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Steel Making

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese
Previous: Nickel-chromium



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