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Steel Making

Machineability
Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Annealing
ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...



Steel Worked In Austenitic State






Category: THE FORGING OF STEEL

As a general rule steel should
be worked when it is in the austenitic state. (See page 108.) It
is then soft and ductile.

As the steel is heated above the critical temperature the size of
the austenite crystals tends to grow rapidly. When forging starts,
however, these grains are broken up. The growth is continually
destroyed by the hammering, which should consequently be continued
down to the upper critical temperature when the austenite crystals
break up into ferrite and cementite. The size of the final grains
will be much smaller and hence a more uniform structure will result
if the mother austenite was also fine grained. A final steel
will be composed of pearlite; ferrite and pearlite; or cementite
and pearlite, according to the carbon content.

The ultimate object is to secure a fine, uniform grain throughout
the piece and this can be secured by uniform heating and by thoroughly
rolling it or working it at a temperature just down to its critical
point. If this is correctly done the fracture will be fine and
silky. Steel which has been overheated slightly and the forging
stopped at too high a temperature will show a granular fracture.
A badly overheated or burned steel will have iridescent colors
on a fresh fracture, it will be brittle both hot and cold, and
absolutely ruined.





Next: Steel Can Be Worked Cold

Previous: Heating



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