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The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...



Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.

Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium

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