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Steel Making

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Annealing
ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Machineability
Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Hardening
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese
Previous: Nickel-chromium



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