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Steel Making

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...



A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the characteristics
of chromium, as described, should obviously give a very excellent
steel as the nickel particularly affects the ferrite of the steel
and the chromium the carbon. From this combination, we are able to
get a very strong ferrite matrix and a very hard tough cementite.
The strength of a strictly pearlitic steel over a pure iron is due
to the pearlitic being a layer arrangement of cementite running
parallel to that of a pure iron layer in each individual grain. The
ferrite i.e., the iron is increased in strength by the resistance
offered by the cementite which is the simple iron-carbon combination
known to metallurgists as Fe3C. The cementite, although adding
to the tensile strength, is very brittle and the strength of the
pearlite is the combination of the ferrite and cementite. In the
event of the cementite being strengthened, as in the case of strictly
chromium steels, an increased tensile strength is readily obtained
without loss of ductility and if the ferrite is strengthened then
the tensile strength and ductility of the metal is still further

Nickel-chromium alloy represents one of the best combinations available
at the present time. The nickel intensifies the physical characteristics
of the chromium and the chromium has a similar effect on the nickel.

For case-hardening, nickel-chromium steels seem to give very excellent
results. The carbon is very rapidly taken up in this combination,
and for that reason is rather preferable to the straight nickel steel.

With the mutually intensifying action of chromium and nickel there
is a most suitable ratio for these two alloys, and it has been found
that roughly 2-1/2 parts of nickel to about 1 part of chromium
gives the best results. Therefore, we have the standard types of
3.5 per cent nickel with 1.5 per cent chromium to 1.5 per cent
nickel with 0.6 per cent chromium and the various intermediate
types. This ratio, however, does not give the whole story of
nickel-chromium combinations, and many surprising results have
been obtained with these alloys when other percentage combinations
have been employed.

Next: Vanadium

Previous: Chromium

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