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Steel Making

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Machineability
Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Crankshaft
The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium



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