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Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...



Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.

Next: Manganese

Previous: Nickel-chromium

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