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Steel Making

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer


For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is
largely used. This is a comparative method. By means of the rheostat
the current through the lamp is adjusted until the brightness of
the filament is just equal to the brightness of the image produced
by the lens L, Fig. 123, whereupon the filament blends with or
becomes indistinguishable in the background formed by the image
of the hot object. This adjustment can be made with great accuracy
and certainty, as the effect of radiation upon the eye varies some
twenty times faster than does the temperature at 1,600 deg.F., and some
fourteen times faster at 3,400 deg.F. When a balance has been obtained,
the observer notes the reading of the milliammeter. The temperature
corresponding to the current is then read from a calibration curve
supplied with the instrument.

As the intensity of the light emitted at the higher temperatures
becomes dazzling, it is found desirable to introduce a piece of red
glass in the eye piece at R. This also eliminates any question
of matching colors, or of the observer's ability to distinguish
colors. It is further of value in dealing with bodies which do
not radiate light of the same composition as that emitted by a
black body, since nevertheless the intensity of radiation of any
one color from such bodies increases progressively in a definite
manner as the temperature rises. The intensity of this one color
can therefore be used as a measure of temperature for the body
in question. Figures 124 to 126 show the way it is read.

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