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Steel Making

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...



SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found in
steel in small quantities. Some sulphur is contained in the ore
from which the iron is smelted; more sulphur is introduced by the
coke and fuel used. Sulphur is very difficult to get rid of in
steel making; in fact the resulting metal usually contains a little
more than the raw materials used. Only the electric furnace is
able to produce the necessary heat and slags required to eliminate
sulphur, and as a matter of fact the sulphur does not go until
several other impurities have been eliminated. Consequently, an
electric steel with extremely low sulphur (0.02 per cent) is by
that same token a well-made metal.

Sulphur is of most trouble to rolling and forging operations when
conducted at a red heat. It makes steel tender and brittle at that
temperature--a condition known to the workmen as red-short. It
seems to have little or no effect upon the physical properties
of cold steel--at least as revealed by the ordinary testing
machines--consequently many specifications do not set any limit
on sulphur, resting on the idea that if sulphur is low enough not
to cause trouble to the manufacturer during rolling, it will not
cause the user any trouble.

Tool steel and other fine steels should be very low in sulphur,
preferably not higher than 0.03 per cent. Higher sulphur steels
(0.06 per cent, and even up to 0.10 per cent) have given very good
service for machine parts, but in general a high sulphur steel
is a suspicious steel. Screw stock is purposely made with up to
0.12 per cent sulphur and a like amount of phosphorus so it will
cut freely.

Manganese counteracts the detrimental effect of sulphur when present
in the steel to an amount at least five times the sulphur content.

Next: Phosphorus

Previous: Composition And Properties Of Steel

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