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Steel Making

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Temperature Recording And Regulation


Each furnace is equipped
with pyrometers, but the reading and recording of all temperatures
are in the hands of one man, who occupies a room with an opening
into the end of the hardening department. The opening is about 15
ft. above the floor level. On each side of it, easily legible from
all of the furnaces, is a board with the numbers of the various
furnaces, as shown in Figs. 59 and 60. Opposite each furnace number
is a series of hooks whereon are hung metal numbers representing the
pyrometer readings of the temperature in that particular furnace.
Within the room, as shown in Fig. 60, the indicating instrument
is to the right, and to the left is a switchboard to connect it
with the thermo-couples in the various furnaces. The boards shown
to the right and the left swing into the room, which enables the
attendant easily to change the numbers to conform to the pyrometer
readings. Readings of the temperatures of the carburizing furnaces
are taken and tabulated every ten minutes. These, numbered 1 to
10, are shown on the board to the right in Fig. 59. The card shown
in Fig. 61 gives such a record. These records are filed away for
possible future reference.

The temperatures of the reheating furnaces, numbered from 1 to
26 and shown on the board to the left in Fig. 59, are taken every
5 min.

Each furnace has a large metal sign on which is marked the temperature
at which the furnace regulator is required to keep his heat. As
soon as any variation from this is posted on the board outside
the pyrometer room, the attendant sees it and adjusts the burners
to compensate.

of dies for the Gleason tempering machine. These accurately made
dies fit and hold the gear true during quenching, thus preventing

Next: Hardening Operation

Previous: Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment

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