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Steel Making

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...



Open Hearth Process






Category: STEEL MAKING

The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a low
arched roof. It is charged with pig iron and scrap through doors
in the side walls.


Through openings at one end of the furnace come hot air and gas,
which burn in the furnace, producing sufficient heat to melt the
charge and refine it of its impurities. Lime and other nonmetallic
substances are put in the furnace. These melt, forming a slag
which floats on the metal and aids materially in the refining
operations.

In the bessemer process air is forced through the metal. In the
open-hearth furnace the metal is protected from the flaming gases
by a slag covering. Therefore it is reasonable to suppose that
the final product will not contain so much gas.




A diagram of a modern regenerative furnace is shown in Fig. 3.
Air and gas enter the hearth through chambers loosely packed with
hot fire brick, burn, and exit to the chimney through another pair
of chambers, giving to them some of the heat which would otherwise
waste. The direction is reversed about every twenty minutes by
changing the position of the dampers.





Next: Crucible Steel

Previous: Bessemer Process



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