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Steel Making

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Pyrometers
Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...



Open Hearth Process






Category: STEEL MAKING

The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a low
arched roof. It is charged with pig iron and scrap through doors
in the side walls.


Through openings at one end of the furnace come hot air and gas,
which burn in the furnace, producing sufficient heat to melt the
charge and refine it of its impurities. Lime and other nonmetallic
substances are put in the furnace. These melt, forming a slag
which floats on the metal and aids materially in the refining
operations.

In the bessemer process air is forced through the metal. In the
open-hearth furnace the metal is protected from the flaming gases
by a slag covering. Therefore it is reasonable to suppose that
the final product will not contain so much gas.




A diagram of a modern regenerative furnace is shown in Fig. 3.
Air and gas enter the hearth through chambers loosely packed with
hot fire brick, burn, and exit to the chimney through another pair
of chambers, giving to them some of the heat which would otherwise
waste. The direction is reversed about every twenty minutes by
changing the position of the dampers.





Next: Crucible Steel

Previous: Bessemer Process



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