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Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Manganese
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium



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