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Steel Making

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...



Steel Worked In Austenitic State






Category: THE FORGING OF STEEL

As a general rule steel should
be worked when it is in the austenitic state. (See page 108.) It
is then soft and ductile.

As the steel is heated above the critical temperature the size of
the austenite crystals tends to grow rapidly. When forging starts,
however, these grains are broken up. The growth is continually
destroyed by the hammering, which should consequently be continued
down to the upper critical temperature when the austenite crystals
break up into ferrite and cementite. The size of the final grains
will be much smaller and hence a more uniform structure will result
if the mother austenite was also fine grained. A final steel
will be composed of pearlite; ferrite and pearlite; or cementite
and pearlite, according to the carbon content.

The ultimate object is to secure a fine, uniform grain throughout
the piece and this can be secured by uniform heating and by thoroughly
rolling it or working it at a temperature just down to its critical
point. If this is correctly done the fracture will be fine and
silky. Steel which has been overheated slightly and the forging
stopped at too high a temperature will show a granular fracture.
A badly overheated or burned steel will have iridescent colors
on a fresh fracture, it will be brittle both hot and cold, and
absolutely ruined.





Next: Steel Can Be Worked Cold

Previous: Heating



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