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Steel Making

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Open Hearth Process


The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a low
arched roof. It is charged with pig iron and scrap through doors
in the side walls.

Through openings at one end of the furnace come hot air and gas,
which burn in the furnace, producing sufficient heat to melt the
charge and refine it of its impurities. Lime and other nonmetallic
substances are put in the furnace. These melt, forming a slag
which floats on the metal and aids materially in the refining

In the bessemer process air is forced through the metal. In the
open-hearth furnace the metal is protected from the flaming gases
by a slag covering. Therefore it is reasonable to suppose that
the final product will not contain so much gas.

A diagram of a modern regenerative furnace is shown in Fig. 3.
Air and gas enter the hearth through chambers loosely packed with
hot fire brick, burn, and exit to the chimney through another pair
of chambers, giving to them some of the heat which would otherwise
waste. The direction is reversed about every twenty minutes by
changing the position of the dampers.

Next: Crucible Steel

Previous: Bessemer Process

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