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Steel Making

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Open Hearth Process


The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a low
arched roof. It is charged with pig iron and scrap through doors
in the side walls.

Through openings at one end of the furnace come hot air and gas,
which burn in the furnace, producing sufficient heat to melt the
charge and refine it of its impurities. Lime and other nonmetallic
substances are put in the furnace. These melt, forming a slag
which floats on the metal and aids materially in the refining

In the bessemer process air is forced through the metal. In the
open-hearth furnace the metal is protected from the flaming gases
by a slag covering. Therefore it is reasonable to suppose that
the final product will not contain so much gas.

A diagram of a modern regenerative furnace is shown in Fig. 3.
Air and gas enter the hearth through chambers loosely packed with
hot fire brick, burn, and exit to the chimney through another pair
of chambers, giving to them some of the heat which would otherwise
waste. The direction is reversed about every twenty minutes by
changing the position of the dampers.

Next: Crucible Steel

Previous: Bessemer Process

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