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Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...



Steel Worked In Austenitic State






Category: THE FORGING OF STEEL

As a general rule steel should
be worked when it is in the austenitic state. (See page 108.) It
is then soft and ductile.

As the steel is heated above the critical temperature the size of
the austenite crystals tends to grow rapidly. When forging starts,
however, these grains are broken up. The growth is continually
destroyed by the hammering, which should consequently be continued
down to the upper critical temperature when the austenite crystals
break up into ferrite and cementite. The size of the final grains
will be much smaller and hence a more uniform structure will result
if the mother austenite was also fine grained. A final steel
will be composed of pearlite; ferrite and pearlite; or cementite
and pearlite, according to the carbon content.

The ultimate object is to secure a fine, uniform grain throughout
the piece and this can be secured by uniform heating and by thoroughly
rolling it or working it at a temperature just down to its critical
point. If this is correctly done the fracture will be fine and
silky. Steel which has been overheated slightly and the forging
stopped at too high a temperature will show a granular fracture.
A badly overheated or burned steel will have iridescent colors
on a fresh fracture, it will be brittle both hot and cold, and
absolutely ruined.





Next: Steel Can Be Worked Cold

Previous: Heating



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