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Steel Making

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...



SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found in
steel in small quantities. Some sulphur is contained in the ore
from which the iron is smelted; more sulphur is introduced by the
coke and fuel used. Sulphur is very difficult to get rid of in
steel making; in fact the resulting metal usually contains a little
more than the raw materials used. Only the electric furnace is
able to produce the necessary heat and slags required to eliminate
sulphur, and as a matter of fact the sulphur does not go until
several other impurities have been eliminated. Consequently, an
electric steel with extremely low sulphur (0.02 per cent) is by
that same token a well-made metal.

Sulphur is of most trouble to rolling and forging operations when
conducted at a red heat. It makes steel tender and brittle at that
temperature--a condition known to the workmen as red-short. It
seems to have little or no effect upon the physical properties
of cold steel--at least as revealed by the ordinary testing
machines--consequently many specifications do not set any limit
on sulphur, resting on the idea that if sulphur is low enough not
to cause trouble to the manufacturer during rolling, it will not
cause the user any trouble.

Tool steel and other fine steels should be very low in sulphur,
preferably not higher than 0.03 per cent. Higher sulphur steels
(0.06 per cent, and even up to 0.10 per cent) have given very good
service for machine parts, but in general a high sulphur steel
is a suspicious steel. Screw stock is purposely made with up to
0.12 per cent sulphur and a like amount of phosphorus so it will
cut freely.

Manganese counteracts the detrimental effect of sulphur when present
in the steel to an amount at least five times the sulphur content.

Next: Phosphorus

Previous: Composition And Properties Of Steel

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