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Steel Making

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel


High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing from
11 to 14 per cent chromium, was originally developed for cutlery
purposes, but has in the past few years been used to a considerable
extent for exhaust valves in airplane engines because of its resistance
to scaling at high temperatures.

Carbon 0.20 to 0.40
Manganese, not to exceed 0.50
Phosphorus, not to exceed 0.035
Sulphur, not to exceed 0.035
Chromium 11.50 to 14.00
Silicon, not to exceed 0.30

The steel should be heated slowly and forged at a temperature above
1,750 deg.F. preferably between 1,800 and 2,200 deg.F. If forged at temperatures
between 1,650 and 1,750 deg.F. there is considerable danger of rupturing
the steel because of its hardness at red heat. Owing to the
air-hardening property of the steel, the drop-forgings should be
trimmed while hot. Thin forgings should be reheated to redness
before trimming, as otherwise they are liable to crack.

The forgings will be hard if they are allowed to cool in air. This
hardness varies over a range of from 250 to 500 Brinell, depending
on the original forging temperature.

Next: Annealing

Previous: Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel

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