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The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium



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