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Steel Making

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Temperature Recording And Regulation


Each furnace is equipped
with pyrometers, but the reading and recording of all temperatures
are in the hands of one man, who occupies a room with an opening
into the end of the hardening department. The opening is about 15
ft. above the floor level. On each side of it, easily legible from
all of the furnaces, is a board with the numbers of the various
furnaces, as shown in Figs. 59 and 60. Opposite each furnace number
is a series of hooks whereon are hung metal numbers representing the
pyrometer readings of the temperature in that particular furnace.
Within the room, as shown in Fig. 60, the indicating instrument
is to the right, and to the left is a switchboard to connect it
with the thermo-couples in the various furnaces. The boards shown
to the right and the left swing into the room, which enables the
attendant easily to change the numbers to conform to the pyrometer
readings. Readings of the temperatures of the carburizing furnaces
are taken and tabulated every ten minutes. These, numbered 1 to
10, are shown on the board to the right in Fig. 59. The card shown
in Fig. 61 gives such a record. These records are filed away for
possible future reference.

The temperatures of the reheating furnaces, numbered from 1 to
26 and shown on the board to the left in Fig. 59, are taken every
5 min.

Each furnace has a large metal sign on which is marked the temperature
at which the furnace regulator is required to keep his heat. As
soon as any variation from this is posted on the board outside
the pyrometer room, the attendant sees it and adjusts the burners
to compensate.

of dies for the Gleason tempering machine. These accurately made
dies fit and hold the gear true during quenching, thus preventing

Next: Hardening Operation

Previous: Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment

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