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Steel Making

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...



Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.

Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium

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