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Steel Making

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel


High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing from
11 to 14 per cent chromium, was originally developed for cutlery
purposes, but has in the past few years been used to a considerable
extent for exhaust valves in airplane engines because of its resistance
to scaling at high temperatures.

Carbon 0.20 to 0.40
Manganese, not to exceed 0.50
Phosphorus, not to exceed 0.035
Sulphur, not to exceed 0.035
Chromium 11.50 to 14.00
Silicon, not to exceed 0.30

The steel should be heated slowly and forged at a temperature above
1,750 deg.F. preferably between 1,800 and 2,200 deg.F. If forged at temperatures
between 1,650 and 1,750 deg.F. there is considerable danger of rupturing
the steel because of its hardness at red heat. Owing to the
air-hardening property of the steel, the drop-forgings should be
trimmed while hot. Thin forgings should be reheated to redness
before trimming, as otherwise they are liable to crack.

The forgings will be hard if they are allowed to cool in air. This
hardness varies over a range of from 250 to 500 Brinell, depending
on the original forging temperature.

Next: Annealing

Previous: Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel

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