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Steel Making

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Annealing
ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...



Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer






Category: PYROMETRY AND PYROMETERS

For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is
largely used. This is a comparative method. By means of the rheostat
the current through the lamp is adjusted until the brightness of
the filament is just equal to the brightness of the image produced
by the lens L, Fig. 123, whereupon the filament blends with or
becomes indistinguishable in the background formed by the image
of the hot object. This adjustment can be made with great accuracy
and certainty, as the effect of radiation upon the eye varies some
twenty times faster than does the temperature at 1,600 deg.F., and some
fourteen times faster at 3,400 deg.F. When a balance has been obtained,
the observer notes the reading of the milliammeter. The temperature
corresponding to the current is then read from a calibration curve
supplied with the instrument.



As the intensity of the light emitted at the higher temperatures
becomes dazzling, it is found desirable to introduce a piece of red
glass in the eye piece at R. This also eliminates any question
of matching colors, or of the observer's ability to distinguish
colors. It is further of value in dealing with bodies which do
not radiate light of the same composition as that emitted by a
black body, since nevertheless the intensity of radiation of any
one color from such bodies increases progressively in a definite
manner as the temperature rises. The intensity of this one color
can therefore be used as a measure of temperature for the body
in question. Figures 124 to 126 show the way it is read.





Next: Correction For Cold-junction Errors

Previous: Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer



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