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Steel Making

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...



Temperature Recording And Regulation






Category: HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

Each furnace is equipped
with pyrometers, but the reading and recording of all temperatures
are in the hands of one man, who occupies a room with an opening
into the end of the hardening department. The opening is about 15
ft. above the floor level. On each side of it, easily legible from
all of the furnaces, is a board with the numbers of the various
furnaces, as shown in Figs. 59 and 60. Opposite each furnace number
is a series of hooks whereon are hung metal numbers representing the
pyrometer readings of the temperature in that particular furnace.
Within the room, as shown in Fig. 60, the indicating instrument
is to the right, and to the left is a switchboard to connect it
with the thermo-couples in the various furnaces. The boards shown
to the right and the left swing into the room, which enables the
attendant easily to change the numbers to conform to the pyrometer
readings. Readings of the temperatures of the carburizing furnaces
are taken and tabulated every ten minutes. These, numbered 1 to
10, are shown on the board to the right in Fig. 59. The card shown
in Fig. 61 gives such a record. These records are filed away for
possible future reference.



The temperatures of the reheating furnaces, numbered from 1 to
26 and shown on the board to the left in Fig. 59, are taken every
5 min.

Each furnace has a large metal sign on which is marked the temperature
at which the furnace regulator is required to keep his heat. As
soon as any variation from this is posted on the board outside
the pyrometer room, the attendant sees it and adjusts the burners
to compensate.




DIES FOR GLEASON TEMPERING MACHINES.--In Fig. 62 is shown a set
of dies for the Gleason tempering machine. These accurately made
dies fit and hold the gear true during quenching, thus preventing
distortion.





Next: Hardening Operation

Previous: Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment



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