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Steel Making

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...



A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the characteristics
of chromium, as described, should obviously give a very excellent
steel as the nickel particularly affects the ferrite of the steel
and the chromium the carbon. From this combination, we are able to
get a very strong ferrite matrix and a very hard tough cementite.
The strength of a strictly pearlitic steel over a pure iron is due
to the pearlitic being a layer arrangement of cementite running
parallel to that of a pure iron layer in each individual grain. The
ferrite i.e., the iron is increased in strength by the resistance
offered by the cementite which is the simple iron-carbon combination
known to metallurgists as Fe3C. The cementite, although adding
to the tensile strength, is very brittle and the strength of the
pearlite is the combination of the ferrite and cementite. In the
event of the cementite being strengthened, as in the case of strictly
chromium steels, an increased tensile strength is readily obtained
without loss of ductility and if the ferrite is strengthened then
the tensile strength and ductility of the metal is still further

Nickel-chromium alloy represents one of the best combinations available
at the present time. The nickel intensifies the physical characteristics
of the chromium and the chromium has a similar effect on the nickel.

For case-hardening, nickel-chromium steels seem to give very excellent
results. The carbon is very rapidly taken up in this combination,
and for that reason is rather preferable to the straight nickel steel.

With the mutually intensifying action of chromium and nickel there
is a most suitable ratio for these two alloys, and it has been found
that roughly 2-1/2 parts of nickel to about 1 part of chromium
gives the best results. Therefore, we have the standard types of
3.5 per cent nickel with 1.5 per cent chromium to 1.5 per cent
nickel with 0.6 per cent chromium and the various intermediate
types. This ratio, however, does not give the whole story of
nickel-chromium combinations, and many surprising results have
been obtained with these alloys when other percentage combinations
have been employed.

Next: Vanadium

Previous: Chromium

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