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Steel Making

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Temperature Recording And Regulation


Each furnace is equipped
with pyrometers, but the reading and recording of all temperatures
are in the hands of one man, who occupies a room with an opening
into the end of the hardening department. The opening is about 15
ft. above the floor level. On each side of it, easily legible from
all of the furnaces, is a board with the numbers of the various
furnaces, as shown in Figs. 59 and 60. Opposite each furnace number
is a series of hooks whereon are hung metal numbers representing the
pyrometer readings of the temperature in that particular furnace.
Within the room, as shown in Fig. 60, the indicating instrument
is to the right, and to the left is a switchboard to connect it
with the thermo-couples in the various furnaces. The boards shown
to the right and the left swing into the room, which enables the
attendant easily to change the numbers to conform to the pyrometer
readings. Readings of the temperatures of the carburizing furnaces
are taken and tabulated every ten minutes. These, numbered 1 to
10, are shown on the board to the right in Fig. 59. The card shown
in Fig. 61 gives such a record. These records are filed away for
possible future reference.

The temperatures of the reheating furnaces, numbered from 1 to
26 and shown on the board to the left in Fig. 59, are taken every
5 min.

Each furnace has a large metal sign on which is marked the temperature
at which the furnace regulator is required to keep his heat. As
soon as any variation from this is posted on the board outside
the pyrometer room, the attendant sees it and adjusts the burners
to compensate.

of dies for the Gleason tempering machine. These accurately made
dies fit and hold the gear true during quenching, thus preventing

Next: Hardening Operation

Previous: Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment

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