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Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...



Nickel-chromium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the characteristics
of chromium, as described, should obviously give a very excellent
steel as the nickel particularly affects the ferrite of the steel
and the chromium the carbon. From this combination, we are able to
get a very strong ferrite matrix and a very hard tough cementite.
The strength of a strictly pearlitic steel over a pure iron is due
to the pearlitic being a layer arrangement of cementite running
parallel to that of a pure iron layer in each individual grain. The
ferrite i.e., the iron is increased in strength by the resistance
offered by the cementite which is the simple iron-carbon combination
known to metallurgists as Fe3C. The cementite, although adding
to the tensile strength, is very brittle and the strength of the
pearlite is the combination of the ferrite and cementite. In the
event of the cementite being strengthened, as in the case of strictly
chromium steels, an increased tensile strength is readily obtained
without loss of ductility and if the ferrite is strengthened then
the tensile strength and ductility of the metal is still further
improved.

Nickel-chromium alloy represents one of the best combinations available
at the present time. The nickel intensifies the physical characteristics
of the chromium and the chromium has a similar effect on the nickel.

For case-hardening, nickel-chromium steels seem to give very excellent
results. The carbon is very rapidly taken up in this combination,
and for that reason is rather preferable to the straight nickel steel.

With the mutually intensifying action of chromium and nickel there
is a most suitable ratio for these two alloys, and it has been found
that roughly 2-1/2 parts of nickel to about 1 part of chromium
gives the best results. Therefore, we have the standard types of
3.5 per cent nickel with 1.5 per cent chromium to 1.5 per cent
nickel with 0.6 per cent chromium and the various intermediate
types. This ratio, however, does not give the whole story of
nickel-chromium combinations, and many surprising results have
been obtained with these alloys when other percentage combinations
have been employed.





Next: Vanadium

Previous: Chromium



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