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Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...



A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the characteristics
of chromium, as described, should obviously give a very excellent
steel as the nickel particularly affects the ferrite of the steel
and the chromium the carbon. From this combination, we are able to
get a very strong ferrite matrix and a very hard tough cementite.
The strength of a strictly pearlitic steel over a pure iron is due
to the pearlitic being a layer arrangement of cementite running
parallel to that of a pure iron layer in each individual grain. The
ferrite i.e., the iron is increased in strength by the resistance
offered by the cementite which is the simple iron-carbon combination
known to metallurgists as Fe3C. The cementite, although adding
to the tensile strength, is very brittle and the strength of the
pearlite is the combination of the ferrite and cementite. In the
event of the cementite being strengthened, as in the case of strictly
chromium steels, an increased tensile strength is readily obtained
without loss of ductility and if the ferrite is strengthened then
the tensile strength and ductility of the metal is still further

Nickel-chromium alloy represents one of the best combinations available
at the present time. The nickel intensifies the physical characteristics
of the chromium and the chromium has a similar effect on the nickel.

For case-hardening, nickel-chromium steels seem to give very excellent
results. The carbon is very rapidly taken up in this combination,
and for that reason is rather preferable to the straight nickel steel.

With the mutually intensifying action of chromium and nickel there
is a most suitable ratio for these two alloys, and it has been found
that roughly 2-1/2 parts of nickel to about 1 part of chromium
gives the best results. Therefore, we have the standard types of
3.5 per cent nickel with 1.5 per cent chromium to 1.5 per cent
nickel with 0.6 per cent chromium and the various intermediate
types. This ratio, however, does not give the whole story of
nickel-chromium combinations, and many surprising results have
been obtained with these alloys when other percentage combinations
have been employed.

Next: Vanadium

Previous: Chromium

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