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Steel Making

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Crankshaft
The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...



Open Hearth Process






Category: STEEL MAKING

The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a low
arched roof. It is charged with pig iron and scrap through doors
in the side walls.


Through openings at one end of the furnace come hot air and gas,
which burn in the furnace, producing sufficient heat to melt the
charge and refine it of its impurities. Lime and other nonmetallic
substances are put in the furnace. These melt, forming a slag
which floats on the metal and aids materially in the refining
operations.

In the bessemer process air is forced through the metal. In the
open-hearth furnace the metal is protected from the flaming gases
by a slag covering. Therefore it is reasonable to suppose that
the final product will not contain so much gas.




A diagram of a modern regenerative furnace is shown in Fig. 3.
Air and gas enter the hearth through chambers loosely packed with
hot fire brick, burn, and exit to the chimney through another pair
of chambers, giving to them some of the heat which would otherwise
waste. The direction is reversed about every twenty minutes by
changing the position of the dampers.





Next: Crucible Steel

Previous: Bessemer Process



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