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Steel Making

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Hardening
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...



Placing Of Pyrometers






Category: PYROMETRY AND PYROMETERS

When installing a pyrometer, care should be
taken that it reaches directly to the point desired to be measured,
that the cold junction is kept cold, and that the wires leading to
the recording instrument are kept in good shape. The length of
these lead wires have an effect; the longer they are, the lower
the apparent temperature.

When pyrometers placed in a number of furnaces are connected up
in series, and a multiple switch is used for control, it becomes
apparent that pyrometers could not be interchanged between furnaces
near and far from the instrument without affecting the uniformity
of product from each furnace.

Calibration can best be done without disturbing the working pyrometer,
by inserting the master instrument into each furnace separately, place
it alongside the hot junction of the working pyrometer, and compare
the reading given on the indicator connected with the multiple
switch.

Protection tubes should be replaced when cracked, as it is important
that no foreign substance is allowed to freeze in the tube, so
that the enclosed junction becomes a part of a solid mass joined
in electrical contact with the outside protecting tube. Wires over
the furnaces must be carefully inspected from time to time, as no
true reading can be had on an instrument, if insulation is burned
off and short circuits result.

If the standard calibrating instrument used contains a dry battery,
it should be examined from time to time to be sure it is in good
condition.





Next: The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System

Previous: Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers



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