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Hardening
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Annealing
There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Machineability
Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...



Take Time For Hardening






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

Uneven heating and poor quenching has
caused loss of many very valuable dies, and it certainly seems
that when a firm spends from $75 to $450 in cutting a die that
a few hours could be spared for proper hardening. But the usual
feeling is that a tool must be hurried as soon as the hardener
gets it, and if a burst die is the result from either uneven or
overheated steel and quenching same without judgment, the steel
gets the blame.



Give the steel a chance to heat properly, mix a little common sense
with your 30 years experience on the other fellows steel. Remember
that high-carbon steel hardens at a lower heat than low-carbon
steel, and quench when at the right heat in the two above ways,
and 99 per cent of the trouble will vanish.

When a die flies to pieces in quenching, don't rush to the
superintendent with a poor-steel story, but find out first why it
broke so that the salesman who sold it will not be able to harden
piece after piece from the same bar satisfactorily. If you find
a cold short, commonly called a pipe, you can lay the blame
on the steelmaker. If it is a case of overheating and quenching
when too hot, you will find a coarse grain with many bright spots
like crystals to the hardening depth. If uneven heating is the
cause, you will find a wider margin of hardening depth on one side
than on the other, or find the coarse grain from over-heating on
one side while on the other you will find a close grain, which
may be just right. If you find any other faults than a pipe,
or are not able to harden deep enough, then take the blame like
a man and send for information. The different steel salesmen are
good fellows and most of them know a thing or two about their own
business.

For much work a cooling bath at from 50 to 75 deg.F. is very good both
for small hobs, dies, cutter plates or plungers. Some work will
harden best in a barrel of brine, but in running cold water, splendid
results will be obtained. Cutter plates should always be dipped
corner first and if any have stripper holes, they should first
be plugged with asbestos or fire clay cement.

In general it may be said that the best hardening temperature for
carbon steel is the lowest temperature at which it will harden
properly.





Next: Carbon In Tool Steel

Previous: The Modern Hardening Room



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