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Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...



Sulphur






Category: COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF STEEL

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found in
steel in small quantities. Some sulphur is contained in the ore
from which the iron is smelted; more sulphur is introduced by the
coke and fuel used. Sulphur is very difficult to get rid of in
steel making; in fact the resulting metal usually contains a little
more than the raw materials used. Only the electric furnace is
able to produce the necessary heat and slags required to eliminate
sulphur, and as a matter of fact the sulphur does not go until
several other impurities have been eliminated. Consequently, an
electric steel with extremely low sulphur (0.02 per cent) is by
that same token a well-made metal.

Sulphur is of most trouble to rolling and forging operations when
conducted at a red heat. It makes steel tender and brittle at that
temperature--a condition known to the workmen as red-short. It
seems to have little or no effect upon the physical properties
of cold steel--at least as revealed by the ordinary testing
machines--consequently many specifications do not set any limit
on sulphur, resting on the idea that if sulphur is low enough not
to cause trouble to the manufacturer during rolling, it will not
cause the user any trouble.

Tool steel and other fine steels should be very low in sulphur,
preferably not higher than 0.03 per cent. Higher sulphur steels
(0.06 per cent, and even up to 0.10 per cent) have given very good
service for machine parts, but in general a high sulphur steel
is a suspicious steel. Screw stock is purposely made with up to
0.12 per cent sulphur and a like amount of phosphorus so it will
cut freely.

Manganese counteracts the detrimental effect of sulphur when present
in the steel to an amount at least five times the sulphur content.





Next: Phosphorus

Previous: Composition And Properties Of Steel



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