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Steel Making

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Placing Of Pyrometers


When installing a pyrometer, care should be
taken that it reaches directly to the point desired to be measured,
that the cold junction is kept cold, and that the wires leading to
the recording instrument are kept in good shape. The length of
these lead wires have an effect; the longer they are, the lower
the apparent temperature.

When pyrometers placed in a number of furnaces are connected up
in series, and a multiple switch is used for control, it becomes
apparent that pyrometers could not be interchanged between furnaces
near and far from the instrument without affecting the uniformity
of product from each furnace.

Calibration can best be done without disturbing the working pyrometer,
by inserting the master instrument into each furnace separately, place
it alongside the hot junction of the working pyrometer, and compare
the reading given on the indicator connected with the multiple

Protection tubes should be replaced when cracked, as it is important
that no foreign substance is allowed to freeze in the tube, so
that the enclosed junction becomes a part of a solid mass joined
in electrical contact with the outside protecting tube. Wires over
the furnaces must be carefully inspected from time to time, as no
true reading can be had on an instrument, if insulation is burned
off and short circuits result.

If the standard calibrating instrument used contains a dry battery,
it should be examined from time to time to be sure it is in good

Next: The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System

Previous: Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers

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