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Steel Making

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...



Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer






Category: PYROMETRY AND PYROMETERS

For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is
largely used. This is a comparative method. By means of the rheostat
the current through the lamp is adjusted until the brightness of
the filament is just equal to the brightness of the image produced
by the lens L, Fig. 123, whereupon the filament blends with or
becomes indistinguishable in the background formed by the image
of the hot object. This adjustment can be made with great accuracy
and certainty, as the effect of radiation upon the eye varies some
twenty times faster than does the temperature at 1,600 deg.F., and some
fourteen times faster at 3,400 deg.F. When a balance has been obtained,
the observer notes the reading of the milliammeter. The temperature
corresponding to the current is then read from a calibration curve
supplied with the instrument.



As the intensity of the light emitted at the higher temperatures
becomes dazzling, it is found desirable to introduce a piece of red
glass in the eye piece at R. This also eliminates any question
of matching colors, or of the observer's ability to distinguish
colors. It is further of value in dealing with bodies which do
not radiate light of the same composition as that emitted by a
black body, since nevertheless the intensity of radiation of any
one color from such bodies increases progressively in a definite
manner as the temperature rises. The intensity of this one color
can therefore be used as a measure of temperature for the body
in question. Figures 124 to 126 show the way it is read.





Next: Correction For Cold-junction Errors

Previous: Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer



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