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Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...



Open Hearth Process






Category: STEEL MAKING

The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a low
arched roof. It is charged with pig iron and scrap through doors
in the side walls.


Through openings at one end of the furnace come hot air and gas,
which burn in the furnace, producing sufficient heat to melt the
charge and refine it of its impurities. Lime and other nonmetallic
substances are put in the furnace. These melt, forming a slag
which floats on the metal and aids materially in the refining
operations.

In the bessemer process air is forced through the metal. In the
open-hearth furnace the metal is protected from the flaming gases
by a slag covering. Therefore it is reasonable to suppose that
the final product will not contain so much gas.




A diagram of a modern regenerative furnace is shown in Fig. 3.
Air and gas enter the hearth through chambers loosely packed with
hot fire brick, burn, and exit to the chimney through another pair
of chambers, giving to them some of the heat which would otherwise
waste. The direction is reversed about every twenty minutes by
changing the position of the dampers.





Next: Crucible Steel

Previous: Bessemer Process



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