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Steel Making

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Annealing
ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...



Open Hearth Process






Category: STEEL MAKING

The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a low
arched roof. It is charged with pig iron and scrap through doors
in the side walls.


Through openings at one end of the furnace come hot air and gas,
which burn in the furnace, producing sufficient heat to melt the
charge and refine it of its impurities. Lime and other nonmetallic
substances are put in the furnace. These melt, forming a slag
which floats on the metal and aids materially in the refining
operations.

In the bessemer process air is forced through the metal. In the
open-hearth furnace the metal is protected from the flaming gases
by a slag covering. Therefore it is reasonable to suppose that
the final product will not contain so much gas.




A diagram of a modern regenerative furnace is shown in Fig. 3.
Air and gas enter the hearth through chambers loosely packed with
hot fire brick, burn, and exit to the chimney through another pair
of chambers, giving to them some of the heat which would otherwise
waste. The direction is reversed about every twenty minutes by
changing the position of the dampers.





Next: Crucible Steel

Previous: Bessemer Process



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