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Steel Making

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...



Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.

Next: Manganese
Previous: Nickel-chromium

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