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Steel Making

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...



SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found in
steel in small quantities. Some sulphur is contained in the ore
from which the iron is smelted; more sulphur is introduced by the
coke and fuel used. Sulphur is very difficult to get rid of in
steel making; in fact the resulting metal usually contains a little
more than the raw materials used. Only the electric furnace is
able to produce the necessary heat and slags required to eliminate
sulphur, and as a matter of fact the sulphur does not go until
several other impurities have been eliminated. Consequently, an
electric steel with extremely low sulphur (0.02 per cent) is by
that same token a well-made metal.

Sulphur is of most trouble to rolling and forging operations when
conducted at a red heat. It makes steel tender and brittle at that
temperature--a condition known to the workmen as red-short. It
seems to have little or no effect upon the physical properties
of cold steel--at least as revealed by the ordinary testing
machines--consequently many specifications do not set any limit
on sulphur, resting on the idea that if sulphur is low enough not
to cause trouble to the manufacturer during rolling, it will not
cause the user any trouble.

Tool steel and other fine steels should be very low in sulphur,
preferably not higher than 0.03 per cent. Higher sulphur steels
(0.06 per cent, and even up to 0.10 per cent) have given very good
service for machine parts, but in general a high sulphur steel
is a suspicious steel. Screw stock is purposely made with up to
0.12 per cent sulphur and a like amount of phosphorus so it will
cut freely.

Manganese counteracts the detrimental effect of sulphur when present
in the steel to an amount at least five times the sulphur content.

Next: Phosphorus

Previous: Composition And Properties Of Steel

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