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Steel Making

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...



Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.

Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium

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