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Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....



Open Hearth Process






Category: STEEL MAKING

The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a low
arched roof. It is charged with pig iron and scrap through doors
in the side walls.


Through openings at one end of the furnace come hot air and gas,
which burn in the furnace, producing sufficient heat to melt the
charge and refine it of its impurities. Lime and other nonmetallic
substances are put in the furnace. These melt, forming a slag
which floats on the metal and aids materially in the refining
operations.

In the bessemer process air is forced through the metal. In the
open-hearth furnace the metal is protected from the flaming gases
by a slag covering. Therefore it is reasonable to suppose that
the final product will not contain so much gas.




A diagram of a modern regenerative furnace is shown in Fig. 3.
Air and gas enter the hearth through chambers loosely packed with
hot fire brick, burn, and exit to the chimney through another pair
of chambers, giving to them some of the heat which would otherwise
waste. The direction is reversed about every twenty minutes by
changing the position of the dampers.





Next: Crucible Steel

Previous: Bessemer Process



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