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Steel Making

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer


For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is
largely used. This is a comparative method. By means of the rheostat
the current through the lamp is adjusted until the brightness of
the filament is just equal to the brightness of the image produced
by the lens L, Fig. 123, whereupon the filament blends with or
becomes indistinguishable in the background formed by the image
of the hot object. This adjustment can be made with great accuracy
and certainty, as the effect of radiation upon the eye varies some
twenty times faster than does the temperature at 1,600 deg.F., and some
fourteen times faster at 3,400 deg.F. When a balance has been obtained,
the observer notes the reading of the milliammeter. The temperature
corresponding to the current is then read from a calibration curve
supplied with the instrument.

As the intensity of the light emitted at the higher temperatures
becomes dazzling, it is found desirable to introduce a piece of red
glass in the eye piece at R. This also eliminates any question
of matching colors, or of the observer's ability to distinguish
colors. It is further of value in dealing with bodies which do
not radiate light of the same composition as that emitted by a
black body, since nevertheless the intensity of radiation of any
one color from such bodies increases progressively in a definite
manner as the temperature rises. The intensity of this one color
can therefore be used as a measure of temperature for the body
in question. Figures 124 to 126 show the way it is read.

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