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Steel Making

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Machineability
Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...



Quenching






Category: CASE-HARDENING OR SURFACE-CARBURIZING

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from the pot,
especially if the case is of any appreciable depth. The texture
of carbon steel will be weakened by the prolonged high heat of
carburizing, so that if we need a tough core, we must reheat it
above its critical range, which is about 1,600 deg.F. for soft steel,
but lower for manganese and nickel steels. Quenching is done in
either water, oil, or air, depending upon the results desired.
The steel is then very carefully reheated to refine the case, the
temperature varying from 1,350 to 1,450 deg.F., depending on whether
the material is an alloy or a simple steel, and quenched in either
water or oil.



There are many possibilities yet to be developed with the carburizing
of alloy steels, which can produce a very tough, tenacious austenitic
case which becomes hard on cooling in air, and still retains a
soft, pearlitic core. An austenitic case is not necessarily file
hard, but has a very great resistance to abrasive wear.

The more carbon a steel has to begin with the more slowly will it
absorb carbon and the lower the temperature required. Low-carbon
steel of from 15 to 20 points is generally used and the carbon
brought up to 80 or 85 points. Tool steels may be carbonized as
high as 250 points.

In addition to the carburizing materials given, a mixture of 40
per cent of barium carbonate and 60 per cent charcoal gives much
faster penetration than charcoal, bone or leather. The penetration
of this mixture on ordinary low-carbon steel is shown in Fig. 32,
over a range of from 2 to 12 hr.





Next: Effect Of Different Carburizing Material

Previous: Carburizing Material



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