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Steel Making

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State


As a general rule steel should
be worked when it is in the austenitic state. (See page 108.) It
is then soft and ductile.

As the steel is heated above the critical temperature the size of
the austenite crystals tends to grow rapidly. When forging starts,
however, these grains are broken up. The growth is continually
destroyed by the hammering, which should consequently be continued
down to the upper critical temperature when the austenite crystals
break up into ferrite and cementite. The size of the final grains
will be much smaller and hence a more uniform structure will result
if the mother austenite was also fine grained. A final steel
will be composed of pearlite; ferrite and pearlite; or cementite
and pearlite, according to the carbon content.

The ultimate object is to secure a fine, uniform grain throughout
the piece and this can be secured by uniform heating and by thoroughly
rolling it or working it at a temperature just down to its critical
point. If this is correctly done the fracture will be fine and
silky. Steel which has been overheated slightly and the forging
stopped at too high a temperature will show a granular fracture.
A badly overheated or burned steel will have iridescent colors
on a fresh fracture, it will be brittle both hot and cold, and
absolutely ruined.

Next: Steel Can Be Worked Cold

Previous: Heating

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