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Steel Making

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Placing Of Pyrometers


When installing a pyrometer, care should be
taken that it reaches directly to the point desired to be measured,
that the cold junction is kept cold, and that the wires leading to
the recording instrument are kept in good shape. The length of
these lead wires have an effect; the longer they are, the lower
the apparent temperature.

When pyrometers placed in a number of furnaces are connected up
in series, and a multiple switch is used for control, it becomes
apparent that pyrometers could not be interchanged between furnaces
near and far from the instrument without affecting the uniformity
of product from each furnace.

Calibration can best be done without disturbing the working pyrometer,
by inserting the master instrument into each furnace separately, place
it alongside the hot junction of the working pyrometer, and compare
the reading given on the indicator connected with the multiple

Protection tubes should be replaced when cracked, as it is important
that no foreign substance is allowed to freeze in the tube, so
that the enclosed junction becomes a part of a solid mass joined
in electrical contact with the outside protecting tube. Wires over
the furnaces must be carefully inspected from time to time, as no
true reading can be had on an instrument, if insulation is burned
off and short circuits result.

If the standard calibrating instrument used contains a dry battery,
it should be examined from time to time to be sure it is in good

Next: The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System

Previous: Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers

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