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Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Hardening
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Pyrometers
Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium



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