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Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...



Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.

Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium

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