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The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Hardening
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium



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