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Steel Making

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Placing Of Pyrometers


When installing a pyrometer, care should be
taken that it reaches directly to the point desired to be measured,
that the cold junction is kept cold, and that the wires leading to
the recording instrument are kept in good shape. The length of
these lead wires have an effect; the longer they are, the lower
the apparent temperature.

When pyrometers placed in a number of furnaces are connected up
in series, and a multiple switch is used for control, it becomes
apparent that pyrometers could not be interchanged between furnaces
near and far from the instrument without affecting the uniformity
of product from each furnace.

Calibration can best be done without disturbing the working pyrometer,
by inserting the master instrument into each furnace separately, place
it alongside the hot junction of the working pyrometer, and compare
the reading given on the indicator connected with the multiple

Protection tubes should be replaced when cracked, as it is important
that no foreign substance is allowed to freeze in the tube, so
that the enclosed junction becomes a part of a solid mass joined
in electrical contact with the outside protecting tube. Wires over
the furnaces must be carefully inspected from time to time, as no
true reading can be had on an instrument, if insulation is burned
off and short circuits result.

If the standard calibrating instrument used contains a dry battery,
it should be examined from time to time to be sure it is in good

Next: The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System

Previous: Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers

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