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Steel Making

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Pyrometers
Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Crankshaft
The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...



Steel Worked In Austenitic State






Category: THE FORGING OF STEEL

As a general rule steel should
be worked when it is in the austenitic state. (See page 108.) It
is then soft and ductile.

As the steel is heated above the critical temperature the size of
the austenite crystals tends to grow rapidly. When forging starts,
however, these grains are broken up. The growth is continually
destroyed by the hammering, which should consequently be continued
down to the upper critical temperature when the austenite crystals
break up into ferrite and cementite. The size of the final grains
will be much smaller and hence a more uniform structure will result
if the mother austenite was also fine grained. A final steel
will be composed of pearlite; ferrite and pearlite; or cementite
and pearlite, according to the carbon content.

The ultimate object is to secure a fine, uniform grain throughout
the piece and this can be secured by uniform heating and by thoroughly
rolling it or working it at a temperature just down to its critical
point. If this is correctly done the fracture will be fine and
silky. Steel which has been overheated slightly and the forging
stopped at too high a temperature will show a granular fracture.
A badly overheated or burned steel will have iridescent colors
on a fresh fracture, it will be brittle both hot and cold, and
absolutely ruined.





Next: Steel Can Be Worked Cold

Previous: Heating



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