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Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese
Previous: Nickel-chromium



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