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Steel Making

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel


High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing from
11 to 14 per cent chromium, was originally developed for cutlery
purposes, but has in the past few years been used to a considerable
extent for exhaust valves in airplane engines because of its resistance
to scaling at high temperatures.

Carbon 0.20 to 0.40
Manganese, not to exceed 0.50
Phosphorus, not to exceed 0.035
Sulphur, not to exceed 0.035
Chromium 11.50 to 14.00
Silicon, not to exceed 0.30

The steel should be heated slowly and forged at a temperature above
1,750 deg.F. preferably between 1,800 and 2,200 deg.F. If forged at temperatures
between 1,650 and 1,750 deg.F. there is considerable danger of rupturing
the steel because of its hardness at red heat. Owing to the
air-hardening property of the steel, the drop-forgings should be
trimmed while hot. Thin forgings should be reheated to redness
before trimming, as otherwise they are liable to crack.

The forgings will be hard if they are allowed to cool in air. This
hardness varies over a range of from 250 to 500 Brinell, depending
on the original forging temperature.

Next: Annealing

Previous: Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel

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