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Steel Making

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Annealing
ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...



Temperature Recording And Regulation






Category: HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

Each furnace is equipped
with pyrometers, but the reading and recording of all temperatures
are in the hands of one man, who occupies a room with an opening
into the end of the hardening department. The opening is about 15
ft. above the floor level. On each side of it, easily legible from
all of the furnaces, is a board with the numbers of the various
furnaces, as shown in Figs. 59 and 60. Opposite each furnace number
is a series of hooks whereon are hung metal numbers representing the
pyrometer readings of the temperature in that particular furnace.
Within the room, as shown in Fig. 60, the indicating instrument
is to the right, and to the left is a switchboard to connect it
with the thermo-couples in the various furnaces. The boards shown
to the right and the left swing into the room, which enables the
attendant easily to change the numbers to conform to the pyrometer
readings. Readings of the temperatures of the carburizing furnaces
are taken and tabulated every ten minutes. These, numbered 1 to
10, are shown on the board to the right in Fig. 59. The card shown
in Fig. 61 gives such a record. These records are filed away for
possible future reference.



The temperatures of the reheating furnaces, numbered from 1 to
26 and shown on the board to the left in Fig. 59, are taken every
5 min.

Each furnace has a large metal sign on which is marked the temperature
at which the furnace regulator is required to keep his heat. As
soon as any variation from this is posted on the board outside
the pyrometer room, the attendant sees it and adjusts the burners
to compensate.




DIES FOR GLEASON TEMPERING MACHINES.--In Fig. 62 is shown a set
of dies for the Gleason tempering machine. These accurately made
dies fit and hold the gear true during quenching, thus preventing
distortion.





Next: Hardening Operation

Previous: Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment



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