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Steel Making

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...



SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found in
steel in small quantities. Some sulphur is contained in the ore
from which the iron is smelted; more sulphur is introduced by the
coke and fuel used. Sulphur is very difficult to get rid of in
steel making; in fact the resulting metal usually contains a little
more than the raw materials used. Only the electric furnace is
able to produce the necessary heat and slags required to eliminate
sulphur, and as a matter of fact the sulphur does not go until
several other impurities have been eliminated. Consequently, an
electric steel with extremely low sulphur (0.02 per cent) is by
that same token a well-made metal.

Sulphur is of most trouble to rolling and forging operations when
conducted at a red heat. It makes steel tender and brittle at that
temperature--a condition known to the workmen as red-short. It
seems to have little or no effect upon the physical properties
of cold steel--at least as revealed by the ordinary testing
machines--consequently many specifications do not set any limit
on sulphur, resting on the idea that if sulphur is low enough not
to cause trouble to the manufacturer during rolling, it will not
cause the user any trouble.

Tool steel and other fine steels should be very low in sulphur,
preferably not higher than 0.03 per cent. Higher sulphur steels
(0.06 per cent, and even up to 0.10 per cent) have given very good
service for machine parts, but in general a high sulphur steel
is a suspicious steel. Screw stock is purposely made with up to
0.12 per cent sulphur and a like amount of phosphorus so it will
cut freely.

Manganese counteracts the detrimental effect of sulphur when present
in the steel to an amount at least five times the sulphur content.

Next: Phosphorus

Previous: Composition And Properties Of Steel

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