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Steel Making

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...



Open Hearth Process






Category: STEEL MAKING

The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a low
arched roof. It is charged with pig iron and scrap through doors
in the side walls.


Through openings at one end of the furnace come hot air and gas,
which burn in the furnace, producing sufficient heat to melt the
charge and refine it of its impurities. Lime and other nonmetallic
substances are put in the furnace. These melt, forming a slag
which floats on the metal and aids materially in the refining
operations.

In the bessemer process air is forced through the metal. In the
open-hearth furnace the metal is protected from the flaming gases
by a slag covering. Therefore it is reasonable to suppose that
the final product will not contain so much gas.




A diagram of a modern regenerative furnace is shown in Fig. 3.
Air and gas enter the hearth through chambers loosely packed with
hot fire brick, burn, and exit to the chimney through another pair
of chambers, giving to them some of the heat which would otherwise
waste. The direction is reversed about every twenty minutes by
changing the position of the dampers.





Next: Crucible Steel

Previous: Bessemer Process



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