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Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium



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