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Steel Making

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Pyrometers
Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese
Previous: Nickel-chromium



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