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Steel Making

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Temperature Recording And Regulation


Each furnace is equipped
with pyrometers, but the reading and recording of all temperatures
are in the hands of one man, who occupies a room with an opening
into the end of the hardening department. The opening is about 15
ft. above the floor level. On each side of it, easily legible from
all of the furnaces, is a board with the numbers of the various
furnaces, as shown in Figs. 59 and 60. Opposite each furnace number
is a series of hooks whereon are hung metal numbers representing the
pyrometer readings of the temperature in that particular furnace.
Within the room, as shown in Fig. 60, the indicating instrument
is to the right, and to the left is a switchboard to connect it
with the thermo-couples in the various furnaces. The boards shown
to the right and the left swing into the room, which enables the
attendant easily to change the numbers to conform to the pyrometer
readings. Readings of the temperatures of the carburizing furnaces
are taken and tabulated every ten minutes. These, numbered 1 to
10, are shown on the board to the right in Fig. 59. The card shown
in Fig. 61 gives such a record. These records are filed away for
possible future reference.

The temperatures of the reheating furnaces, numbered from 1 to
26 and shown on the board to the left in Fig. 59, are taken every
5 min.

Each furnace has a large metal sign on which is marked the temperature
at which the furnace regulator is required to keep his heat. As
soon as any variation from this is posted on the board outside
the pyrometer room, the attendant sees it and adjusts the burners
to compensate.

of dies for the Gleason tempering machine. These accurately made
dies fit and hold the gear true during quenching, thus preventing

Next: Hardening Operation

Previous: Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment

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