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Steel Making

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...



SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found in
steel in small quantities. Some sulphur is contained in the ore
from which the iron is smelted; more sulphur is introduced by the
coke and fuel used. Sulphur is very difficult to get rid of in
steel making; in fact the resulting metal usually contains a little
more than the raw materials used. Only the electric furnace is
able to produce the necessary heat and slags required to eliminate
sulphur, and as a matter of fact the sulphur does not go until
several other impurities have been eliminated. Consequently, an
electric steel with extremely low sulphur (0.02 per cent) is by
that same token a well-made metal.

Sulphur is of most trouble to rolling and forging operations when
conducted at a red heat. It makes steel tender and brittle at that
temperature--a condition known to the workmen as red-short. It
seems to have little or no effect upon the physical properties
of cold steel--at least as revealed by the ordinary testing
machines--consequently many specifications do not set any limit
on sulphur, resting on the idea that if sulphur is low enough not
to cause trouble to the manufacturer during rolling, it will not
cause the user any trouble.

Tool steel and other fine steels should be very low in sulphur,
preferably not higher than 0.03 per cent. Higher sulphur steels
(0.06 per cent, and even up to 0.10 per cent) have given very good
service for machine parts, but in general a high sulphur steel
is a suspicious steel. Screw stock is purposely made with up to
0.12 per cent sulphur and a like amount of phosphorus so it will
cut freely.

Manganese counteracts the detrimental effect of sulphur when present
in the steel to an amount at least five times the sulphur content.

Next: Phosphorus

Previous: Composition And Properties Of Steel

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