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Steel Making

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...



A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the characteristics
of chromium, as described, should obviously give a very excellent
steel as the nickel particularly affects the ferrite of the steel
and the chromium the carbon. From this combination, we are able to
get a very strong ferrite matrix and a very hard tough cementite.
The strength of a strictly pearlitic steel over a pure iron is due
to the pearlitic being a layer arrangement of cementite running
parallel to that of a pure iron layer in each individual grain. The
ferrite i.e., the iron is increased in strength by the resistance
offered by the cementite which is the simple iron-carbon combination
known to metallurgists as Fe3C. The cementite, although adding
to the tensile strength, is very brittle and the strength of the
pearlite is the combination of the ferrite and cementite. In the
event of the cementite being strengthened, as in the case of strictly
chromium steels, an increased tensile strength is readily obtained
without loss of ductility and if the ferrite is strengthened then
the tensile strength and ductility of the metal is still further

Nickel-chromium alloy represents one of the best combinations available
at the present time. The nickel intensifies the physical characteristics
of the chromium and the chromium has a similar effect on the nickel.

For case-hardening, nickel-chromium steels seem to give very excellent
results. The carbon is very rapidly taken up in this combination,
and for that reason is rather preferable to the straight nickel steel.

With the mutually intensifying action of chromium and nickel there
is a most suitable ratio for these two alloys, and it has been found
that roughly 2-1/2 parts of nickel to about 1 part of chromium
gives the best results. Therefore, we have the standard types of
3.5 per cent nickel with 1.5 per cent chromium to 1.5 per cent
nickel with 0.6 per cent chromium and the various intermediate
types. This ratio, however, does not give the whole story of
nickel-chromium combinations, and many surprising results have
been obtained with these alloys when other percentage combinations
have been employed.

Next: Vanadium

Previous: Chromium

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