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Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...



Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer






Category: PYROMETRY AND PYROMETERS

For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is
largely used. This is a comparative method. By means of the rheostat
the current through the lamp is adjusted until the brightness of
the filament is just equal to the brightness of the image produced
by the lens L, Fig. 123, whereupon the filament blends with or
becomes indistinguishable in the background formed by the image
of the hot object. This adjustment can be made with great accuracy
and certainty, as the effect of radiation upon the eye varies some
twenty times faster than does the temperature at 1,600 deg.F., and some
fourteen times faster at 3,400 deg.F. When a balance has been obtained,
the observer notes the reading of the milliammeter. The temperature
corresponding to the current is then read from a calibration curve
supplied with the instrument.



As the intensity of the light emitted at the higher temperatures
becomes dazzling, it is found desirable to introduce a piece of red
glass in the eye piece at R. This also eliminates any question
of matching colors, or of the observer's ability to distinguish
colors. It is further of value in dealing with bodies which do
not radiate light of the same composition as that emitted by a
black body, since nevertheless the intensity of radiation of any
one color from such bodies increases progressively in a definite
manner as the temperature rises. The intensity of this one color
can therefore be used as a measure of temperature for the body
in question. Figures 124 to 126 show the way it is read.





Next: Correction For Cold-junction Errors

Previous: Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer



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