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Steel Making

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...



Vanadium






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very
low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon
steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium
is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing
the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has
the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or
that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution
with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines
with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium
steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium
steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to
which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably.
It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of soaking takes
place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all
alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon,
iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening.
When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior
endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties
due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this
peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing
the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the
metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects.
Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers
and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not
wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that
the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared
with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering
into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by
nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a
stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than
the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two
systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium
steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems,
neither should nickel-chromium.





Next: Manganese
Previous: Nickel-chromium



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