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Steel Making

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...



SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found in
steel in small quantities. Some sulphur is contained in the ore
from which the iron is smelted; more sulphur is introduced by the
coke and fuel used. Sulphur is very difficult to get rid of in
steel making; in fact the resulting metal usually contains a little
more than the raw materials used. Only the electric furnace is
able to produce the necessary heat and slags required to eliminate
sulphur, and as a matter of fact the sulphur does not go until
several other impurities have been eliminated. Consequently, an
electric steel with extremely low sulphur (0.02 per cent) is by
that same token a well-made metal.

Sulphur is of most trouble to rolling and forging operations when
conducted at a red heat. It makes steel tender and brittle at that
temperature--a condition known to the workmen as red-short. It
seems to have little or no effect upon the physical properties
of cold steel--at least as revealed by the ordinary testing
machines--consequently many specifications do not set any limit
on sulphur, resting on the idea that if sulphur is low enough not
to cause trouble to the manufacturer during rolling, it will not
cause the user any trouble.

Tool steel and other fine steels should be very low in sulphur,
preferably not higher than 0.03 per cent. Higher sulphur steels
(0.06 per cent, and even up to 0.10 per cent) have given very good
service for machine parts, but in general a high sulphur steel
is a suspicious steel. Screw stock is purposely made with up to
0.12 per cent sulphur and a like amount of phosphorus so it will
cut freely.

Manganese counteracts the detrimental effect of sulphur when present
in the steel to an amount at least five times the sulphur content.

Next: Phosphorus

Previous: Composition And Properties Of Steel

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