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Steel Making

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Manganese
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Crankshaft
The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium



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