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Steel Making

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Manganese
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...



Quenching






Category: CASE-HARDENING OR SURFACE-CARBURIZING

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from the pot,
especially if the case is of any appreciable depth. The texture
of carbon steel will be weakened by the prolonged high heat of
carburizing, so that if we need a tough core, we must reheat it
above its critical range, which is about 1,600 deg.F. for soft steel,
but lower for manganese and nickel steels. Quenching is done in
either water, oil, or air, depending upon the results desired.
The steel is then very carefully reheated to refine the case, the
temperature varying from 1,350 to 1,450 deg.F., depending on whether
the material is an alloy or a simple steel, and quenched in either
water or oil.



There are many possibilities yet to be developed with the carburizing
of alloy steels, which can produce a very tough, tenacious austenitic
case which becomes hard on cooling in air, and still retains a
soft, pearlitic core. An austenitic case is not necessarily file
hard, but has a very great resistance to abrasive wear.

The more carbon a steel has to begin with the more slowly will it
absorb carbon and the lower the temperature required. Low-carbon
steel of from 15 to 20 points is generally used and the carbon
brought up to 80 or 85 points. Tool steels may be carbonized as
high as 250 points.

In addition to the carburizing materials given, a mixture of 40
per cent of barium carbonate and 60 per cent charcoal gives much
faster penetration than charcoal, bone or leather. The penetration
of this mixture on ordinary low-carbon steel is shown in Fig. 32,
over a range of from 2 to 12 hr.





Next: Effect Of Different Carburizing Material

Previous: Carburizing Material



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