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Steel Making

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...



Steel Worked In Austenitic State






Category: THE FORGING OF STEEL

As a general rule steel should
be worked when it is in the austenitic state. (See page 108.) It
is then soft and ductile.

As the steel is heated above the critical temperature the size of
the austenite crystals tends to grow rapidly. When forging starts,
however, these grains are broken up. The growth is continually
destroyed by the hammering, which should consequently be continued
down to the upper critical temperature when the austenite crystals
break up into ferrite and cementite. The size of the final grains
will be much smaller and hence a more uniform structure will result
if the mother austenite was also fine grained. A final steel
will be composed of pearlite; ferrite and pearlite; or cementite
and pearlite, according to the carbon content.

The ultimate object is to secure a fine, uniform grain throughout
the piece and this can be secured by uniform heating and by thoroughly
rolling it or working it at a temperature just down to its critical
point. If this is correctly done the fracture will be fine and
silky. Steel which has been overheated slightly and the forging
stopped at too high a temperature will show a granular fracture.
A badly overheated or burned steel will have iridescent colors
on a fresh fracture, it will be brittle both hot and cold, and
absolutely ruined.





Next: Steel Can Be Worked Cold

Previous: Heating



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