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Steel Making

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel


High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing from
11 to 14 per cent chromium, was originally developed for cutlery
purposes, but has in the past few years been used to a considerable
extent for exhaust valves in airplane engines because of its resistance
to scaling at high temperatures.

Carbon 0.20 to 0.40
Manganese, not to exceed 0.50
Phosphorus, not to exceed 0.035
Sulphur, not to exceed 0.035
Chromium 11.50 to 14.00
Silicon, not to exceed 0.30

The steel should be heated slowly and forged at a temperature above
1,750 deg.F. preferably between 1,800 and 2,200 deg.F. If forged at temperatures
between 1,650 and 1,750 deg.F. there is considerable danger of rupturing
the steel because of its hardness at red heat. Owing to the
air-hardening property of the steel, the drop-forgings should be
trimmed while hot. Thin forgings should be reheated to redness
before trimming, as otherwise they are liable to crack.

The forgings will be hard if they are allowed to cool in air. This
hardness varies over a range of from 250 to 500 Brinell, depending
on the original forging temperature.

Next: Annealing

Previous: Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel

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