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The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...



Quenching






Category: CASE-HARDENING OR SURFACE-CARBURIZING

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from the pot,
especially if the case is of any appreciable depth. The texture
of carbon steel will be weakened by the prolonged high heat of
carburizing, so that if we need a tough core, we must reheat it
above its critical range, which is about 1,600 deg.F. for soft steel,
but lower for manganese and nickel steels. Quenching is done in
either water, oil, or air, depending upon the results desired.
The steel is then very carefully reheated to refine the case, the
temperature varying from 1,350 to 1,450 deg.F., depending on whether
the material is an alloy or a simple steel, and quenched in either
water or oil.



There are many possibilities yet to be developed with the carburizing
of alloy steels, which can produce a very tough, tenacious austenitic
case which becomes hard on cooling in air, and still retains a
soft, pearlitic core. An austenitic case is not necessarily file
hard, but has a very great resistance to abrasive wear.

The more carbon a steel has to begin with the more slowly will it
absorb carbon and the lower the temperature required. Low-carbon
steel of from 15 to 20 points is generally used and the carbon
brought up to 80 or 85 points. Tool steels may be carbonized as
high as 250 points.

In addition to the carburizing materials given, a mixture of 40
per cent of barium carbonate and 60 per cent charcoal gives much
faster penetration than charcoal, bone or leather. The penetration
of this mixture on ordinary low-carbon steel is shown in Fig. 32,
over a range of from 2 to 12 hr.





Next: Effect Of Different Carburizing Material

Previous: Carburizing Material



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