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Steel Making

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel


High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing from
11 to 14 per cent chromium, was originally developed for cutlery
purposes, but has in the past few years been used to a considerable
extent for exhaust valves in airplane engines because of its resistance
to scaling at high temperatures.

Carbon 0.20 to 0.40
Manganese, not to exceed 0.50
Phosphorus, not to exceed 0.035
Sulphur, not to exceed 0.035
Chromium 11.50 to 14.00
Silicon, not to exceed 0.30

The steel should be heated slowly and forged at a temperature above
1,750 deg.F. preferably between 1,800 and 2,200 deg.F. If forged at temperatures
between 1,650 and 1,750 deg.F. there is considerable danger of rupturing
the steel because of its hardness at red heat. Owing to the
air-hardening property of the steel, the drop-forgings should be
trimmed while hot. Thin forgings should be reheated to redness
before trimming, as otherwise they are liable to crack.

The forgings will be hard if they are allowed to cool in air. This
hardness varies over a range of from 250 to 500 Brinell, depending
on the original forging temperature.

Next: Annealing

Previous: Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel

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