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   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese
Previous: Nickel-chromium



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