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Steel Making

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...



Steel Worked In Austenitic State






Category: THE FORGING OF STEEL

As a general rule steel should
be worked when it is in the austenitic state. (See page 108.) It
is then soft and ductile.

As the steel is heated above the critical temperature the size of
the austenite crystals tends to grow rapidly. When forging starts,
however, these grains are broken up. The growth is continually
destroyed by the hammering, which should consequently be continued
down to the upper critical temperature when the austenite crystals
break up into ferrite and cementite. The size of the final grains
will be much smaller and hence a more uniform structure will result
if the mother austenite was also fine grained. A final steel
will be composed of pearlite; ferrite and pearlite; or cementite
and pearlite, according to the carbon content.

The ultimate object is to secure a fine, uniform grain throughout
the piece and this can be secured by uniform heating and by thoroughly
rolling it or working it at a temperature just down to its critical
point. If this is correctly done the fracture will be fine and
silky. Steel which has been overheated slightly and the forging
stopped at too high a temperature will show a granular fracture.
A badly overheated or burned steel will have iridescent colors
on a fresh fracture, it will be brittle both hot and cold, and
absolutely ruined.





Next: Steel Can Be Worked Cold

Previous: Heating



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