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Steel Making

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...



Typical Oil-fired Furnaces






Category: FURNACES

Several types of standard oil-fired
furnaces are shown herewith. Figure 92 is a lead pot furnace, Fig.
93 is a vertical furnace with a center column. This column reduces
the cubical contents to be heated and also supports the cover.


A small tool furnace is shown in Fig. 94, which gives the construction
and heat circulation. A larger furnace for high-speed steel is
given in Fig. 95. The steel is supported above the heat, the lower
flame passing beneath the support.

For hardening broaches and long reamers and taps, the furnace shown
in Fig. 96 is used. Twelve jets are used, these coming in radially
to produce a whirling motion.


Oil and gas furnaces may be divided into three types: the open
heating chamber in which combustion takes place in the chamber
and directly over the stock; the semimuffle heating chamber in
which combustion takes place beneath the floor of the chamber from
which the hot gases pass into the chamber through suitable openings;
and the muffle heating chamber in which the heat entirely surrounds
the chamber but does not enter it. The open furnace is used for
forging, tool dressing and welding. The muffle furnace is used for
hardening dies, taps, cutters and similar tools of either carbon
or high-speed steel. The muffle furnace is for spring hardening,
enameling, assaying and work where the gases of combustion may
have an injurious effect on the material.



Furnaces of these types of oil-burning furnaces are shown in Figs.
97, 98, and 99; these being made by the Gilbert & Barker Manufacturing
Company. The first has an air curtain formed by jets from the large
pipe just below the opening, to protect the operator from heat.


Oil furnaces are also made for both high- and low-pressure air,
each having its advocates. The same people also make gas-fired
furnaces.

Several types of furnaces for various purposes are illustrated
in Fig. 100 and 101. The first is a gas-fired hardening furnace
of the surface-combustion type.

A large gas-fired annealing furnace of the Maxon system is shown
in Fig. 101. This is large enough for a flat car to be run into
as can be seen. It shows the arrangement of the burners, the track
for the car and the way in which it fits into the furnace. These
are from the designs of the Industrial Furnace Corporation.

Before deciding upon the use of gas or oil, all sides of the problem
should be considered. Gas is perhaps the nearest ideal but is as a
rule more expensive. The tables compiled by the Gilbert & Barker
Manufacturing Company and shown herewith, may help in deciding
the question.

TABLE 27.--SHOWING COMPARISON OF OIL FUEL WITH VARIOUS GASEOUS FUELS
Heat units
per thousand
cubic feet
Natural gas 1,000,000
Air gas (gas machine) 20 cp 815,500
Public illuminating gas, average 650,000
Water gas (from bituminous coal) 377,000
Water and producer gas, mixed 175,000
Producer gas 150,000

Since a gallon of fuel oil (7 lb.) contains 133,000 heat units, the
following comparisons may evidently be made. At 5 cts. a gallon,
the equivalent heat units in oil would equal:

Per thousand
cubic feet
Natural gas at $0.375
Air gas, 20 cp at 0.307
Public illuminating gas, average at 0.244
Water gas (from bituminous coal) at 0.142
Water and producer gas, mixed at 0.065
Producer gas at 0.057

Comparing oil and coal is not always simple as it depends on the
work to be done and the construction of the furnaces. The variation
rises from 75 to 200 gal. of oil to a ton of coal. For forging
and similar work it is probably safe to consider 100 gal. of oil
as equivalent to a ton of coal.

Then there is the saving of labor in handling both coal and ashes,
the waiting for fires to come up, the banking of fires and the dirt
and nuisance generally. The continuous operation possible with
oil adds to the output.

When comparing oil and gas it is generally considered that 4-1/2
gal. of fuel oil will give heat equivalent to 1,000 cu. ft. of
coal gas.

The pressure of oil and air used varies with the system installed.
The low-pressure system maintains a pressure of about 8 oz. on the
oil and draws in free air for combustion. Others use a pressure
of several pounds, while gas burners use an average of perhaps
1-1/2 lb. of air to give best results.

The weights and volumes of solid fuels are: Anthracite coal, 55 to
65 lb. per cubic foot or 34 to 41 cubic feet per ton; bituminous
coal, 50 to 55 lb. per cubic foot or 41 to 45 cubic feet per ton;
coke, 28 lb. per cubic foot or 80 cubic feet per ton--the ton being
calculated as 2,240 lb. in each case.

A novel carburizing furnace that is being used by a number of people,
is built after the plan of a fireless cooker. The walls of the
furnace are extra heavy, and the ports and flues are so arranged
that when the load in the furnace and the furnace is thoroughly
heated, the burners are shut off and all openings are tightly sealed.
The carburization then goes on for several hours before the furnace
is cooled below the effective carburizing range, securing an ideal
diffusion of carbon between the case and the core of the steel
being carburized. This is particularly adaptable where simple steel
is used.





Next: Protective Screens For Furnaces

Previous: Air-hardening Steels



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