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Steel Making

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...



Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.

Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium

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