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Steel Making

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Placing Of Pyrometers


When installing a pyrometer, care should be
taken that it reaches directly to the point desired to be measured,
that the cold junction is kept cold, and that the wires leading to
the recording instrument are kept in good shape. The length of
these lead wires have an effect; the longer they are, the lower
the apparent temperature.

When pyrometers placed in a number of furnaces are connected up
in series, and a multiple switch is used for control, it becomes
apparent that pyrometers could not be interchanged between furnaces
near and far from the instrument without affecting the uniformity
of product from each furnace.

Calibration can best be done without disturbing the working pyrometer,
by inserting the master instrument into each furnace separately, place
it alongside the hot junction of the working pyrometer, and compare
the reading given on the indicator connected with the multiple

Protection tubes should be replaced when cracked, as it is important
that no foreign substance is allowed to freeze in the tube, so
that the enclosed junction becomes a part of a solid mass joined
in electrical contact with the outside protecting tube. Wires over
the furnaces must be carefully inspected from time to time, as no
true reading can be had on an instrument, if insulation is burned
off and short circuits result.

If the standard calibrating instrument used contains a dry battery,
it should be examined from time to time to be sure it is in good

Next: The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System

Previous: Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers

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