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Steel Making

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...



Steel Worked In Austenitic State






Category: THE FORGING OF STEEL

As a general rule steel should
be worked when it is in the austenitic state. (See page 108.) It
is then soft and ductile.

As the steel is heated above the critical temperature the size of
the austenite crystals tends to grow rapidly. When forging starts,
however, these grains are broken up. The growth is continually
destroyed by the hammering, which should consequently be continued
down to the upper critical temperature when the austenite crystals
break up into ferrite and cementite. The size of the final grains
will be much smaller and hence a more uniform structure will result
if the mother austenite was also fine grained. A final steel
will be composed of pearlite; ferrite and pearlite; or cementite
and pearlite, according to the carbon content.

The ultimate object is to secure a fine, uniform grain throughout
the piece and this can be secured by uniform heating and by thoroughly
rolling it or working it at a temperature just down to its critical
point. If this is correctly done the fracture will be fine and
silky. Steel which has been overheated slightly and the forging
stopped at too high a temperature will show a granular fracture.
A badly overheated or burned steel will have iridescent colors
on a fresh fracture, it will be brittle both hot and cold, and
absolutely ruined.





Next: Steel Can Be Worked Cold

Previous: Heating



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