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Steel Making

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese
Previous: Nickel-chromium



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