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Steel Making

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...



Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels






Category: THE FORGING OF STEEL

The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-treating
them to meet the specifications demanded by some of the foreign
governments led Wheelock, Lovejoy & Company to establish a complete
plant for this purpose in connection with their warehouse in Cambridge,
Mass. This plant, designed and constructed by their chief engineer,
K. A. Juthe, had many interesting features. Many features of this
plant can be modified for other classes of work.




The stock, which came in bars of mill length, was cut off so as to
make a barrel with the proper allowances for trimming (Fig. 21).
They then pass to the forging or upsetting press in the adjoining
room. This press, which is shown in more detail in Fig. 22, handled
the barrels from all the heating furnaces shown. The men changed
work at frequent intervals, to avoid excessive fatigue.



Then the barrels were reheated in the continuous furnace, shown
in Fig. 23, and straightened before being tested.

The barrels were next tested for straightness. After the heat-treating,
the ends are ground, a spot ground on the enlarged end and each
barrel tested on a Brinell machine. The pressure used is 3,000 kg.,
or 6,614 lb., on a 10-millimeter ball, which is standard. Hardness
of 240 was desired.

The heat-treating of the rifle blanks covered four separate operations:
(1) Heating and soaking the steel above the critical temperature
and quenching in oil to harden the steel through to the center;
(2) reheating for drawing of temper for the purpose of meeting the
physical specifications; (3) reheating to meet the machine ability
test for production purposes; and (4) reheating to straighten the
blanks while hot.

A short explanation of the necessity for the many heats may be
interesting. For the first heat, the blanks were slowly brought
to the required heat, which is about 150 deg.F. above the critical
temperature. They are then soaked at a high heat for about 1 hr.
before quenching. The purpose of this treatment is to eliminate
any rolling or heat stresses that might be in the bars from mill
operations; also to insure a thorough even heat through a cross-section
of the steel. This heat also causes blanks with seams or slight
flaws to open up in quenching, making detection of defective blanks
very easy.

The quenching oil was kept at a constant temperature of 100 deg.F.,
to avoid subjecting the steel to shocks, thereby causing surface
cracks. The drawing of temper was the most critical operation and
was kept within a 10 deg. fluctuation. The degree of heat necessary
depends entirely on the analysis of the steel, there being a certain
variation in the different heats of steel as received from the mill.





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Previous: Chrome-nickel Steel



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