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Steel Making

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...



Open Hearth Process






Category: STEEL MAKING

The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a low
arched roof. It is charged with pig iron and scrap through doors
in the side walls.


Through openings at one end of the furnace come hot air and gas,
which burn in the furnace, producing sufficient heat to melt the
charge and refine it of its impurities. Lime and other nonmetallic
substances are put in the furnace. These melt, forming a slag
which floats on the metal and aids materially in the refining
operations.

In the bessemer process air is forced through the metal. In the
open-hearth furnace the metal is protected from the flaming gases
by a slag covering. Therefore it is reasonable to suppose that
the final product will not contain so much gas.




A diagram of a modern regenerative furnace is shown in Fig. 3.
Air and gas enter the hearth through chambers loosely packed with
hot fire brick, burn, and exit to the chimney through another pair
of chambers, giving to them some of the heat which would otherwise
waste. The direction is reversed about every twenty minutes by
changing the position of the dampers.





Next: Crucible Steel

Previous: Bessemer Process



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