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Steel Making

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...



SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found in
steel in small quantities. Some sulphur is contained in the ore
from which the iron is smelted; more sulphur is introduced by the
coke and fuel used. Sulphur is very difficult to get rid of in
steel making; in fact the resulting metal usually contains a little
more than the raw materials used. Only the electric furnace is
able to produce the necessary heat and slags required to eliminate
sulphur, and as a matter of fact the sulphur does not go until
several other impurities have been eliminated. Consequently, an
electric steel with extremely low sulphur (0.02 per cent) is by
that same token a well-made metal.

Sulphur is of most trouble to rolling and forging operations when
conducted at a red heat. It makes steel tender and brittle at that
temperature--a condition known to the workmen as red-short. It
seems to have little or no effect upon the physical properties
of cold steel--at least as revealed by the ordinary testing
machines--consequently many specifications do not set any limit
on sulphur, resting on the idea that if sulphur is low enough not
to cause trouble to the manufacturer during rolling, it will not
cause the user any trouble.

Tool steel and other fine steels should be very low in sulphur,
preferably not higher than 0.03 per cent. Higher sulphur steels
(0.06 per cent, and even up to 0.10 per cent) have given very good
service for machine parts, but in general a high sulphur steel
is a suspicious steel. Screw stock is purposely made with up to
0.12 per cent sulphur and a like amount of phosphorus so it will
cut freely.

Manganese counteracts the detrimental effect of sulphur when present
in the steel to an amount at least five times the sulphur content.

Next: Phosphorus

Previous: Composition And Properties Of Steel

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