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Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Temperature Recording And Regulation


Each furnace is equipped
with pyrometers, but the reading and recording of all temperatures
are in the hands of one man, who occupies a room with an opening
into the end of the hardening department. The opening is about 15
ft. above the floor level. On each side of it, easily legible from
all of the furnaces, is a board with the numbers of the various
furnaces, as shown in Figs. 59 and 60. Opposite each furnace number
is a series of hooks whereon are hung metal numbers representing the
pyrometer readings of the temperature in that particular furnace.
Within the room, as shown in Fig. 60, the indicating instrument
is to the right, and to the left is a switchboard to connect it
with the thermo-couples in the various furnaces. The boards shown
to the right and the left swing into the room, which enables the
attendant easily to change the numbers to conform to the pyrometer
readings. Readings of the temperatures of the carburizing furnaces
are taken and tabulated every ten minutes. These, numbered 1 to
10, are shown on the board to the right in Fig. 59. The card shown
in Fig. 61 gives such a record. These records are filed away for
possible future reference.

The temperatures of the reheating furnaces, numbered from 1 to
26 and shown on the board to the left in Fig. 59, are taken every
5 min.

Each furnace has a large metal sign on which is marked the temperature
at which the furnace regulator is required to keep his heat. As
soon as any variation from this is posted on the board outside
the pyrometer room, the attendant sees it and adjusts the burners
to compensate.

of dies for the Gleason tempering machine. These accurately made
dies fit and hold the gear true during quenching, thus preventing

Next: Hardening Operation

Previous: Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment

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