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Steel Making

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Open Hearth Process


The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a low
arched roof. It is charged with pig iron and scrap through doors
in the side walls.

Through openings at one end of the furnace come hot air and gas,
which burn in the furnace, producing sufficient heat to melt the
charge and refine it of its impurities. Lime and other nonmetallic
substances are put in the furnace. These melt, forming a slag
which floats on the metal and aids materially in the refining

In the bessemer process air is forced through the metal. In the
open-hearth furnace the metal is protected from the flaming gases
by a slag covering. Therefore it is reasonable to suppose that
the final product will not contain so much gas.

A diagram of a modern regenerative furnace is shown in Fig. 3.
Air and gas enter the hearth through chambers loosely packed with
hot fire brick, burn, and exit to the chimney through another pair
of chambers, giving to them some of the heat which would otherwise
waste. The direction is reversed about every twenty minutes by
changing the position of the dampers.

Next: Crucible Steel

Previous: Bessemer Process

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