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Steel Making

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Annealing
There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese
Previous: Nickel-chromium



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