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Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...



A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the characteristics
of chromium, as described, should obviously give a very excellent
steel as the nickel particularly affects the ferrite of the steel
and the chromium the carbon. From this combination, we are able to
get a very strong ferrite matrix and a very hard tough cementite.
The strength of a strictly pearlitic steel over a pure iron is due
to the pearlitic being a layer arrangement of cementite running
parallel to that of a pure iron layer in each individual grain. The
ferrite i.e., the iron is increased in strength by the resistance
offered by the cementite which is the simple iron-carbon combination
known to metallurgists as Fe3C. The cementite, although adding
to the tensile strength, is very brittle and the strength of the
pearlite is the combination of the ferrite and cementite. In the
event of the cementite being strengthened, as in the case of strictly
chromium steels, an increased tensile strength is readily obtained
without loss of ductility and if the ferrite is strengthened then
the tensile strength and ductility of the metal is still further

Nickel-chromium alloy represents one of the best combinations available
at the present time. The nickel intensifies the physical characteristics
of the chromium and the chromium has a similar effect on the nickel.

For case-hardening, nickel-chromium steels seem to give very excellent
results. The carbon is very rapidly taken up in this combination,
and for that reason is rather preferable to the straight nickel steel.

With the mutually intensifying action of chromium and nickel there
is a most suitable ratio for these two alloys, and it has been found
that roughly 2-1/2 parts of nickel to about 1 part of chromium
gives the best results. Therefore, we have the standard types of
3.5 per cent nickel with 1.5 per cent chromium to 1.5 per cent
nickel with 0.6 per cent chromium and the various intermediate
types. This ratio, however, does not give the whole story of
nickel-chromium combinations, and many surprising results have
been obtained with these alloys when other percentage combinations
have been employed.

Next: Vanadium

Previous: Chromium

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