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Steel Making

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Restoring Overheated Steel


The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown graphically
in Fig. 65 to the series of illustrations on pages 137 to 144. This
was prepared by Thos. Firth & Sons, Ltd., Sheffield, England.

The center piece Fig. 65 represents a block of steel weighing about
25 lb. The central hole accommodated a thermo-couple which was attached
to an autographic recorder. The curve is a copy of the temperature
record during heating and cooling. Into the holes in the side of
the block small pegs of overheated mild steel were inserted. One
peg was withdrawn and quenched at each of the temperatures indicated
by the numbered arrows, and after suitable preparation these pegs
were photographed in order to show the changes in structure taking
place during heating and cooling operations. The illustrations here
reproduced are selected from those photographs with the object
of presenting pictorially the changes involved in the refining of
overheated steel or steel castings.

Next: Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools

Previous: S A E Heat Treatments

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