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Steel Making

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Hardening
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium



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