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Steel Making

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Temperature Recording And Regulation


Each furnace is equipped
with pyrometers, but the reading and recording of all temperatures
are in the hands of one man, who occupies a room with an opening
into the end of the hardening department. The opening is about 15
ft. above the floor level. On each side of it, easily legible from
all of the furnaces, is a board with the numbers of the various
furnaces, as shown in Figs. 59 and 60. Opposite each furnace number
is a series of hooks whereon are hung metal numbers representing the
pyrometer readings of the temperature in that particular furnace.
Within the room, as shown in Fig. 60, the indicating instrument
is to the right, and to the left is a switchboard to connect it
with the thermo-couples in the various furnaces. The boards shown
to the right and the left swing into the room, which enables the
attendant easily to change the numbers to conform to the pyrometer
readings. Readings of the temperatures of the carburizing furnaces
are taken and tabulated every ten minutes. These, numbered 1 to
10, are shown on the board to the right in Fig. 59. The card shown
in Fig. 61 gives such a record. These records are filed away for
possible future reference.

The temperatures of the reheating furnaces, numbered from 1 to
26 and shown on the board to the left in Fig. 59, are taken every
5 min.

Each furnace has a large metal sign on which is marked the temperature
at which the furnace regulator is required to keep his heat. As
soon as any variation from this is posted on the board outside
the pyrometer room, the attendant sees it and adjusts the burners
to compensate.

of dies for the Gleason tempering machine. These accurately made
dies fit and hold the gear true during quenching, thus preventing

Next: Hardening Operation

Previous: Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment

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