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Steel Making

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Manganese
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Machineability
Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...



Open Hearth Process






Category: STEEL MAKING

The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a low
arched roof. It is charged with pig iron and scrap through doors
in the side walls.


Through openings at one end of the furnace come hot air and gas,
which burn in the furnace, producing sufficient heat to melt the
charge and refine it of its impurities. Lime and other nonmetallic
substances are put in the furnace. These melt, forming a slag
which floats on the metal and aids materially in the refining
operations.

In the bessemer process air is forced through the metal. In the
open-hearth furnace the metal is protected from the flaming gases
by a slag covering. Therefore it is reasonable to suppose that
the final product will not contain so much gas.




A diagram of a modern regenerative furnace is shown in Fig. 3.
Air and gas enter the hearth through chambers loosely packed with
hot fire brick, burn, and exit to the chimney through another pair
of chambers, giving to them some of the heat which would otherwise
waste. The direction is reversed about every twenty minutes by
changing the position of the dampers.





Next: Crucible Steel

Previous: Bessemer Process



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