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Steel Making

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...



SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found in
steel in small quantities. Some sulphur is contained in the ore
from which the iron is smelted; more sulphur is introduced by the
coke and fuel used. Sulphur is very difficult to get rid of in
steel making; in fact the resulting metal usually contains a little
more than the raw materials used. Only the electric furnace is
able to produce the necessary heat and slags required to eliminate
sulphur, and as a matter of fact the sulphur does not go until
several other impurities have been eliminated. Consequently, an
electric steel with extremely low sulphur (0.02 per cent) is by
that same token a well-made metal.

Sulphur is of most trouble to rolling and forging operations when
conducted at a red heat. It makes steel tender and brittle at that
temperature--a condition known to the workmen as red-short. It
seems to have little or no effect upon the physical properties
of cold steel--at least as revealed by the ordinary testing
machines--consequently many specifications do not set any limit
on sulphur, resting on the idea that if sulphur is low enough not
to cause trouble to the manufacturer during rolling, it will not
cause the user any trouble.

Tool steel and other fine steels should be very low in sulphur,
preferably not higher than 0.03 per cent. Higher sulphur steels
(0.06 per cent, and even up to 0.10 per cent) have given very good
service for machine parts, but in general a high sulphur steel
is a suspicious steel. Screw stock is purposely made with up to
0.12 per cent sulphur and a like amount of phosphorus so it will
cut freely.

Manganese counteracts the detrimental effect of sulphur when present
in the steel to an amount at least five times the sulphur content.

Next: Phosphorus

Previous: Composition And Properties Of Steel

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