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Steel Making

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Temperature Recording And Regulation


Each furnace is equipped
with pyrometers, but the reading and recording of all temperatures
are in the hands of one man, who occupies a room with an opening
into the end of the hardening department. The opening is about 15
ft. above the floor level. On each side of it, easily legible from
all of the furnaces, is a board with the numbers of the various
furnaces, as shown in Figs. 59 and 60. Opposite each furnace number
is a series of hooks whereon are hung metal numbers representing the
pyrometer readings of the temperature in that particular furnace.
Within the room, as shown in Fig. 60, the indicating instrument
is to the right, and to the left is a switchboard to connect it
with the thermo-couples in the various furnaces. The boards shown
to the right and the left swing into the room, which enables the
attendant easily to change the numbers to conform to the pyrometer
readings. Readings of the temperatures of the carburizing furnaces
are taken and tabulated every ten minutes. These, numbered 1 to
10, are shown on the board to the right in Fig. 59. The card shown
in Fig. 61 gives such a record. These records are filed away for
possible future reference.

The temperatures of the reheating furnaces, numbered from 1 to
26 and shown on the board to the left in Fig. 59, are taken every
5 min.

Each furnace has a large metal sign on which is marked the temperature
at which the furnace regulator is required to keep his heat. As
soon as any variation from this is posted on the board outside
the pyrometer room, the attendant sees it and adjusts the burners
to compensate.

of dies for the Gleason tempering machine. These accurately made
dies fit and hold the gear true during quenching, thus preventing

Next: Hardening Operation

Previous: Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment

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