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High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Crankshaft
The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...



Quenching






Category: CASE-HARDENING OR SURFACE-CARBURIZING

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from the pot,
especially if the case is of any appreciable depth. The texture
of carbon steel will be weakened by the prolonged high heat of
carburizing, so that if we need a tough core, we must reheat it
above its critical range, which is about 1,600 deg.F. for soft steel,
but lower for manganese and nickel steels. Quenching is done in
either water, oil, or air, depending upon the results desired.
The steel is then very carefully reheated to refine the case, the
temperature varying from 1,350 to 1,450 deg.F., depending on whether
the material is an alloy or a simple steel, and quenched in either
water or oil.



There are many possibilities yet to be developed with the carburizing
of alloy steels, which can produce a very tough, tenacious austenitic
case which becomes hard on cooling in air, and still retains a
soft, pearlitic core. An austenitic case is not necessarily file
hard, but has a very great resistance to abrasive wear.

The more carbon a steel has to begin with the more slowly will it
absorb carbon and the lower the temperature required. Low-carbon
steel of from 15 to 20 points is generally used and the carbon
brought up to 80 or 85 points. Tool steels may be carbonized as
high as 250 points.

In addition to the carburizing materials given, a mixture of 40
per cent of barium carbonate and 60 per cent charcoal gives much
faster penetration than charcoal, bone or leather. The penetration
of this mixture on ordinary low-carbon steel is shown in Fig. 32,
over a range of from 2 to 12 hr.





Next: Effect Of Different Carburizing Material

Previous: Carburizing Material



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