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   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...



Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels






Category: HIGH-SPEED STEEL

Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by the
various colors, or oxides, which appear on steel in tempering.

The figures shown are from five different sources and while the
variations are not great, it is safer to take the average temperature
shown in the last column.

TABLE 25.--COLORS, TEMPERATURES, DEGREES FAHRENHEIT
----------------------------------------------------------
A B C D E Average
----------------------------------------------------
Faint yellow 430 430 430 430 430 430
Light straw 475 460 450 ... 450 458
Dark straw 500 500 470 450 470 478
Purple (reddish) 525 530 520 530 510 523
Purple (bluish) ... 555 550 550 550 551
Blue 575 585 560 580 560 572
Gray blue ... 600 ... 600 610 603
Greenish blue ... 625 ... ... 630 627
----------------------------------------------------------

TABLE 26.--ANOTHER COLOR TABLE
----------------------------------------------------------
Degrees
Fahrenheit High temperatures judged by color
---------------------------------------------------------
430 Very pale yellow
460 Straw-yellow
480 Dark yellow
500 Brown-yellow > Visible in full daylight
520 Brown-purple
540 Full purple
560 Full blue
600 Very dark blue /
752 Red heat, visible in the dark
885 Red heat, visible in the twilight
975 Red heat, visible in the daylight
1,292 Dark red
1,652 Cherry-red
1,832 Bright cherry-red
2,012 Orange-red
2,192 Orange-yellow
2,372 Yellow-white
2,552 White welding heat
2,732 Brilliant white
2,912 Dazzling white (bluish-white)
----------------------------------------------------------

These differences might easily be due to the difference in the light
at the time the colors were observed. It must also be remembered
that even a thin coating of oil will make quite a difference and
cause confusion. It is these possible sources of error, coupled
with the ever present chance of human error, that makes it advisable
to draw the temper of tools in an oil bath heated to the proper
temperature as shown by an accurate high-temperature thermometer.

Another table, by Gilbert and Barker, runs to much higher temperatures.
Beyond 2,200 deg., however, the eye is very uncertain.

TABLE 26.--COLORS FOR TEMPERING TOOLS
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Approximate
color and Kind of tool
temperature
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Yellow Thread chasers, hollow mills (solid type) twist drills
430 to 450 deg.F. centering tools, forming tools, cut-off tools, profile
cutters, milling cutters, reamers, dies, etc.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Straw-yellow Thread rolling dies, counterbores, countersinks. Shear
460 deg.F. blades, boring tools, engraving tools, etc.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Brown-yellow Taps, Thread dies, cutters, reamers, etc.
500 deg.F.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Light purple Taps, dies, rock drills, knives, punches, gages, etc.
530 deg.F.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Dark purple Circular saws for metal, augers, dental and surgical
550 deg.F. instruments, cold chisels, axes.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Pale blue Bone saws, chisels, needles, cutters, etc.
580 deg.F.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Blue Hack saws, wood saws, springs, etc.
600 deg.F.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------





Next: High Speed Steel

Previous: The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages



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