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Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Crankshaft
The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Annealing
ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Annealing
There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...



Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer






Category: PYROMETRY AND PYROMETERS

For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is
largely used. This is a comparative method. By means of the rheostat
the current through the lamp is adjusted until the brightness of
the filament is just equal to the brightness of the image produced
by the lens L, Fig. 123, whereupon the filament blends with or
becomes indistinguishable in the background formed by the image
of the hot object. This adjustment can be made with great accuracy
and certainty, as the effect of radiation upon the eye varies some
twenty times faster than does the temperature at 1,600 deg.F., and some
fourteen times faster at 3,400 deg.F. When a balance has been obtained,
the observer notes the reading of the milliammeter. The temperature
corresponding to the current is then read from a calibration curve
supplied with the instrument.



As the intensity of the light emitted at the higher temperatures
becomes dazzling, it is found desirable to introduce a piece of red
glass in the eye piece at R. This also eliminates any question
of matching colors, or of the observer's ability to distinguish
colors. It is further of value in dealing with bodies which do
not radiate light of the same composition as that emitted by a
black body, since nevertheless the intensity of radiation of any
one color from such bodies increases progressively in a definite
manner as the temperature rises. The intensity of this one color
can therefore be used as a measure of temperature for the body
in question. Figures 124 to 126 show the way it is read.





Next: Correction For Cold-junction Errors

Previous: Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer



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