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Steel Making

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Placing Of Pyrometers


When installing a pyrometer, care should be
taken that it reaches directly to the point desired to be measured,
that the cold junction is kept cold, and that the wires leading to
the recording instrument are kept in good shape. The length of
these lead wires have an effect; the longer they are, the lower
the apparent temperature.

When pyrometers placed in a number of furnaces are connected up
in series, and a multiple switch is used for control, it becomes
apparent that pyrometers could not be interchanged between furnaces
near and far from the instrument without affecting the uniformity
of product from each furnace.

Calibration can best be done without disturbing the working pyrometer,
by inserting the master instrument into each furnace separately, place
it alongside the hot junction of the working pyrometer, and compare
the reading given on the indicator connected with the multiple

Protection tubes should be replaced when cracked, as it is important
that no foreign substance is allowed to freeze in the tube, so
that the enclosed junction becomes a part of a solid mass joined
in electrical contact with the outside protecting tube. Wires over
the furnaces must be carefully inspected from time to time, as no
true reading can be had on an instrument, if insulation is burned
off and short circuits result.

If the standard calibrating instrument used contains a dry battery,
it should be examined from time to time to be sure it is in good

Next: The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System

Previous: Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers

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