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Steel Making

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Placing Of Pyrometers


When installing a pyrometer, care should be
taken that it reaches directly to the point desired to be measured,
that the cold junction is kept cold, and that the wires leading to
the recording instrument are kept in good shape. The length of
these lead wires have an effect; the longer they are, the lower
the apparent temperature.

When pyrometers placed in a number of furnaces are connected up
in series, and a multiple switch is used for control, it becomes
apparent that pyrometers could not be interchanged between furnaces
near and far from the instrument without affecting the uniformity
of product from each furnace.

Calibration can best be done without disturbing the working pyrometer,
by inserting the master instrument into each furnace separately, place
it alongside the hot junction of the working pyrometer, and compare
the reading given on the indicator connected with the multiple

Protection tubes should be replaced when cracked, as it is important
that no foreign substance is allowed to freeze in the tube, so
that the enclosed junction becomes a part of a solid mass joined
in electrical contact with the outside protecting tube. Wires over
the furnaces must be carefully inspected from time to time, as no
true reading can be had on an instrument, if insulation is burned
off and short circuits result.

If the standard calibrating instrument used contains a dry battery,
it should be examined from time to time to be sure it is in good

Next: The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System

Previous: Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers

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