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Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium



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