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Steel Making

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Tempering Round Dies


A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in tool
holders of turret lathes were required. No proper tempering oven
was available, so the following method was adopted and proved quite

After the dies had been hardened dead hard in water, they were
cleaned up bright. A pair of ordinary smiths' tongs was made with
jaws of heavy material and to fit nicely all around the outside of
the die, leaving a 3/32-in. space when the jaws were closed around
the die. The dies being all ready, the tongs were heated red hot, and
the dies were picked up and held by the tongs. This tempered them
from the outside in, left the teeth the temper required and the
outside slightly softer. The dies held up the work successfully
and were better than when tempered in the same bath.

Next: The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages

Previous: Shrinking And Enlarging Work

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