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Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Placing Of Pyrometers


When installing a pyrometer, care should be
taken that it reaches directly to the point desired to be measured,
that the cold junction is kept cold, and that the wires leading to
the recording instrument are kept in good shape. The length of
these lead wires have an effect; the longer they are, the lower
the apparent temperature.

When pyrometers placed in a number of furnaces are connected up
in series, and a multiple switch is used for control, it becomes
apparent that pyrometers could not be interchanged between furnaces
near and far from the instrument without affecting the uniformity
of product from each furnace.

Calibration can best be done without disturbing the working pyrometer,
by inserting the master instrument into each furnace separately, place
it alongside the hot junction of the working pyrometer, and compare
the reading given on the indicator connected with the multiple

Protection tubes should be replaced when cracked, as it is important
that no foreign substance is allowed to freeze in the tube, so
that the enclosed junction becomes a part of a solid mass joined
in electrical contact with the outside protecting tube. Wires over
the furnaces must be carefully inspected from time to time, as no
true reading can be had on an instrument, if insulation is burned
off and short circuits result.

If the standard calibrating instrument used contains a dry battery,
it should be examined from time to time to be sure it is in good

Next: The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System

Previous: Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers

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