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   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Crankshaft
The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium



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