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Steel Making

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...



SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found in
steel in small quantities. Some sulphur is contained in the ore
from which the iron is smelted; more sulphur is introduced by the
coke and fuel used. Sulphur is very difficult to get rid of in
steel making; in fact the resulting metal usually contains a little
more than the raw materials used. Only the electric furnace is
able to produce the necessary heat and slags required to eliminate
sulphur, and as a matter of fact the sulphur does not go until
several other impurities have been eliminated. Consequently, an
electric steel with extremely low sulphur (0.02 per cent) is by
that same token a well-made metal.

Sulphur is of most trouble to rolling and forging operations when
conducted at a red heat. It makes steel tender and brittle at that
temperature--a condition known to the workmen as red-short. It
seems to have little or no effect upon the physical properties
of cold steel--at least as revealed by the ordinary testing
machines--consequently many specifications do not set any limit
on sulphur, resting on the idea that if sulphur is low enough not
to cause trouble to the manufacturer during rolling, it will not
cause the user any trouble.

Tool steel and other fine steels should be very low in sulphur,
preferably not higher than 0.03 per cent. Higher sulphur steels
(0.06 per cent, and even up to 0.10 per cent) have given very good
service for machine parts, but in general a high sulphur steel
is a suspicious steel. Screw stock is purposely made with up to
0.12 per cent sulphur and a like amount of phosphorus so it will
cut freely.

Manganese counteracts the detrimental effect of sulphur when present
in the steel to an amount at least five times the sulphur content.

Next: Phosphorus

Previous: Composition And Properties Of Steel

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