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Steel Making

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Temperature Recording And Regulation


Each furnace is equipped
with pyrometers, but the reading and recording of all temperatures
are in the hands of one man, who occupies a room with an opening
into the end of the hardening department. The opening is about 15
ft. above the floor level. On each side of it, easily legible from
all of the furnaces, is a board with the numbers of the various
furnaces, as shown in Figs. 59 and 60. Opposite each furnace number
is a series of hooks whereon are hung metal numbers representing the
pyrometer readings of the temperature in that particular furnace.
Within the room, as shown in Fig. 60, the indicating instrument
is to the right, and to the left is a switchboard to connect it
with the thermo-couples in the various furnaces. The boards shown
to the right and the left swing into the room, which enables the
attendant easily to change the numbers to conform to the pyrometer
readings. Readings of the temperatures of the carburizing furnaces
are taken and tabulated every ten minutes. These, numbered 1 to
10, are shown on the board to the right in Fig. 59. The card shown
in Fig. 61 gives such a record. These records are filed away for
possible future reference.

The temperatures of the reheating furnaces, numbered from 1 to
26 and shown on the board to the left in Fig. 59, are taken every
5 min.

Each furnace has a large metal sign on which is marked the temperature
at which the furnace regulator is required to keep his heat. As
soon as any variation from this is posted on the board outside
the pyrometer room, the attendant sees it and adjusts the burners
to compensate.

of dies for the Gleason tempering machine. These accurately made
dies fit and hold the gear true during quenching, thus preventing

Next: Hardening Operation

Previous: Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment

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