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Steel Making

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...



It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from the pot,
especially if the case is of any appreciable depth. The texture
of carbon steel will be weakened by the prolonged high heat of
carburizing, so that if we need a tough core, we must reheat it
above its critical range, which is about 1,600 deg.F. for soft steel,
but lower for manganese and nickel steels. Quenching is done in
either water, oil, or air, depending upon the results desired.
The steel is then very carefully reheated to refine the case, the
temperature varying from 1,350 to 1,450 deg.F., depending on whether
the material is an alloy or a simple steel, and quenched in either
water or oil.

There are many possibilities yet to be developed with the carburizing
of alloy steels, which can produce a very tough, tenacious austenitic
case which becomes hard on cooling in air, and still retains a
soft, pearlitic core. An austenitic case is not necessarily file
hard, but has a very great resistance to abrasive wear.

The more carbon a steel has to begin with the more slowly will it
absorb carbon and the lower the temperature required. Low-carbon
steel of from 15 to 20 points is generally used and the carbon
brought up to 80 or 85 points. Tool steels may be carbonized as
high as 250 points.

In addition to the carburizing materials given, a mixture of 40
per cent of barium carbonate and 60 per cent charcoal gives much
faster penetration than charcoal, bone or leather. The penetration
of this mixture on ordinary low-carbon steel is shown in Fig. 32,
over a range of from 2 to 12 hr.

Next: Effect Of Different Carburizing Material

Previous: Carburizing Material

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