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Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...



A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the characteristics
of chromium, as described, should obviously give a very excellent
steel as the nickel particularly affects the ferrite of the steel
and the chromium the carbon. From this combination, we are able to
get a very strong ferrite matrix and a very hard tough cementite.
The strength of a strictly pearlitic steel over a pure iron is due
to the pearlitic being a layer arrangement of cementite running
parallel to that of a pure iron layer in each individual grain. The
ferrite i.e., the iron is increased in strength by the resistance
offered by the cementite which is the simple iron-carbon combination
known to metallurgists as Fe3C. The cementite, although adding
to the tensile strength, is very brittle and the strength of the
pearlite is the combination of the ferrite and cementite. In the
event of the cementite being strengthened, as in the case of strictly
chromium steels, an increased tensile strength is readily obtained
without loss of ductility and if the ferrite is strengthened then
the tensile strength and ductility of the metal is still further

Nickel-chromium alloy represents one of the best combinations available
at the present time. The nickel intensifies the physical characteristics
of the chromium and the chromium has a similar effect on the nickel.

For case-hardening, nickel-chromium steels seem to give very excellent
results. The carbon is very rapidly taken up in this combination,
and for that reason is rather preferable to the straight nickel steel.

With the mutually intensifying action of chromium and nickel there
is a most suitable ratio for these two alloys, and it has been found
that roughly 2-1/2 parts of nickel to about 1 part of chromium
gives the best results. Therefore, we have the standard types of
3.5 per cent nickel with 1.5 per cent chromium to 1.5 per cent
nickel with 0.6 per cent chromium and the various intermediate
types. This ratio, however, does not give the whole story of
nickel-chromium combinations, and many surprising results have
been obtained with these alloys when other percentage combinations
have been employed.

Next: Vanadium

Previous: Chromium

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