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Steel Making

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Crankshaft
The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...



Steel Worked In Austenitic State






Category: THE FORGING OF STEEL

As a general rule steel should
be worked when it is in the austenitic state. (See page 108.) It
is then soft and ductile.

As the steel is heated above the critical temperature the size of
the austenite crystals tends to grow rapidly. When forging starts,
however, these grains are broken up. The growth is continually
destroyed by the hammering, which should consequently be continued
down to the upper critical temperature when the austenite crystals
break up into ferrite and cementite. The size of the final grains
will be much smaller and hence a more uniform structure will result
if the mother austenite was also fine grained. A final steel
will be composed of pearlite; ferrite and pearlite; or cementite
and pearlite, according to the carbon content.

The ultimate object is to secure a fine, uniform grain throughout
the piece and this can be secured by uniform heating and by thoroughly
rolling it or working it at a temperature just down to its critical
point. If this is correctly done the fracture will be fine and
silky. Steel which has been overheated slightly and the forging
stopped at too high a temperature will show a granular fracture.
A badly overheated or burned steel will have iridescent colors
on a fresh fracture, it will be brittle both hot and cold, and
absolutely ruined.





Next: Steel Can Be Worked Cold

Previous: Heating



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