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   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...



Open Hearth Process






Category: STEEL MAKING

The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a low
arched roof. It is charged with pig iron and scrap through doors
in the side walls.


Through openings at one end of the furnace come hot air and gas,
which burn in the furnace, producing sufficient heat to melt the
charge and refine it of its impurities. Lime and other nonmetallic
substances are put in the furnace. These melt, forming a slag
which floats on the metal and aids materially in the refining
operations.

In the bessemer process air is forced through the metal. In the
open-hearth furnace the metal is protected from the flaming gases
by a slag covering. Therefore it is reasonable to suppose that
the final product will not contain so much gas.




A diagram of a modern regenerative furnace is shown in Fig. 3.
Air and gas enter the hearth through chambers loosely packed with
hot fire brick, burn, and exit to the chimney through another pair
of chambers, giving to them some of the heat which would otherwise
waste. The direction is reversed about every twenty minutes by
changing the position of the dampers.





Next: Crucible Steel

Previous: Bessemer Process



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