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Steel Making

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel


High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing from
11 to 14 per cent chromium, was originally developed for cutlery
purposes, but has in the past few years been used to a considerable
extent for exhaust valves in airplane engines because of its resistance
to scaling at high temperatures.

Carbon 0.20 to 0.40
Manganese, not to exceed 0.50
Phosphorus, not to exceed 0.035
Sulphur, not to exceed 0.035
Chromium 11.50 to 14.00
Silicon, not to exceed 0.30

The steel should be heated slowly and forged at a temperature above
1,750 deg.F. preferably between 1,800 and 2,200 deg.F. If forged at temperatures
between 1,650 and 1,750 deg.F. there is considerable danger of rupturing
the steel because of its hardness at red heat. Owing to the
air-hardening property of the steel, the drop-forgings should be
trimmed while hot. Thin forgings should be reheated to redness
before trimming, as otherwise they are liable to crack.

The forgings will be hard if they are allowed to cool in air. This
hardness varies over a range of from 250 to 500 Brinell, depending
on the original forging temperature.

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