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Steel Making

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Manganese
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Crankshaft
The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium



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