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S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...



Sulphur






Category: COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF STEEL

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found in
steel in small quantities. Some sulphur is contained in the ore
from which the iron is smelted; more sulphur is introduced by the
coke and fuel used. Sulphur is very difficult to get rid of in
steel making; in fact the resulting metal usually contains a little
more than the raw materials used. Only the electric furnace is
able to produce the necessary heat and slags required to eliminate
sulphur, and as a matter of fact the sulphur does not go until
several other impurities have been eliminated. Consequently, an
electric steel with extremely low sulphur (0.02 per cent) is by
that same token a well-made metal.

Sulphur is of most trouble to rolling and forging operations when
conducted at a red heat. It makes steel tender and brittle at that
temperature--a condition known to the workmen as red-short. It
seems to have little or no effect upon the physical properties
of cold steel--at least as revealed by the ordinary testing
machines--consequently many specifications do not set any limit
on sulphur, resting on the idea that if sulphur is low enough not
to cause trouble to the manufacturer during rolling, it will not
cause the user any trouble.

Tool steel and other fine steels should be very low in sulphur,
preferably not higher than 0.03 per cent. Higher sulphur steels
(0.06 per cent, and even up to 0.10 per cent) have given very good
service for machine parts, but in general a high sulphur steel
is a suspicious steel. Screw stock is purposely made with up to
0.12 per cent sulphur and a like amount of phosphorus so it will
cut freely.

Manganese counteracts the detrimental effect of sulphur when present
in the steel to an amount at least five times the sulphur content.





Next: Phosphorus

Previous: Composition And Properties Of Steel



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