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Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...



Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.

Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium

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