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Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Hardening
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...



Placing Of Pyrometers






Category: PYROMETRY AND PYROMETERS

When installing a pyrometer, care should be
taken that it reaches directly to the point desired to be measured,
that the cold junction is kept cold, and that the wires leading to
the recording instrument are kept in good shape. The length of
these lead wires have an effect; the longer they are, the lower
the apparent temperature.

When pyrometers placed in a number of furnaces are connected up
in series, and a multiple switch is used for control, it becomes
apparent that pyrometers could not be interchanged between furnaces
near and far from the instrument without affecting the uniformity
of product from each furnace.

Calibration can best be done without disturbing the working pyrometer,
by inserting the master instrument into each furnace separately, place
it alongside the hot junction of the working pyrometer, and compare
the reading given on the indicator connected with the multiple
switch.

Protection tubes should be replaced when cracked, as it is important
that no foreign substance is allowed to freeze in the tube, so
that the enclosed junction becomes a part of a solid mass joined
in electrical contact with the outside protecting tube. Wires over
the furnaces must be carefully inspected from time to time, as no
true reading can be had on an instrument, if insulation is burned
off and short circuits result.

If the standard calibrating instrument used contains a dry battery,
it should be examined from time to time to be sure it is in good
condition.





Next: The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System

Previous: Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers



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