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Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...



Quenching






Category: CASE-HARDENING OR SURFACE-CARBURIZING

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from the pot,
especially if the case is of any appreciable depth. The texture
of carbon steel will be weakened by the prolonged high heat of
carburizing, so that if we need a tough core, we must reheat it
above its critical range, which is about 1,600 deg.F. for soft steel,
but lower for manganese and nickel steels. Quenching is done in
either water, oil, or air, depending upon the results desired.
The steel is then very carefully reheated to refine the case, the
temperature varying from 1,350 to 1,450 deg.F., depending on whether
the material is an alloy or a simple steel, and quenched in either
water or oil.



There are many possibilities yet to be developed with the carburizing
of alloy steels, which can produce a very tough, tenacious austenitic
case which becomes hard on cooling in air, and still retains a
soft, pearlitic core. An austenitic case is not necessarily file
hard, but has a very great resistance to abrasive wear.

The more carbon a steel has to begin with the more slowly will it
absorb carbon and the lower the temperature required. Low-carbon
steel of from 15 to 20 points is generally used and the carbon
brought up to 80 or 85 points. Tool steels may be carbonized as
high as 250 points.

In addition to the carburizing materials given, a mixture of 40
per cent of barium carbonate and 60 per cent charcoal gives much
faster penetration than charcoal, bone or leather. The penetration
of this mixture on ordinary low-carbon steel is shown in Fig. 32,
over a range of from 2 to 12 hr.





Next: Effect Of Different Carburizing Material

Previous: Carburizing Material



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