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Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Annealing
There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...



Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer






Category: PYROMETRY AND PYROMETERS

For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is
largely used. This is a comparative method. By means of the rheostat
the current through the lamp is adjusted until the brightness of
the filament is just equal to the brightness of the image produced
by the lens L, Fig. 123, whereupon the filament blends with or
becomes indistinguishable in the background formed by the image
of the hot object. This adjustment can be made with great accuracy
and certainty, as the effect of radiation upon the eye varies some
twenty times faster than does the temperature at 1,600 deg.F., and some
fourteen times faster at 3,400 deg.F. When a balance has been obtained,
the observer notes the reading of the milliammeter. The temperature
corresponding to the current is then read from a calibration curve
supplied with the instrument.



As the intensity of the light emitted at the higher temperatures
becomes dazzling, it is found desirable to introduce a piece of red
glass in the eye piece at R. This also eliminates any question
of matching colors, or of the observer's ability to distinguish
colors. It is further of value in dealing with bodies which do
not radiate light of the same composition as that emitted by a
black body, since nevertheless the intensity of radiation of any
one color from such bodies increases progressively in a definite
manner as the temperature rises. The intensity of this one color
can therefore be used as a measure of temperature for the body
in question. Figures 124 to 126 show the way it is read.





Next: Correction For Cold-junction Errors

Previous: Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer



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