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Steel Making

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...



A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the characteristics
of chromium, as described, should obviously give a very excellent
steel as the nickel particularly affects the ferrite of the steel
and the chromium the carbon. From this combination, we are able to
get a very strong ferrite matrix and a very hard tough cementite.
The strength of a strictly pearlitic steel over a pure iron is due
to the pearlitic being a layer arrangement of cementite running
parallel to that of a pure iron layer in each individual grain. The
ferrite i.e., the iron is increased in strength by the resistance
offered by the cementite which is the simple iron-carbon combination
known to metallurgists as Fe3C. The cementite, although adding
to the tensile strength, is very brittle and the strength of the
pearlite is the combination of the ferrite and cementite. In the
event of the cementite being strengthened, as in the case of strictly
chromium steels, an increased tensile strength is readily obtained
without loss of ductility and if the ferrite is strengthened then
the tensile strength and ductility of the metal is still further

Nickel-chromium alloy represents one of the best combinations available
at the present time. The nickel intensifies the physical characteristics
of the chromium and the chromium has a similar effect on the nickel.

For case-hardening, nickel-chromium steels seem to give very excellent
results. The carbon is very rapidly taken up in this combination,
and for that reason is rather preferable to the straight nickel steel.

With the mutually intensifying action of chromium and nickel there
is a most suitable ratio for these two alloys, and it has been found
that roughly 2-1/2 parts of nickel to about 1 part of chromium
gives the best results. Therefore, we have the standard types of
3.5 per cent nickel with 1.5 per cent chromium to 1.5 per cent
nickel with 0.6 per cent chromium and the various intermediate
types. This ratio, however, does not give the whole story of
nickel-chromium combinations, and many surprising results have
been obtained with these alloys when other percentage combinations
have been employed.

Next: Vanadium

Previous: Chromium

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