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Steel Making

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Crankshaft
The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese
Previous: Nickel-chromium



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