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Steel Making

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...



Open Hearth Process






Category: STEEL MAKING

The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a low
arched roof. It is charged with pig iron and scrap through doors
in the side walls.


Through openings at one end of the furnace come hot air and gas,
which burn in the furnace, producing sufficient heat to melt the
charge and refine it of its impurities. Lime and other nonmetallic
substances are put in the furnace. These melt, forming a slag
which floats on the metal and aids materially in the refining
operations.

In the bessemer process air is forced through the metal. In the
open-hearth furnace the metal is protected from the flaming gases
by a slag covering. Therefore it is reasonable to suppose that
the final product will not contain so much gas.




A diagram of a modern regenerative furnace is shown in Fig. 3.
Air and gas enter the hearth through chambers loosely packed with
hot fire brick, burn, and exit to the chimney through another pair
of chambers, giving to them some of the heat which would otherwise
waste. The direction is reversed about every twenty minutes by
changing the position of the dampers.





Next: Crucible Steel

Previous: Bessemer Process



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