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Steel Making

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...



SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found in
steel in small quantities. Some sulphur is contained in the ore
from which the iron is smelted; more sulphur is introduced by the
coke and fuel used. Sulphur is very difficult to get rid of in
steel making; in fact the resulting metal usually contains a little
more than the raw materials used. Only the electric furnace is
able to produce the necessary heat and slags required to eliminate
sulphur, and as a matter of fact the sulphur does not go until
several other impurities have been eliminated. Consequently, an
electric steel with extremely low sulphur (0.02 per cent) is by
that same token a well-made metal.

Sulphur is of most trouble to rolling and forging operations when
conducted at a red heat. It makes steel tender and brittle at that
temperature--a condition known to the workmen as red-short. It
seems to have little or no effect upon the physical properties
of cold steel--at least as revealed by the ordinary testing
machines--consequently many specifications do not set any limit
on sulphur, resting on the idea that if sulphur is low enough not
to cause trouble to the manufacturer during rolling, it will not
cause the user any trouble.

Tool steel and other fine steels should be very low in sulphur,
preferably not higher than 0.03 per cent. Higher sulphur steels
(0.06 per cent, and even up to 0.10 per cent) have given very good
service for machine parts, but in general a high sulphur steel
is a suspicious steel. Screw stock is purposely made with up to
0.12 per cent sulphur and a like amount of phosphorus so it will
cut freely.

Manganese counteracts the detrimental effect of sulphur when present
in the steel to an amount at least five times the sulphur content.

Next: Phosphorus

Previous: Composition And Properties Of Steel

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