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Steel Making

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...



It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from the pot,
especially if the case is of any appreciable depth. The texture
of carbon steel will be weakened by the prolonged high heat of
carburizing, so that if we need a tough core, we must reheat it
above its critical range, which is about 1,600 deg.F. for soft steel,
but lower for manganese and nickel steels. Quenching is done in
either water, oil, or air, depending upon the results desired.
The steel is then very carefully reheated to refine the case, the
temperature varying from 1,350 to 1,450 deg.F., depending on whether
the material is an alloy or a simple steel, and quenched in either
water or oil.

There are many possibilities yet to be developed with the carburizing
of alloy steels, which can produce a very tough, tenacious austenitic
case which becomes hard on cooling in air, and still retains a
soft, pearlitic core. An austenitic case is not necessarily file
hard, but has a very great resistance to abrasive wear.

The more carbon a steel has to begin with the more slowly will it
absorb carbon and the lower the temperature required. Low-carbon
steel of from 15 to 20 points is generally used and the carbon
brought up to 80 or 85 points. Tool steels may be carbonized as
high as 250 points.

In addition to the carburizing materials given, a mixture of 40
per cent of barium carbonate and 60 per cent charcoal gives much
faster penetration than charcoal, bone or leather. The penetration
of this mixture on ordinary low-carbon steel is shown in Fig. 32,
over a range of from 2 to 12 hr.

Next: Effect Of Different Carburizing Material

Previous: Carburizing Material

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