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Steel Making

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer


For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is
largely used. This is a comparative method. By means of the rheostat
the current through the lamp is adjusted until the brightness of
the filament is just equal to the brightness of the image produced
by the lens L, Fig. 123, whereupon the filament blends with or
becomes indistinguishable in the background formed by the image
of the hot object. This adjustment can be made with great accuracy
and certainty, as the effect of radiation upon the eye varies some
twenty times faster than does the temperature at 1,600 deg.F., and some
fourteen times faster at 3,400 deg.F. When a balance has been obtained,
the observer notes the reading of the milliammeter. The temperature
corresponding to the current is then read from a calibration curve
supplied with the instrument.

As the intensity of the light emitted at the higher temperatures
becomes dazzling, it is found desirable to introduce a piece of red
glass in the eye piece at R. This also eliminates any question
of matching colors, or of the observer's ability to distinguish
colors. It is further of value in dealing with bodies which do
not radiate light of the same composition as that emitted by a
black body, since nevertheless the intensity of radiation of any
one color from such bodies increases progressively in a definite
manner as the temperature rises. The intensity of this one color
can therefore be used as a measure of temperature for the body
in question. Figures 124 to 126 show the way it is read.

Next: Correction For Cold-junction Errors

Previous: Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer

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