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   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...



Open Hearth Process






Category: STEEL MAKING

The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a low
arched roof. It is charged with pig iron and scrap through doors
in the side walls.


Through openings at one end of the furnace come hot air and gas,
which burn in the furnace, producing sufficient heat to melt the
charge and refine it of its impurities. Lime and other nonmetallic
substances are put in the furnace. These melt, forming a slag
which floats on the metal and aids materially in the refining
operations.

In the bessemer process air is forced through the metal. In the
open-hearth furnace the metal is protected from the flaming gases
by a slag covering. Therefore it is reasonable to suppose that
the final product will not contain so much gas.




A diagram of a modern regenerative furnace is shown in Fig. 3.
Air and gas enter the hearth through chambers loosely packed with
hot fire brick, burn, and exit to the chimney through another pair
of chambers, giving to them some of the heat which would otherwise
waste. The direction is reversed about every twenty minutes by
changing the position of the dampers.





Next: Crucible Steel

Previous: Bessemer Process



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