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Steel Making

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...



SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found in
steel in small quantities. Some sulphur is contained in the ore
from which the iron is smelted; more sulphur is introduced by the
coke and fuel used. Sulphur is very difficult to get rid of in
steel making; in fact the resulting metal usually contains a little
more than the raw materials used. Only the electric furnace is
able to produce the necessary heat and slags required to eliminate
sulphur, and as a matter of fact the sulphur does not go until
several other impurities have been eliminated. Consequently, an
electric steel with extremely low sulphur (0.02 per cent) is by
that same token a well-made metal.

Sulphur is of most trouble to rolling and forging operations when
conducted at a red heat. It makes steel tender and brittle at that
temperature--a condition known to the workmen as red-short. It
seems to have little or no effect upon the physical properties
of cold steel--at least as revealed by the ordinary testing
machines--consequently many specifications do not set any limit
on sulphur, resting on the idea that if sulphur is low enough not
to cause trouble to the manufacturer during rolling, it will not
cause the user any trouble.

Tool steel and other fine steels should be very low in sulphur,
preferably not higher than 0.03 per cent. Higher sulphur steels
(0.06 per cent, and even up to 0.10 per cent) have given very good
service for machine parts, but in general a high sulphur steel
is a suspicious steel. Screw stock is purposely made with up to
0.12 per cent sulphur and a like amount of phosphorus so it will
cut freely.

Manganese counteracts the detrimental effect of sulphur when present
in the steel to an amount at least five times the sulphur content.

Next: Phosphorus

Previous: Composition And Properties Of Steel

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