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Steel Making

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel


High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing from
11 to 14 per cent chromium, was originally developed for cutlery
purposes, but has in the past few years been used to a considerable
extent for exhaust valves in airplane engines because of its resistance
to scaling at high temperatures.

Carbon 0.20 to 0.40
Manganese, not to exceed 0.50
Phosphorus, not to exceed 0.035
Sulphur, not to exceed 0.035
Chromium 11.50 to 14.00
Silicon, not to exceed 0.30

The steel should be heated slowly and forged at a temperature above
1,750 deg.F. preferably between 1,800 and 2,200 deg.F. If forged at temperatures
between 1,650 and 1,750 deg.F. there is considerable danger of rupturing
the steel because of its hardness at red heat. Owing to the
air-hardening property of the steel, the drop-forgings should be
trimmed while hot. Thin forgings should be reheated to redness
before trimming, as otherwise they are liable to crack.

The forgings will be hard if they are allowed to cool in air. This
hardness varies over a range of from 250 to 500 Brinell, depending
on the original forging temperature.

Next: Annealing

Previous: Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel

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