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Steel Making

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...



SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found in
steel in small quantities. Some sulphur is contained in the ore
from which the iron is smelted; more sulphur is introduced by the
coke and fuel used. Sulphur is very difficult to get rid of in
steel making; in fact the resulting metal usually contains a little
more than the raw materials used. Only the electric furnace is
able to produce the necessary heat and slags required to eliminate
sulphur, and as a matter of fact the sulphur does not go until
several other impurities have been eliminated. Consequently, an
electric steel with extremely low sulphur (0.02 per cent) is by
that same token a well-made metal.

Sulphur is of most trouble to rolling and forging operations when
conducted at a red heat. It makes steel tender and brittle at that
temperature--a condition known to the workmen as red-short. It
seems to have little or no effect upon the physical properties
of cold steel--at least as revealed by the ordinary testing
machines--consequently many specifications do not set any limit
on sulphur, resting on the idea that if sulphur is low enough not
to cause trouble to the manufacturer during rolling, it will not
cause the user any trouble.

Tool steel and other fine steels should be very low in sulphur,
preferably not higher than 0.03 per cent. Higher sulphur steels
(0.06 per cent, and even up to 0.10 per cent) have given very good
service for machine parts, but in general a high sulphur steel
is a suspicious steel. Screw stock is purposely made with up to
0.12 per cent sulphur and a like amount of phosphorus so it will
cut freely.

Manganese counteracts the detrimental effect of sulphur when present
in the steel to an amount at least five times the sulphur content.

Next: Phosphorus

Previous: Composition And Properties Of Steel

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