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Steel Making

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...



Open Hearth Process






Category: STEEL MAKING

The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a low
arched roof. It is charged with pig iron and scrap through doors
in the side walls.


Through openings at one end of the furnace come hot air and gas,
which burn in the furnace, producing sufficient heat to melt the
charge and refine it of its impurities. Lime and other nonmetallic
substances are put in the furnace. These melt, forming a slag
which floats on the metal and aids materially in the refining
operations.

In the bessemer process air is forced through the metal. In the
open-hearth furnace the metal is protected from the flaming gases
by a slag covering. Therefore it is reasonable to suppose that
the final product will not contain so much gas.




A diagram of a modern regenerative furnace is shown in Fig. 3.
Air and gas enter the hearth through chambers loosely packed with
hot fire brick, burn, and exit to the chimney through another pair
of chambers, giving to them some of the heat which would otherwise
waste. The direction is reversed about every twenty minutes by
changing the position of the dampers.





Next: Crucible Steel

Previous: Bessemer Process



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