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Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Manganese
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Annealing
There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese
Previous: Nickel-chromium



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