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Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Hardening
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...



Nickel-chromium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the characteristics
of chromium, as described, should obviously give a very excellent
steel as the nickel particularly affects the ferrite of the steel
and the chromium the carbon. From this combination, we are able to
get a very strong ferrite matrix and a very hard tough cementite.
The strength of a strictly pearlitic steel over a pure iron is due
to the pearlitic being a layer arrangement of cementite running
parallel to that of a pure iron layer in each individual grain. The
ferrite i.e., the iron is increased in strength by the resistance
offered by the cementite which is the simple iron-carbon combination
known to metallurgists as Fe3C. The cementite, although adding
to the tensile strength, is very brittle and the strength of the
pearlite is the combination of the ferrite and cementite. In the
event of the cementite being strengthened, as in the case of strictly
chromium steels, an increased tensile strength is readily obtained
without loss of ductility and if the ferrite is strengthened then
the tensile strength and ductility of the metal is still further
improved.

Nickel-chromium alloy represents one of the best combinations available
at the present time. The nickel intensifies the physical characteristics
of the chromium and the chromium has a similar effect on the nickel.

For case-hardening, nickel-chromium steels seem to give very excellent
results. The carbon is very rapidly taken up in this combination,
and for that reason is rather preferable to the straight nickel steel.

With the mutually intensifying action of chromium and nickel there
is a most suitable ratio for these two alloys, and it has been found
that roughly 2-1/2 parts of nickel to about 1 part of chromium
gives the best results. Therefore, we have the standard types of
3.5 per cent nickel with 1.5 per cent chromium to 1.5 per cent
nickel with 0.6 per cent chromium and the various intermediate
types. This ratio, however, does not give the whole story of
nickel-chromium combinations, and many surprising results have
been obtained with these alloys when other percentage combinations
have been employed.





Next: Vanadium

Previous: Chromium



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