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Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium



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