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Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Manganese
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Pyrometers
Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium



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