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Steel Making

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...



Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer






Category: PYROMETRY AND PYROMETERS

The principles of this very popular method of measuring temperature
are sketched in Fig. 123.




The instrument is light and portable, and can be sighted as easily
as an opera glass. The telescope, which is held in the hand, weighs
only 25 oz.; and the case containing the battery, rheostat and
milliammeter, which is slung from the shoulder, only 10 lb.




A large surface to sight at is not required. So long as the image
formed by the objective is broader than the lamp filament, the
temperature can be measured accurately.


recorder.]



Distance does not matter, as the brightness of the image formed
by the lens is practically constant, regardless of the distance
of the instrument from the hot object.



The manipulation is simple and rapid, consisting merely in the turning
of a knurled knob. The setting is made with great precision, due to
the rapid change in light intensity with change in temperature and
to the sensitiveness of the eye to differences of light intensity.
In the region of temperatures used for hardening steel, for example,
different observers using the instrument will agree within 3 deg.C.


Only brightness, not color, of light is matched, as light of only
one color reaches the eye. Color blindness, therefore, is no hindrance
to the use of this method. The use of the instrument is shown in
Fig. 127.





Next: Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer

Previous: Placing The Thermo-couples



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