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Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Placing Of Pyrometers


When installing a pyrometer, care should be
taken that it reaches directly to the point desired to be measured,
that the cold junction is kept cold, and that the wires leading to
the recording instrument are kept in good shape. The length of
these lead wires have an effect; the longer they are, the lower
the apparent temperature.

When pyrometers placed in a number of furnaces are connected up
in series, and a multiple switch is used for control, it becomes
apparent that pyrometers could not be interchanged between furnaces
near and far from the instrument without affecting the uniformity
of product from each furnace.

Calibration can best be done without disturbing the working pyrometer,
by inserting the master instrument into each furnace separately, place
it alongside the hot junction of the working pyrometer, and compare
the reading given on the indicator connected with the multiple

Protection tubes should be replaced when cracked, as it is important
that no foreign substance is allowed to freeze in the tube, so
that the enclosed junction becomes a part of a solid mass joined
in electrical contact with the outside protecting tube. Wires over
the furnaces must be carefully inspected from time to time, as no
true reading can be had on an instrument, if insulation is burned
off and short circuits result.

If the standard calibrating instrument used contains a dry battery,
it should be examined from time to time to be sure it is in good

Next: The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System

Previous: Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers

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