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Steel Making

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...



SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found in
steel in small quantities. Some sulphur is contained in the ore
from which the iron is smelted; more sulphur is introduced by the
coke and fuel used. Sulphur is very difficult to get rid of in
steel making; in fact the resulting metal usually contains a little
more than the raw materials used. Only the electric furnace is
able to produce the necessary heat and slags required to eliminate
sulphur, and as a matter of fact the sulphur does not go until
several other impurities have been eliminated. Consequently, an
electric steel with extremely low sulphur (0.02 per cent) is by
that same token a well-made metal.

Sulphur is of most trouble to rolling and forging operations when
conducted at a red heat. It makes steel tender and brittle at that
temperature--a condition known to the workmen as red-short. It
seems to have little or no effect upon the physical properties
of cold steel--at least as revealed by the ordinary testing
machines--consequently many specifications do not set any limit
on sulphur, resting on the idea that if sulphur is low enough not
to cause trouble to the manufacturer during rolling, it will not
cause the user any trouble.

Tool steel and other fine steels should be very low in sulphur,
preferably not higher than 0.03 per cent. Higher sulphur steels
(0.06 per cent, and even up to 0.10 per cent) have given very good
service for machine parts, but in general a high sulphur steel
is a suspicious steel. Screw stock is purposely made with up to
0.12 per cent sulphur and a like amount of phosphorus so it will
cut freely.

Manganese counteracts the detrimental effect of sulphur when present
in the steel to an amount at least five times the sulphur content.

Next: Phosphorus

Previous: Composition And Properties Of Steel

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