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A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...



A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the characteristics
of chromium, as described, should obviously give a very excellent
steel as the nickel particularly affects the ferrite of the steel
and the chromium the carbon. From this combination, we are able to
get a very strong ferrite matrix and a very hard tough cementite.
The strength of a strictly pearlitic steel over a pure iron is due
to the pearlitic being a layer arrangement of cementite running
parallel to that of a pure iron layer in each individual grain. The
ferrite i.e., the iron is increased in strength by the resistance
offered by the cementite which is the simple iron-carbon combination
known to metallurgists as Fe3C. The cementite, although adding
to the tensile strength, is very brittle and the strength of the
pearlite is the combination of the ferrite and cementite. In the
event of the cementite being strengthened, as in the case of strictly
chromium steels, an increased tensile strength is readily obtained
without loss of ductility and if the ferrite is strengthened then
the tensile strength and ductility of the metal is still further

Nickel-chromium alloy represents one of the best combinations available
at the present time. The nickel intensifies the physical characteristics
of the chromium and the chromium has a similar effect on the nickel.

For case-hardening, nickel-chromium steels seem to give very excellent
results. The carbon is very rapidly taken up in this combination,
and for that reason is rather preferable to the straight nickel steel.

With the mutually intensifying action of chromium and nickel there
is a most suitable ratio for these two alloys, and it has been found
that roughly 2-1/2 parts of nickel to about 1 part of chromium
gives the best results. Therefore, we have the standard types of
3.5 per cent nickel with 1.5 per cent chromium to 1.5 per cent
nickel with 0.6 per cent chromium and the various intermediate
types. This ratio, however, does not give the whole story of
nickel-chromium combinations, and many surprising results have
been obtained with these alloys when other percentage combinations
have been employed.

Next: Vanadium

Previous: Chromium

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