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Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Manganese
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Annealing
There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese
Previous: Nickel-chromium



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