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Steel Making

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....



A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the characteristics
of chromium, as described, should obviously give a very excellent
steel as the nickel particularly affects the ferrite of the steel
and the chromium the carbon. From this combination, we are able to
get a very strong ferrite matrix and a very hard tough cementite.
The strength of a strictly pearlitic steel over a pure iron is due
to the pearlitic being a layer arrangement of cementite running
parallel to that of a pure iron layer in each individual grain. The
ferrite i.e., the iron is increased in strength by the resistance
offered by the cementite which is the simple iron-carbon combination
known to metallurgists as Fe3C. The cementite, although adding
to the tensile strength, is very brittle and the strength of the
pearlite is the combination of the ferrite and cementite. In the
event of the cementite being strengthened, as in the case of strictly
chromium steels, an increased tensile strength is readily obtained
without loss of ductility and if the ferrite is strengthened then
the tensile strength and ductility of the metal is still further

Nickel-chromium alloy represents one of the best combinations available
at the present time. The nickel intensifies the physical characteristics
of the chromium and the chromium has a similar effect on the nickel.

For case-hardening, nickel-chromium steels seem to give very excellent
results. The carbon is very rapidly taken up in this combination,
and for that reason is rather preferable to the straight nickel steel.

With the mutually intensifying action of chromium and nickel there
is a most suitable ratio for these two alloys, and it has been found
that roughly 2-1/2 parts of nickel to about 1 part of chromium
gives the best results. Therefore, we have the standard types of
3.5 per cent nickel with 1.5 per cent chromium to 1.5 per cent
nickel with 0.6 per cent chromium and the various intermediate
types. This ratio, however, does not give the whole story of
nickel-chromium combinations, and many surprising results have
been obtained with these alloys when other percentage combinations
have been employed.

Next: Vanadium

Previous: Chromium

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