(1) Cadaveric appearance; ashy white colour. (2) Cessation of the circulation and respiration, no sound being heard by the stethoscope. Cessation of the circulation may be determined by (a) placing a ligature round the base of a finger (Ma... Read more of Signs Of Death at Forensic Medicine.caInformational Site Network Informational
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Steel Making

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Pyrometers
Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Annealing
ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...



Steel Worked In Austenitic State






Category: THE FORGING OF STEEL

As a general rule steel should
be worked when it is in the austenitic state. (See page 108.) It
is then soft and ductile.

As the steel is heated above the critical temperature the size of
the austenite crystals tends to grow rapidly. When forging starts,
however, these grains are broken up. The growth is continually
destroyed by the hammering, which should consequently be continued
down to the upper critical temperature when the austenite crystals
break up into ferrite and cementite. The size of the final grains
will be much smaller and hence a more uniform structure will result
if the mother austenite was also fine grained. A final steel
will be composed of pearlite; ferrite and pearlite; or cementite
and pearlite, according to the carbon content.

The ultimate object is to secure a fine, uniform grain throughout
the piece and this can be secured by uniform heating and by thoroughly
rolling it or working it at a temperature just down to its critical
point. If this is correctly done the fracture will be fine and
silky. Steel which has been overheated slightly and the forging
stopped at too high a temperature will show a granular fracture.
A badly overheated or burned steel will have iridescent colors
on a fresh fracture, it will be brittle both hot and cold, and
absolutely ruined.





Next: Steel Can Be Worked Cold

Previous: Heating



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