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Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Placing Of Pyrometers


When installing a pyrometer, care should be
taken that it reaches directly to the point desired to be measured,
that the cold junction is kept cold, and that the wires leading to
the recording instrument are kept in good shape. The length of
these lead wires have an effect; the longer they are, the lower
the apparent temperature.

When pyrometers placed in a number of furnaces are connected up
in series, and a multiple switch is used for control, it becomes
apparent that pyrometers could not be interchanged between furnaces
near and far from the instrument without affecting the uniformity
of product from each furnace.

Calibration can best be done without disturbing the working pyrometer,
by inserting the master instrument into each furnace separately, place
it alongside the hot junction of the working pyrometer, and compare
the reading given on the indicator connected with the multiple

Protection tubes should be replaced when cracked, as it is important
that no foreign substance is allowed to freeze in the tube, so
that the enclosed junction becomes a part of a solid mass joined
in electrical contact with the outside protecting tube. Wires over
the furnaces must be carefully inspected from time to time, as no
true reading can be had on an instrument, if insulation is burned
off and short circuits result.

If the standard calibrating instrument used contains a dry battery,
it should be examined from time to time to be sure it is in good

Next: The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System

Previous: Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers

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