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   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...



Open Hearth Process






Category: STEEL MAKING

The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a low
arched roof. It is charged with pig iron and scrap through doors
in the side walls.


Through openings at one end of the furnace come hot air and gas,
which burn in the furnace, producing sufficient heat to melt the
charge and refine it of its impurities. Lime and other nonmetallic
substances are put in the furnace. These melt, forming a slag
which floats on the metal and aids materially in the refining
operations.

In the bessemer process air is forced through the metal. In the
open-hearth furnace the metal is protected from the flaming gases
by a slag covering. Therefore it is reasonable to suppose that
the final product will not contain so much gas.




A diagram of a modern regenerative furnace is shown in Fig. 3.
Air and gas enter the hearth through chambers loosely packed with
hot fire brick, burn, and exit to the chimney through another pair
of chambers, giving to them some of the heat which would otherwise
waste. The direction is reversed about every twenty minutes by
changing the position of the dampers.





Next: Crucible Steel

Previous: Bessemer Process



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