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Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Hardening
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese
Previous: Nickel-chromium



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