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Steel Making

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...



SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found in
steel in small quantities. Some sulphur is contained in the ore
from which the iron is smelted; more sulphur is introduced by the
coke and fuel used. Sulphur is very difficult to get rid of in
steel making; in fact the resulting metal usually contains a little
more than the raw materials used. Only the electric furnace is
able to produce the necessary heat and slags required to eliminate
sulphur, and as a matter of fact the sulphur does not go until
several other impurities have been eliminated. Consequently, an
electric steel with extremely low sulphur (0.02 per cent) is by
that same token a well-made metal.

Sulphur is of most trouble to rolling and forging operations when
conducted at a red heat. It makes steel tender and brittle at that
temperature--a condition known to the workmen as red-short. It
seems to have little or no effect upon the physical properties
of cold steel--at least as revealed by the ordinary testing
machines--consequently many specifications do not set any limit
on sulphur, resting on the idea that if sulphur is low enough not
to cause trouble to the manufacturer during rolling, it will not
cause the user any trouble.

Tool steel and other fine steels should be very low in sulphur,
preferably not higher than 0.03 per cent. Higher sulphur steels
(0.06 per cent, and even up to 0.10 per cent) have given very good
service for machine parts, but in general a high sulphur steel
is a suspicious steel. Screw stock is purposely made with up to
0.12 per cent sulphur and a like amount of phosphorus so it will
cut freely.

Manganese counteracts the detrimental effect of sulphur when present
in the steel to an amount at least five times the sulphur content.

Next: Phosphorus

Previous: Composition And Properties Of Steel

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