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Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...



Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.

Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium

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