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Steel Making

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...



Take Time For Hardening






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

Uneven heating and poor quenching has
caused loss of many very valuable dies, and it certainly seems
that when a firm spends from $75 to $450 in cutting a die that
a few hours could be spared for proper hardening. But the usual
feeling is that a tool must be hurried as soon as the hardener
gets it, and if a burst die is the result from either uneven or
overheated steel and quenching same without judgment, the steel
gets the blame.



Give the steel a chance to heat properly, mix a little common sense
with your 30 years experience on the other fellows steel. Remember
that high-carbon steel hardens at a lower heat than low-carbon
steel, and quench when at the right heat in the two above ways,
and 99 per cent of the trouble will vanish.

When a die flies to pieces in quenching, don't rush to the
superintendent with a poor-steel story, but find out first why it
broke so that the salesman who sold it will not be able to harden
piece after piece from the same bar satisfactorily. If you find
a cold short, commonly called a pipe, you can lay the blame
on the steelmaker. If it is a case of overheating and quenching
when too hot, you will find a coarse grain with many bright spots
like crystals to the hardening depth. If uneven heating is the
cause, you will find a wider margin of hardening depth on one side
than on the other, or find the coarse grain from over-heating on
one side while on the other you will find a close grain, which
may be just right. If you find any other faults than a pipe,
or are not able to harden deep enough, then take the blame like
a man and send for information. The different steel salesmen are
good fellows and most of them know a thing or two about their own
business.

For much work a cooling bath at from 50 to 75 deg.F. is very good both
for small hobs, dies, cutter plates or plungers. Some work will
harden best in a barrel of brine, but in running cold water, splendid
results will be obtained. Cutter plates should always be dipped
corner first and if any have stripper holes, they should first
be plugged with asbestos or fire clay cement.

In general it may be said that the best hardening temperature for
carbon steel is the lowest temperature at which it will harden
properly.





Next: Carbon In Tool Steel

Previous: The Modern Hardening Room



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