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Steel Making

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...



Open Hearth Process






Category: STEEL MAKING

The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a low
arched roof. It is charged with pig iron and scrap through doors
in the side walls.


Through openings at one end of the furnace come hot air and gas,
which burn in the furnace, producing sufficient heat to melt the
charge and refine it of its impurities. Lime and other nonmetallic
substances are put in the furnace. These melt, forming a slag
which floats on the metal and aids materially in the refining
operations.

In the bessemer process air is forced through the metal. In the
open-hearth furnace the metal is protected from the flaming gases
by a slag covering. Therefore it is reasonable to suppose that
the final product will not contain so much gas.




A diagram of a modern regenerative furnace is shown in Fig. 3.
Air and gas enter the hearth through chambers loosely packed with
hot fire brick, burn, and exit to the chimney through another pair
of chambers, giving to them some of the heat which would otherwise
waste. The direction is reversed about every twenty minutes by
changing the position of the dampers.





Next: Crucible Steel

Previous: Bessemer Process



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