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Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Pyrometers
Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Annealing
ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium



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