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Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Placing Of Pyrometers


When installing a pyrometer, care should be
taken that it reaches directly to the point desired to be measured,
that the cold junction is kept cold, and that the wires leading to
the recording instrument are kept in good shape. The length of
these lead wires have an effect; the longer they are, the lower
the apparent temperature.

When pyrometers placed in a number of furnaces are connected up
in series, and a multiple switch is used for control, it becomes
apparent that pyrometers could not be interchanged between furnaces
near and far from the instrument without affecting the uniformity
of product from each furnace.

Calibration can best be done without disturbing the working pyrometer,
by inserting the master instrument into each furnace separately, place
it alongside the hot junction of the working pyrometer, and compare
the reading given on the indicator connected with the multiple

Protection tubes should be replaced when cracked, as it is important
that no foreign substance is allowed to freeze in the tube, so
that the enclosed junction becomes a part of a solid mass joined
in electrical contact with the outside protecting tube. Wires over
the furnaces must be carefully inspected from time to time, as no
true reading can be had on an instrument, if insulation is burned
off and short circuits result.

If the standard calibrating instrument used contains a dry battery,
it should be examined from time to time to be sure it is in good

Next: The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System

Previous: Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers

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