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Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...



Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.

Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium

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