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   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Annealing
There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium



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