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The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...



Nickel-chromium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the characteristics
of chromium, as described, should obviously give a very excellent
steel as the nickel particularly affects the ferrite of the steel
and the chromium the carbon. From this combination, we are able to
get a very strong ferrite matrix and a very hard tough cementite.
The strength of a strictly pearlitic steel over a pure iron is due
to the pearlitic being a layer arrangement of cementite running
parallel to that of a pure iron layer in each individual grain. The
ferrite i.e., the iron is increased in strength by the resistance
offered by the cementite which is the simple iron-carbon combination
known to metallurgists as Fe3C. The cementite, although adding
to the tensile strength, is very brittle and the strength of the
pearlite is the combination of the ferrite and cementite. In the
event of the cementite being strengthened, as in the case of strictly
chromium steels, an increased tensile strength is readily obtained
without loss of ductility and if the ferrite is strengthened then
the tensile strength and ductility of the metal is still further
improved.

Nickel-chromium alloy represents one of the best combinations available
at the present time. The nickel intensifies the physical characteristics
of the chromium and the chromium has a similar effect on the nickel.

For case-hardening, nickel-chromium steels seem to give very excellent
results. The carbon is very rapidly taken up in this combination,
and for that reason is rather preferable to the straight nickel steel.

With the mutually intensifying action of chromium and nickel there
is a most suitable ratio for these two alloys, and it has been found
that roughly 2-1/2 parts of nickel to about 1 part of chromium
gives the best results. Therefore, we have the standard types of
3.5 per cent nickel with 1.5 per cent chromium to 1.5 per cent
nickel with 0.6 per cent chromium and the various intermediate
types. This ratio, however, does not give the whole story of
nickel-chromium combinations, and many surprising results have
been obtained with these alloys when other percentage combinations
have been employed.





Next: Vanadium

Previous: Chromium



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