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Steel Making

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...



It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from the pot,
especially if the case is of any appreciable depth. The texture
of carbon steel will be weakened by the prolonged high heat of
carburizing, so that if we need a tough core, we must reheat it
above its critical range, which is about 1,600 deg.F. for soft steel,
but lower for manganese and nickel steels. Quenching is done in
either water, oil, or air, depending upon the results desired.
The steel is then very carefully reheated to refine the case, the
temperature varying from 1,350 to 1,450 deg.F., depending on whether
the material is an alloy or a simple steel, and quenched in either
water or oil.

There are many possibilities yet to be developed with the carburizing
of alloy steels, which can produce a very tough, tenacious austenitic
case which becomes hard on cooling in air, and still retains a
soft, pearlitic core. An austenitic case is not necessarily file
hard, but has a very great resistance to abrasive wear.

The more carbon a steel has to begin with the more slowly will it
absorb carbon and the lower the temperature required. Low-carbon
steel of from 15 to 20 points is generally used and the carbon
brought up to 80 or 85 points. Tool steels may be carbonized as
high as 250 points.

In addition to the carburizing materials given, a mixture of 40
per cent of barium carbonate and 60 per cent charcoal gives much
faster penetration than charcoal, bone or leather. The penetration
of this mixture on ordinary low-carbon steel is shown in Fig. 32,
over a range of from 2 to 12 hr.

Next: Effect Of Different Carburizing Material

Previous: Carburizing Material

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