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Steel Making

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...



SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found in
steel in small quantities. Some sulphur is contained in the ore
from which the iron is smelted; more sulphur is introduced by the
coke and fuel used. Sulphur is very difficult to get rid of in
steel making; in fact the resulting metal usually contains a little
more than the raw materials used. Only the electric furnace is
able to produce the necessary heat and slags required to eliminate
sulphur, and as a matter of fact the sulphur does not go until
several other impurities have been eliminated. Consequently, an
electric steel with extremely low sulphur (0.02 per cent) is by
that same token a well-made metal.

Sulphur is of most trouble to rolling and forging operations when
conducted at a red heat. It makes steel tender and brittle at that
temperature--a condition known to the workmen as red-short. It
seems to have little or no effect upon the physical properties
of cold steel--at least as revealed by the ordinary testing
machines--consequently many specifications do not set any limit
on sulphur, resting on the idea that if sulphur is low enough not
to cause trouble to the manufacturer during rolling, it will not
cause the user any trouble.

Tool steel and other fine steels should be very low in sulphur,
preferably not higher than 0.03 per cent. Higher sulphur steels
(0.06 per cent, and even up to 0.10 per cent) have given very good
service for machine parts, but in general a high sulphur steel
is a suspicious steel. Screw stock is purposely made with up to
0.12 per cent sulphur and a like amount of phosphorus so it will
cut freely.

Manganese counteracts the detrimental effect of sulphur when present
in the steel to an amount at least five times the sulphur content.

Next: Phosphorus

Previous: Composition And Properties Of Steel

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