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Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...



A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the characteristics
of chromium, as described, should obviously give a very excellent
steel as the nickel particularly affects the ferrite of the steel
and the chromium the carbon. From this combination, we are able to
get a very strong ferrite matrix and a very hard tough cementite.
The strength of a strictly pearlitic steel over a pure iron is due
to the pearlitic being a layer arrangement of cementite running
parallel to that of a pure iron layer in each individual grain. The
ferrite i.e., the iron is increased in strength by the resistance
offered by the cementite which is the simple iron-carbon combination
known to metallurgists as Fe3C. The cementite, although adding
to the tensile strength, is very brittle and the strength of the
pearlite is the combination of the ferrite and cementite. In the
event of the cementite being strengthened, as in the case of strictly
chromium steels, an increased tensile strength is readily obtained
without loss of ductility and if the ferrite is strengthened then
the tensile strength and ductility of the metal is still further

Nickel-chromium alloy represents one of the best combinations available
at the present time. The nickel intensifies the physical characteristics
of the chromium and the chromium has a similar effect on the nickel.

For case-hardening, nickel-chromium steels seem to give very excellent
results. The carbon is very rapidly taken up in this combination,
and for that reason is rather preferable to the straight nickel steel.

With the mutually intensifying action of chromium and nickel there
is a most suitable ratio for these two alloys, and it has been found
that roughly 2-1/2 parts of nickel to about 1 part of chromium
gives the best results. Therefore, we have the standard types of
3.5 per cent nickel with 1.5 per cent chromium to 1.5 per cent
nickel with 0.6 per cent chromium and the various intermediate
types. This ratio, however, does not give the whole story of
nickel-chromium combinations, and many surprising results have
been obtained with these alloys when other percentage combinations
have been employed.

Next: Vanadium

Previous: Chromium

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