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Steel Making

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Placing Of Pyrometers


When installing a pyrometer, care should be
taken that it reaches directly to the point desired to be measured,
that the cold junction is kept cold, and that the wires leading to
the recording instrument are kept in good shape. The length of
these lead wires have an effect; the longer they are, the lower
the apparent temperature.

When pyrometers placed in a number of furnaces are connected up
in series, and a multiple switch is used for control, it becomes
apparent that pyrometers could not be interchanged between furnaces
near and far from the instrument without affecting the uniformity
of product from each furnace.

Calibration can best be done without disturbing the working pyrometer,
by inserting the master instrument into each furnace separately, place
it alongside the hot junction of the working pyrometer, and compare
the reading given on the indicator connected with the multiple

Protection tubes should be replaced when cracked, as it is important
that no foreign substance is allowed to freeze in the tube, so
that the enclosed junction becomes a part of a solid mass joined
in electrical contact with the outside protecting tube. Wires over
the furnaces must be carefully inspected from time to time, as no
true reading can be had on an instrument, if insulation is burned
off and short circuits result.

If the standard calibrating instrument used contains a dry battery,
it should be examined from time to time to be sure it is in good

Next: The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System

Previous: Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers

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