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Steel Making

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel


High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing from
11 to 14 per cent chromium, was originally developed for cutlery
purposes, but has in the past few years been used to a considerable
extent for exhaust valves in airplane engines because of its resistance
to scaling at high temperatures.

Carbon 0.20 to 0.40
Manganese, not to exceed 0.50
Phosphorus, not to exceed 0.035
Sulphur, not to exceed 0.035
Chromium 11.50 to 14.00
Silicon, not to exceed 0.30

The steel should be heated slowly and forged at a temperature above
1,750 deg.F. preferably between 1,800 and 2,200 deg.F. If forged at temperatures
between 1,650 and 1,750 deg.F. there is considerable danger of rupturing
the steel because of its hardness at red heat. Owing to the
air-hardening property of the steel, the drop-forgings should be
trimmed while hot. Thin forgings should be reheated to redness
before trimming, as otherwise they are liable to crack.

The forgings will be hard if they are allowed to cool in air. This
hardness varies over a range of from 250 to 500 Brinell, depending
on the original forging temperature.

Next: Annealing

Previous: Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel

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