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Steel Making

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...



Open Hearth Process






Category: STEEL MAKING

The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a low
arched roof. It is charged with pig iron and scrap through doors
in the side walls.


Through openings at one end of the furnace come hot air and gas,
which burn in the furnace, producing sufficient heat to melt the
charge and refine it of its impurities. Lime and other nonmetallic
substances are put in the furnace. These melt, forming a slag
which floats on the metal and aids materially in the refining
operations.

In the bessemer process air is forced through the metal. In the
open-hearth furnace the metal is protected from the flaming gases
by a slag covering. Therefore it is reasonable to suppose that
the final product will not contain so much gas.




A diagram of a modern regenerative furnace is shown in Fig. 3.
Air and gas enter the hearth through chambers loosely packed with
hot fire brick, burn, and exit to the chimney through another pair
of chambers, giving to them some of the heat which would otherwise
waste. The direction is reversed about every twenty minutes by
changing the position of the dampers.





Next: Crucible Steel

Previous: Bessemer Process



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