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Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Placing Of Pyrometers


When installing a pyrometer, care should be
taken that it reaches directly to the point desired to be measured,
that the cold junction is kept cold, and that the wires leading to
the recording instrument are kept in good shape. The length of
these lead wires have an effect; the longer they are, the lower
the apparent temperature.

When pyrometers placed in a number of furnaces are connected up
in series, and a multiple switch is used for control, it becomes
apparent that pyrometers could not be interchanged between furnaces
near and far from the instrument without affecting the uniformity
of product from each furnace.

Calibration can best be done without disturbing the working pyrometer,
by inserting the master instrument into each furnace separately, place
it alongside the hot junction of the working pyrometer, and compare
the reading given on the indicator connected with the multiple

Protection tubes should be replaced when cracked, as it is important
that no foreign substance is allowed to freeze in the tube, so
that the enclosed junction becomes a part of a solid mass joined
in electrical contact with the outside protecting tube. Wires over
the furnaces must be carefully inspected from time to time, as no
true reading can be had on an instrument, if insulation is burned
off and short circuits result.

If the standard calibrating instrument used contains a dry battery,
it should be examined from time to time to be sure it is in good

Next: The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System

Previous: Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers

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