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Steel Making

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel


High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing from
11 to 14 per cent chromium, was originally developed for cutlery
purposes, but has in the past few years been used to a considerable
extent for exhaust valves in airplane engines because of its resistance
to scaling at high temperatures.

Carbon 0.20 to 0.40
Manganese, not to exceed 0.50
Phosphorus, not to exceed 0.035
Sulphur, not to exceed 0.035
Chromium 11.50 to 14.00
Silicon, not to exceed 0.30

The steel should be heated slowly and forged at a temperature above
1,750 deg.F. preferably between 1,800 and 2,200 deg.F. If forged at temperatures
between 1,650 and 1,750 deg.F. there is considerable danger of rupturing
the steel because of its hardness at red heat. Owing to the
air-hardening property of the steel, the drop-forgings should be
trimmed while hot. Thin forgings should be reheated to redness
before trimming, as otherwise they are liable to crack.

The forgings will be hard if they are allowed to cool in air. This
hardness varies over a range of from 250 to 500 Brinell, depending
on the original forging temperature.

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Previous: Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel

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