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Steel Making

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...



High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing from
11 to 14 per cent chromium, was originally developed for cutlery
purposes, but has in the past few years been used to a considerable
extent for exhaust valves in airplane engines because of its resistance
to scaling at high temperatures.

Percentage
Carbon 0.20 to 0.40
Manganese, not to exceed 0.50
Phosphorus, not to exceed 0.035
Sulphur, not to exceed 0.035
Chromium 11.50 to 14.00
Silicon, not to exceed 0.30

The steel should be heated slowly and forged at a temperature above
1,750 deg.F. preferably between 1,800 and 2,200 deg.F. If forged at temperatures
between 1,650 and 1,750 deg.F. there is considerable danger of rupturing
the steel because of its hardness at red heat. Owing to the
air-hardening property of the steel, the drop-forgings should be
trimmed while hot. Thin forgings should be reheated to redness
before trimming, as otherwise they are liable to crack.

The forgings will be hard if they are allowed to cool in air. This
hardness varies over a range of from 250 to 500 Brinell, depending
on the original forging temperature.





Next: Annealing

Previous: Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel



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