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Steel Making

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Open Hearth Process


The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a low
arched roof. It is charged with pig iron and scrap through doors
in the side walls.

Through openings at one end of the furnace come hot air and gas,
which burn in the furnace, producing sufficient heat to melt the
charge and refine it of its impurities. Lime and other nonmetallic
substances are put in the furnace. These melt, forming a slag
which floats on the metal and aids materially in the refining

In the bessemer process air is forced through the metal. In the
open-hearth furnace the metal is protected from the flaming gases
by a slag covering. Therefore it is reasonable to suppose that
the final product will not contain so much gas.

A diagram of a modern regenerative furnace is shown in Fig. 3.
Air and gas enter the hearth through chambers loosely packed with
hot fire brick, burn, and exit to the chimney through another pair
of chambers, giving to them some of the heat which would otherwise
waste. The direction is reversed about every twenty minutes by
changing the position of the dampers.

Next: Crucible Steel

Previous: Bessemer Process

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