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Steel Making

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...



Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer






Category: PYROMETRY AND PYROMETERS

The principles of this very popular method of measuring temperature
are sketched in Fig. 123.




The instrument is light and portable, and can be sighted as easily
as an opera glass. The telescope, which is held in the hand, weighs
only 25 oz.; and the case containing the battery, rheostat and
milliammeter, which is slung from the shoulder, only 10 lb.




A large surface to sight at is not required. So long as the image
formed by the objective is broader than the lamp filament, the
temperature can be measured accurately.


recorder.]



Distance does not matter, as the brightness of the image formed
by the lens is practically constant, regardless of the distance
of the instrument from the hot object.



The manipulation is simple and rapid, consisting merely in the turning
of a knurled knob. The setting is made with great precision, due to
the rapid change in light intensity with change in temperature and
to the sensitiveness of the eye to differences of light intensity.
In the region of temperatures used for hardening steel, for example,
different observers using the instrument will agree within 3 deg.C.


Only brightness, not color, of light is matched, as light of only
one color reaches the eye. Color blindness, therefore, is no hindrance
to the use of this method. The use of the instrument is shown in
Fig. 127.





Next: Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer

Previous: Placing The Thermo-couples



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