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Steel Making

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Pyrometers
Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Annealing
There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Annealing
ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...



Nickel-chromium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the characteristics
of chromium, as described, should obviously give a very excellent
steel as the nickel particularly affects the ferrite of the steel
and the chromium the carbon. From this combination, we are able to
get a very strong ferrite matrix and a very hard tough cementite.
The strength of a strictly pearlitic steel over a pure iron is due
to the pearlitic being a layer arrangement of cementite running
parallel to that of a pure iron layer in each individual grain. The
ferrite i.e., the iron is increased in strength by the resistance
offered by the cementite which is the simple iron-carbon combination
known to metallurgists as Fe3C. The cementite, although adding
to the tensile strength, is very brittle and the strength of the
pearlite is the combination of the ferrite and cementite. In the
event of the cementite being strengthened, as in the case of strictly
chromium steels, an increased tensile strength is readily obtained
without loss of ductility and if the ferrite is strengthened then
the tensile strength and ductility of the metal is still further
improved.

Nickel-chromium alloy represents one of the best combinations available
at the present time. The nickel intensifies the physical characteristics
of the chromium and the chromium has a similar effect on the nickel.

For case-hardening, nickel-chromium steels seem to give very excellent
results. The carbon is very rapidly taken up in this combination,
and for that reason is rather preferable to the straight nickel steel.

With the mutually intensifying action of chromium and nickel there
is a most suitable ratio for these two alloys, and it has been found
that roughly 2-1/2 parts of nickel to about 1 part of chromium
gives the best results. Therefore, we have the standard types of
3.5 per cent nickel with 1.5 per cent chromium to 1.5 per cent
nickel with 0.6 per cent chromium and the various intermediate
types. This ratio, however, does not give the whole story of
nickel-chromium combinations, and many surprising results have
been obtained with these alloys when other percentage combinations
have been employed.





Next: Vanadium

Previous: Chromium



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