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Steel Making

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...



A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the characteristics
of chromium, as described, should obviously give a very excellent
steel as the nickel particularly affects the ferrite of the steel
and the chromium the carbon. From this combination, we are able to
get a very strong ferrite matrix and a very hard tough cementite.
The strength of a strictly pearlitic steel over a pure iron is due
to the pearlitic being a layer arrangement of cementite running
parallel to that of a pure iron layer in each individual grain. The
ferrite i.e., the iron is increased in strength by the resistance
offered by the cementite which is the simple iron-carbon combination
known to metallurgists as Fe3C. The cementite, although adding
to the tensile strength, is very brittle and the strength of the
pearlite is the combination of the ferrite and cementite. In the
event of the cementite being strengthened, as in the case of strictly
chromium steels, an increased tensile strength is readily obtained
without loss of ductility and if the ferrite is strengthened then
the tensile strength and ductility of the metal is still further

Nickel-chromium alloy represents one of the best combinations available
at the present time. The nickel intensifies the physical characteristics
of the chromium and the chromium has a similar effect on the nickel.

For case-hardening, nickel-chromium steels seem to give very excellent
results. The carbon is very rapidly taken up in this combination,
and for that reason is rather preferable to the straight nickel steel.

With the mutually intensifying action of chromium and nickel there
is a most suitable ratio for these two alloys, and it has been found
that roughly 2-1/2 parts of nickel to about 1 part of chromium
gives the best results. Therefore, we have the standard types of
3.5 per cent nickel with 1.5 per cent chromium to 1.5 per cent
nickel with 0.6 per cent chromium and the various intermediate
types. This ratio, however, does not give the whole story of
nickel-chromium combinations, and many surprising results have
been obtained with these alloys when other percentage combinations
have been employed.

Next: Vanadium

Previous: Chromium

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