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Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...



SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found in
steel in small quantities. Some sulphur is contained in the ore
from which the iron is smelted; more sulphur is introduced by the
coke and fuel used. Sulphur is very difficult to get rid of in
steel making; in fact the resulting metal usually contains a little
more than the raw materials used. Only the electric furnace is
able to produce the necessary heat and slags required to eliminate
sulphur, and as a matter of fact the sulphur does not go until
several other impurities have been eliminated. Consequently, an
electric steel with extremely low sulphur (0.02 per cent) is by
that same token a well-made metal.

Sulphur is of most trouble to rolling and forging operations when
conducted at a red heat. It makes steel tender and brittle at that
temperature--a condition known to the workmen as red-short. It
seems to have little or no effect upon the physical properties
of cold steel--at least as revealed by the ordinary testing
machines--consequently many specifications do not set any limit
on sulphur, resting on the idea that if sulphur is low enough not
to cause trouble to the manufacturer during rolling, it will not
cause the user any trouble.

Tool steel and other fine steels should be very low in sulphur,
preferably not higher than 0.03 per cent. Higher sulphur steels
(0.06 per cent, and even up to 0.10 per cent) have given very good
service for machine parts, but in general a high sulphur steel
is a suspicious steel. Screw stock is purposely made with up to
0.12 per cent sulphur and a like amount of phosphorus so it will
cut freely.

Manganese counteracts the detrimental effect of sulphur when present
in the steel to an amount at least five times the sulphur content.

Next: Phosphorus

Previous: Composition And Properties Of Steel

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