburizing Material

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