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Steel Making

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Temperature Recording And Regulation


Each furnace is equipped
with pyrometers, but the reading and recording of all temperatures
are in the hands of one man, who occupies a room with an opening
into the end of the hardening department. The opening is about 15
ft. above the floor level. On each side of it, easily legible from
all of the furnaces, is a board with the numbers of the various
furnaces, as shown in Figs. 59 and 60. Opposite each furnace number
is a series of hooks whereon are hung metal numbers representing the
pyrometer readings of the temperature in that particular furnace.
Within the room, as shown in Fig. 60, the indicating instrument
is to the right, and to the left is a switchboard to connect it
with the thermo-couples in the various furnaces. The boards shown
to the right and the left swing into the room, which enables the
attendant easily to change the numbers to conform to the pyrometer
readings. Readings of the temperatures of the carburizing furnaces
are taken and tabulated every ten minutes. These, numbered 1 to
10, are shown on the board to the right in Fig. 59. The card shown
in Fig. 61 gives such a record. These records are filed away for
possible future reference.

The temperatures of the reheating furnaces, numbered from 1 to
26 and shown on the board to the left in Fig. 59, are taken every
5 min.

Each furnace has a large metal sign on which is marked the temperature
at which the furnace regulator is required to keep his heat. As
soon as any variation from this is posted on the board outside
the pyrometer room, the attendant sees it and adjusts the burners
to compensate.

of dies for the Gleason tempering machine. These accurately made
dies fit and hold the gear true during quenching, thus preventing

Next: Hardening Operation

Previous: Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment

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