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Steel Making

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...



SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found in
steel in small quantities. Some sulphur is contained in the ore
from which the iron is smelted; more sulphur is introduced by the
coke and fuel used. Sulphur is very difficult to get rid of in
steel making; in fact the resulting metal usually contains a little
more than the raw materials used. Only the electric furnace is
able to produce the necessary heat and slags required to eliminate
sulphur, and as a matter of fact the sulphur does not go until
several other impurities have been eliminated. Consequently, an
electric steel with extremely low sulphur (0.02 per cent) is by
that same token a well-made metal.

Sulphur is of most trouble to rolling and forging operations when
conducted at a red heat. It makes steel tender and brittle at that
temperature--a condition known to the workmen as red-short. It
seems to have little or no effect upon the physical properties
of cold steel--at least as revealed by the ordinary testing
machines--consequently many specifications do not set any limit
on sulphur, resting on the idea that if sulphur is low enough not
to cause trouble to the manufacturer during rolling, it will not
cause the user any trouble.

Tool steel and other fine steels should be very low in sulphur,
preferably not higher than 0.03 per cent. Higher sulphur steels
(0.06 per cent, and even up to 0.10 per cent) have given very good
service for machine parts, but in general a high sulphur steel
is a suspicious steel. Screw stock is purposely made with up to
0.12 per cent sulphur and a like amount of phosphorus so it will
cut freely.

Manganese counteracts the detrimental effect of sulphur when present
in the steel to an amount at least five times the sulphur content.

Next: Phosphorus

Previous: Composition And Properties Of Steel

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