Informational Site NetworkInformational Site Network
Privacy
 
   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...



Typical Oil-fired Furnaces






Category: FURNACES

Several types of standard oil-fired
furnaces are shown herewith. Figure 92 is a lead pot furnace, Fig.
93 is a vertical furnace with a center column. This column reduces
the cubical contents to be heated and also supports the cover.


A small tool furnace is shown in Fig. 94, which gives the construction
and heat circulation. A larger furnace for high-speed steel is
given in Fig. 95. The steel is supported above the heat, the lower
flame passing beneath the support.

For hardening broaches and long reamers and taps, the furnace shown
in Fig. 96 is used. Twelve jets are used, these coming in radially
to produce a whirling motion.


Oil and gas furnaces may be divided into three types: the open
heating chamber in which combustion takes place in the chamber
and directly over the stock; the semimuffle heating chamber in
which combustion takes place beneath the floor of the chamber from
which the hot gases pass into the chamber through suitable openings;
and the muffle heating chamber in which the heat entirely surrounds
the chamber but does not enter it. The open furnace is used for
forging, tool dressing and welding. The muffle furnace is used for
hardening dies, taps, cutters and similar tools of either carbon
or high-speed steel. The muffle furnace is for spring hardening,
enameling, assaying and work where the gases of combustion may
have an injurious effect on the material.



Furnaces of these types of oil-burning furnaces are shown in Figs.
97, 98, and 99; these being made by the Gilbert & Barker Manufacturing
Company. The first has an air curtain formed by jets from the large
pipe just below the opening, to protect the operator from heat.


Oil furnaces are also made for both high- and low-pressure air,
each having its advocates. The same people also make gas-fired
furnaces.

Several types of furnaces for various purposes are illustrated
in Fig. 100 and 101. The first is a gas-fired hardening furnace
of the surface-combustion type.

A large gas-fired annealing furnace of the Maxon system is shown
in Fig. 101. This is large enough for a flat car to be run into
as can be seen. It shows the arrangement of the burners, the track
for the car and the way in which it fits into the furnace. These
are from the designs of the Industrial Furnace Corporation.

Before deciding upon the use of gas or oil, all sides of the problem
should be considered. Gas is perhaps the nearest ideal but is as a
rule more expensive. The tables compiled by the Gilbert & Barker
Manufacturing Company and shown herewith, may help in deciding
the question.

TABLE 27.--SHOWING COMPARISON OF OIL FUEL WITH VARIOUS GASEOUS FUELS
Heat units
per thousand
cubic feet
Natural gas 1,000,000
Air gas (gas machine) 20 cp 815,500
Public illuminating gas, average 650,000
Water gas (from bituminous coal) 377,000
Water and producer gas, mixed 175,000
Producer gas 150,000

Since a gallon of fuel oil (7 lb.) contains 133,000 heat units, the
following comparisons may evidently be made. At 5 cts. a gallon,
the equivalent heat units in oil would equal:

Per thousand
cubic feet
Natural gas at $0.375
Air gas, 20 cp at 0.307
Public illuminating gas, average at 0.244
Water gas (from bituminous coal) at 0.142
Water and producer gas, mixed at 0.065
Producer gas at 0.057

Comparing oil and coal is not always simple as it depends on the
work to be done and the construction of the furnaces. The variation
rises from 75 to 200 gal. of oil to a ton of coal. For forging
and similar work it is probably safe to consider 100 gal. of oil
as equivalent to a ton of coal.

Then there is the saving of labor in handling both coal and ashes,
the waiting for fires to come up, the banking of fires and the dirt
and nuisance generally. The continuous operation possible with
oil adds to the output.

When comparing oil and gas it is generally considered that 4-1/2
gal. of fuel oil will give heat equivalent to 1,000 cu. ft. of
coal gas.

The pressure of oil and air used varies with the system installed.
The low-pressure system maintains a pressure of about 8 oz. on the
oil and draws in free air for combustion. Others use a pressure
of several pounds, while gas burners use an average of perhaps
1-1/2 lb. of air to give best results.

The weights and volumes of solid fuels are: Anthracite coal, 55 to
65 lb. per cubic foot or 34 to 41 cubic feet per ton; bituminous
coal, 50 to 55 lb. per cubic foot or 41 to 45 cubic feet per ton;
coke, 28 lb. per cubic foot or 80 cubic feet per ton--the ton being
calculated as 2,240 lb. in each case.

A novel carburizing furnace that is being used by a number of people,
is built after the plan of a fireless cooker. The walls of the
furnace are extra heavy, and the ports and flues are so arranged
that when the load in the furnace and the furnace is thoroughly
heated, the burners are shut off and all openings are tightly sealed.
The carburization then goes on for several hours before the furnace
is cooled below the effective carburizing range, securing an ideal
diffusion of carbon between the case and the core of the steel
being carburized. This is particularly adaptable where simple steel
is used.





Next: Protective Screens For Furnaces

Previous: Air-hardening Steels



Add to del.icio.us Add to Reddit Add to Digg Add to Del.icio.us Add to Google Add to Twitter Add to Stumble Upon
Add to Informational Site Network
Report
Privacy
SHAREADD TO EBOOK


Viewed 3456