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Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...



A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the characteristics
of chromium, as described, should obviously give a very excellent
steel as the nickel particularly affects the ferrite of the steel
and the chromium the carbon. From this combination, we are able to
get a very strong ferrite matrix and a very hard tough cementite.
The strength of a strictly pearlitic steel over a pure iron is due
to the pearlitic being a layer arrangement of cementite running
parallel to that of a pure iron layer in each individual grain. The
ferrite i.e., the iron is increased in strength by the resistance
offered by the cementite which is the simple iron-carbon combination
known to metallurgists as Fe3C. The cementite, although adding
to the tensile strength, is very brittle and the strength of the
pearlite is the combination of the ferrite and cementite. In the
event of the cementite being strengthened, as in the case of strictly
chromium steels, an increased tensile strength is readily obtained
without loss of ductility and if the ferrite is strengthened then
the tensile strength and ductility of the metal is still further

Nickel-chromium alloy represents one of the best combinations available
at the present time. The nickel intensifies the physical characteristics
of the chromium and the chromium has a similar effect on the nickel.

For case-hardening, nickel-chromium steels seem to give very excellent
results. The carbon is very rapidly taken up in this combination,
and for that reason is rather preferable to the straight nickel steel.

With the mutually intensifying action of chromium and nickel there
is a most suitable ratio for these two alloys, and it has been found
that roughly 2-1/2 parts of nickel to about 1 part of chromium
gives the best results. Therefore, we have the standard types of
3.5 per cent nickel with 1.5 per cent chromium to 1.5 per cent
nickel with 0.6 per cent chromium and the various intermediate
types. This ratio, however, does not give the whole story of
nickel-chromium combinations, and many surprising results have
been obtained with these alloys when other percentage combinations
have been employed.

Next: Vanadium

Previous: Chromium

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