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Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium



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