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Steel Making

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Placing Of Pyrometers


When installing a pyrometer, care should be
taken that it reaches directly to the point desired to be measured,
that the cold junction is kept cold, and that the wires leading to
the recording instrument are kept in good shape. The length of
these lead wires have an effect; the longer they are, the lower
the apparent temperature.

When pyrometers placed in a number of furnaces are connected up
in series, and a multiple switch is used for control, it becomes
apparent that pyrometers could not be interchanged between furnaces
near and far from the instrument without affecting the uniformity
of product from each furnace.

Calibration can best be done without disturbing the working pyrometer,
by inserting the master instrument into each furnace separately, place
it alongside the hot junction of the working pyrometer, and compare
the reading given on the indicator connected with the multiple

Protection tubes should be replaced when cracked, as it is important
that no foreign substance is allowed to freeze in the tube, so
that the enclosed junction becomes a part of a solid mass joined
in electrical contact with the outside protecting tube. Wires over
the furnaces must be carefully inspected from time to time, as no
true reading can be had on an instrument, if insulation is burned
off and short circuits result.

If the standard calibrating instrument used contains a dry battery,
it should be examined from time to time to be sure it is in good

Next: The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System

Previous: Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers

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