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Steel Making

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...



SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found in
steel in small quantities. Some sulphur is contained in the ore
from which the iron is smelted; more sulphur is introduced by the
coke and fuel used. Sulphur is very difficult to get rid of in
steel making; in fact the resulting metal usually contains a little
more than the raw materials used. Only the electric furnace is
able to produce the necessary heat and slags required to eliminate
sulphur, and as a matter of fact the sulphur does not go until
several other impurities have been eliminated. Consequently, an
electric steel with extremely low sulphur (0.02 per cent) is by
that same token a well-made metal.

Sulphur is of most trouble to rolling and forging operations when
conducted at a red heat. It makes steel tender and brittle at that
temperature--a condition known to the workmen as red-short. It
seems to have little or no effect upon the physical properties
of cold steel--at least as revealed by the ordinary testing
machines--consequently many specifications do not set any limit
on sulphur, resting on the idea that if sulphur is low enough not
to cause trouble to the manufacturer during rolling, it will not
cause the user any trouble.

Tool steel and other fine steels should be very low in sulphur,
preferably not higher than 0.03 per cent. Higher sulphur steels
(0.06 per cent, and even up to 0.10 per cent) have given very good
service for machine parts, but in general a high sulphur steel
is a suspicious steel. Screw stock is purposely made with up to
0.12 per cent sulphur and a like amount of phosphorus so it will
cut freely.

Manganese counteracts the detrimental effect of sulphur when present
in the steel to an amount at least five times the sulphur content.

Next: Phosphorus

Previous: Composition And Properties Of Steel

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