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Steel Making

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State


As a general rule steel should
be worked when it is in the austenitic state. (See page 108.) It
is then soft and ductile.

As the steel is heated above the critical temperature the size of
the austenite crystals tends to grow rapidly. When forging starts,
however, these grains are broken up. The growth is continually
destroyed by the hammering, which should consequently be continued
down to the upper critical temperature when the austenite crystals
break up into ferrite and cementite. The size of the final grains
will be much smaller and hence a more uniform structure will result
if the mother austenite was also fine grained. A final steel
will be composed of pearlite; ferrite and pearlite; or cementite
and pearlite, according to the carbon content.

The ultimate object is to secure a fine, uniform grain throughout
the piece and this can be secured by uniform heating and by thoroughly
rolling it or working it at a temperature just down to its critical
point. If this is correctly done the fracture will be fine and
silky. Steel which has been overheated slightly and the forging
stopped at too high a temperature will show a granular fracture.
A badly overheated or burned steel will have iridescent colors
on a fresh fracture, it will be brittle both hot and cold, and
absolutely ruined.

Next: Steel Can Be Worked Cold

Previous: Heating

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