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Steel Making

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...



SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found in
steel in small quantities. Some sulphur is contained in the ore
from which the iron is smelted; more sulphur is introduced by the
coke and fuel used. Sulphur is very difficult to get rid of in
steel making; in fact the resulting metal usually contains a little
more than the raw materials used. Only the electric furnace is
able to produce the necessary heat and slags required to eliminate
sulphur, and as a matter of fact the sulphur does not go until
several other impurities have been eliminated. Consequently, an
electric steel with extremely low sulphur (0.02 per cent) is by
that same token a well-made metal.

Sulphur is of most trouble to rolling and forging operations when
conducted at a red heat. It makes steel tender and brittle at that
temperature--a condition known to the workmen as red-short. It
seems to have little or no effect upon the physical properties
of cold steel--at least as revealed by the ordinary testing
machines--consequently many specifications do not set any limit
on sulphur, resting on the idea that if sulphur is low enough not
to cause trouble to the manufacturer during rolling, it will not
cause the user any trouble.

Tool steel and other fine steels should be very low in sulphur,
preferably not higher than 0.03 per cent. Higher sulphur steels
(0.06 per cent, and even up to 0.10 per cent) have given very good
service for machine parts, but in general a high sulphur steel
is a suspicious steel. Screw stock is purposely made with up to
0.12 per cent sulphur and a like amount of phosphorus so it will
cut freely.

Manganese counteracts the detrimental effect of sulphur when present
in the steel to an amount at least five times the sulphur content.

Next: Phosphorus

Previous: Composition And Properties Of Steel

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