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Steel Making

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...



Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.

Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium

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