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   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Machineability
Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...



Open Hearth Process






Category: STEEL MAKING

The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a low
arched roof. It is charged with pig iron and scrap through doors
in the side walls.


Through openings at one end of the furnace come hot air and gas,
which burn in the furnace, producing sufficient heat to melt the
charge and refine it of its impurities. Lime and other nonmetallic
substances are put in the furnace. These melt, forming a slag
which floats on the metal and aids materially in the refining
operations.

In the bessemer process air is forced through the metal. In the
open-hearth furnace the metal is protected from the flaming gases
by a slag covering. Therefore it is reasonable to suppose that
the final product will not contain so much gas.




A diagram of a modern regenerative furnace is shown in Fig. 3.
Air and gas enter the hearth through chambers loosely packed with
hot fire brick, burn, and exit to the chimney through another pair
of chambers, giving to them some of the heat which would otherwise
waste. The direction is reversed about every twenty minutes by
changing the position of the dampers.





Next: Crucible Steel

Previous: Bessemer Process



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