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Steel Making

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...



SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found in
steel in small quantities. Some sulphur is contained in the ore
from which the iron is smelted; more sulphur is introduced by the
coke and fuel used. Sulphur is very difficult to get rid of in
steel making; in fact the resulting metal usually contains a little
more than the raw materials used. Only the electric furnace is
able to produce the necessary heat and slags required to eliminate
sulphur, and as a matter of fact the sulphur does not go until
several other impurities have been eliminated. Consequently, an
electric steel with extremely low sulphur (0.02 per cent) is by
that same token a well-made metal.

Sulphur is of most trouble to rolling and forging operations when
conducted at a red heat. It makes steel tender and brittle at that
temperature--a condition known to the workmen as red-short. It
seems to have little or no effect upon the physical properties
of cold steel--at least as revealed by the ordinary testing
machines--consequently many specifications do not set any limit
on sulphur, resting on the idea that if sulphur is low enough not
to cause trouble to the manufacturer during rolling, it will not
cause the user any trouble.

Tool steel and other fine steels should be very low in sulphur,
preferably not higher than 0.03 per cent. Higher sulphur steels
(0.06 per cent, and even up to 0.10 per cent) have given very good
service for machine parts, but in general a high sulphur steel
is a suspicious steel. Screw stock is purposely made with up to
0.12 per cent sulphur and a like amount of phosphorus so it will
cut freely.

Manganese counteracts the detrimental effect of sulphur when present
in the steel to an amount at least five times the sulphur content.

Next: Phosphorus

Previous: Composition And Properties Of Steel

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