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Steel Making

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...



SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found in
steel in small quantities. Some sulphur is contained in the ore
from which the iron is smelted; more sulphur is introduced by the
coke and fuel used. Sulphur is very difficult to get rid of in
steel making; in fact the resulting metal usually contains a little
more than the raw materials used. Only the electric furnace is
able to produce the necessary heat and slags required to eliminate
sulphur, and as a matter of fact the sulphur does not go until
several other impurities have been eliminated. Consequently, an
electric steel with extremely low sulphur (0.02 per cent) is by
that same token a well-made metal.

Sulphur is of most trouble to rolling and forging operations when
conducted at a red heat. It makes steel tender and brittle at that
temperature--a condition known to the workmen as red-short. It
seems to have little or no effect upon the physical properties
of cold steel--at least as revealed by the ordinary testing
machines--consequently many specifications do not set any limit
on sulphur, resting on the idea that if sulphur is low enough not
to cause trouble to the manufacturer during rolling, it will not
cause the user any trouble.

Tool steel and other fine steels should be very low in sulphur,
preferably not higher than 0.03 per cent. Higher sulphur steels
(0.06 per cent, and even up to 0.10 per cent) have given very good
service for machine parts, but in general a high sulphur steel
is a suspicious steel. Screw stock is purposely made with up to
0.12 per cent sulphur and a like amount of phosphorus so it will
cut freely.

Manganese counteracts the detrimental effect of sulphur when present
in the steel to an amount at least five times the sulphur content.

Next: Phosphorus

Previous: Composition And Properties Of Steel

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