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Steel Making

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium



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