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Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Annealing
ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...



Nickel-chromium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the characteristics
of chromium, as described, should obviously give a very excellent
steel as the nickel particularly affects the ferrite of the steel
and the chromium the carbon. From this combination, we are able to
get a very strong ferrite matrix and a very hard tough cementite.
The strength of a strictly pearlitic steel over a pure iron is due
to the pearlitic being a layer arrangement of cementite running
parallel to that of a pure iron layer in each individual grain. The
ferrite i.e., the iron is increased in strength by the resistance
offered by the cementite which is the simple iron-carbon combination
known to metallurgists as Fe3C. The cementite, although adding
to the tensile strength, is very brittle and the strength of the
pearlite is the combination of the ferrite and cementite. In the
event of the cementite being strengthened, as in the case of strictly
chromium steels, an increased tensile strength is readily obtained
without loss of ductility and if the ferrite is strengthened then
the tensile strength and ductility of the metal is still further
improved.

Nickel-chromium alloy represents one of the best combinations available
at the present time. The nickel intensifies the physical characteristics
of the chromium and the chromium has a similar effect on the nickel.

For case-hardening, nickel-chromium steels seem to give very excellent
results. The carbon is very rapidly taken up in this combination,
and for that reason is rather preferable to the straight nickel steel.

With the mutually intensifying action of chromium and nickel there
is a most suitable ratio for these two alloys, and it has been found
that roughly 2-1/2 parts of nickel to about 1 part of chromium
gives the best results. Therefore, we have the standard types of
3.5 per cent nickel with 1.5 per cent chromium to 1.5 per cent
nickel with 0.6 per cent chromium and the various intermediate
types. This ratio, however, does not give the whole story of
nickel-chromium combinations, and many surprising results have
been obtained with these alloys when other percentage combinations
have been employed.





Next: Vanadium

Previous: Chromium



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