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Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...



SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found in
steel in small quantities. Some sulphur is contained in the ore
from which the iron is smelted; more sulphur is introduced by the
coke and fuel used. Sulphur is very difficult to get rid of in
steel making; in fact the resulting metal usually contains a little
more than the raw materials used. Only the electric furnace is
able to produce the necessary heat and slags required to eliminate
sulphur, and as a matter of fact the sulphur does not go until
several other impurities have been eliminated. Consequently, an
electric steel with extremely low sulphur (0.02 per cent) is by
that same token a well-made metal.

Sulphur is of most trouble to rolling and forging operations when
conducted at a red heat. It makes steel tender and brittle at that
temperature--a condition known to the workmen as red-short. It
seems to have little or no effect upon the physical properties
of cold steel--at least as revealed by the ordinary testing
machines--consequently many specifications do not set any limit
on sulphur, resting on the idea that if sulphur is low enough not
to cause trouble to the manufacturer during rolling, it will not
cause the user any trouble.

Tool steel and other fine steels should be very low in sulphur,
preferably not higher than 0.03 per cent. Higher sulphur steels
(0.06 per cent, and even up to 0.10 per cent) have given very good
service for machine parts, but in general a high sulphur steel
is a suspicious steel. Screw stock is purposely made with up to
0.12 per cent sulphur and a like amount of phosphorus so it will
cut freely.

Manganese counteracts the detrimental effect of sulphur when present
in the steel to an amount at least five times the sulphur content.

Next: Phosphorus

Previous: Composition And Properties Of Steel

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