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Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...



Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.

Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium

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