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Steel Making

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...



Placing Of Pyrometers






Category: PYROMETRY AND PYROMETERS

When installing a pyrometer, care should be
taken that it reaches directly to the point desired to be measured,
that the cold junction is kept cold, and that the wires leading to
the recording instrument are kept in good shape. The length of
these lead wires have an effect; the longer they are, the lower
the apparent temperature.

When pyrometers placed in a number of furnaces are connected up
in series, and a multiple switch is used for control, it becomes
apparent that pyrometers could not be interchanged between furnaces
near and far from the instrument without affecting the uniformity
of product from each furnace.

Calibration can best be done without disturbing the working pyrometer,
by inserting the master instrument into each furnace separately, place
it alongside the hot junction of the working pyrometer, and compare
the reading given on the indicator connected with the multiple
switch.

Protection tubes should be replaced when cracked, as it is important
that no foreign substance is allowed to freeze in the tube, so
that the enclosed junction becomes a part of a solid mass joined
in electrical contact with the outside protecting tube. Wires over
the furnaces must be carefully inspected from time to time, as no
true reading can be had on an instrument, if insulation is burned
off and short circuits result.

If the standard calibrating instrument used contains a dry battery,
it should be examined from time to time to be sure it is in good
condition.





Next: The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System

Previous: Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers



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