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Steel Making

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Placing Of Pyrometers


When installing a pyrometer, care should be
taken that it reaches directly to the point desired to be measured,
that the cold junction is kept cold, and that the wires leading to
the recording instrument are kept in good shape. The length of
these lead wires have an effect; the longer they are, the lower
the apparent temperature.

When pyrometers placed in a number of furnaces are connected up
in series, and a multiple switch is used for control, it becomes
apparent that pyrometers could not be interchanged between furnaces
near and far from the instrument without affecting the uniformity
of product from each furnace.

Calibration can best be done without disturbing the working pyrometer,
by inserting the master instrument into each furnace separately, place
it alongside the hot junction of the working pyrometer, and compare
the reading given on the indicator connected with the multiple

Protection tubes should be replaced when cracked, as it is important
that no foreign substance is allowed to freeze in the tube, so
that the enclosed junction becomes a part of a solid mass joined
in electrical contact with the outside protecting tube. Wires over
the furnaces must be carefully inspected from time to time, as no
true reading can be had on an instrument, if insulation is burned
off and short circuits result.

If the standard calibrating instrument used contains a dry battery,
it should be examined from time to time to be sure it is in good

Next: The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System

Previous: Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers

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