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Steel Making

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...



A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the characteristics
of chromium, as described, should obviously give a very excellent
steel as the nickel particularly affects the ferrite of the steel
and the chromium the carbon. From this combination, we are able to
get a very strong ferrite matrix and a very hard tough cementite.
The strength of a strictly pearlitic steel over a pure iron is due
to the pearlitic being a layer arrangement of cementite running
parallel to that of a pure iron layer in each individual grain. The
ferrite i.e., the iron is increased in strength by the resistance
offered by the cementite which is the simple iron-carbon combination
known to metallurgists as Fe3C. The cementite, although adding
to the tensile strength, is very brittle and the strength of the
pearlite is the combination of the ferrite and cementite. In the
event of the cementite being strengthened, as in the case of strictly
chromium steels, an increased tensile strength is readily obtained
without loss of ductility and if the ferrite is strengthened then
the tensile strength and ductility of the metal is still further

Nickel-chromium alloy represents one of the best combinations available
at the present time. The nickel intensifies the physical characteristics
of the chromium and the chromium has a similar effect on the nickel.

For case-hardening, nickel-chromium steels seem to give very excellent
results. The carbon is very rapidly taken up in this combination,
and for that reason is rather preferable to the straight nickel steel.

With the mutually intensifying action of chromium and nickel there
is a most suitable ratio for these two alloys, and it has been found
that roughly 2-1/2 parts of nickel to about 1 part of chromium
gives the best results. Therefore, we have the standard types of
3.5 per cent nickel with 1.5 per cent chromium to 1.5 per cent
nickel with 0.6 per cent chromium and the various intermediate
types. This ratio, however, does not give the whole story of
nickel-chromium combinations, and many surprising results have
been obtained with these alloys when other percentage combinations
have been employed.

Next: Vanadium

Previous: Chromium

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