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Steel Making

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...



Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.

Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium

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