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Steel Making

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...



Take Time For Hardening






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

Uneven heating and poor quenching has
caused loss of many very valuable dies, and it certainly seems
that when a firm spends from $75 to $450 in cutting a die that
a few hours could be spared for proper hardening. But the usual
feeling is that a tool must be hurried as soon as the hardener
gets it, and if a burst die is the result from either uneven or
overheated steel and quenching same without judgment, the steel
gets the blame.



Give the steel a chance to heat properly, mix a little common sense
with your 30 years experience on the other fellows steel. Remember
that high-carbon steel hardens at a lower heat than low-carbon
steel, and quench when at the right heat in the two above ways,
and 99 per cent of the trouble will vanish.

When a die flies to pieces in quenching, don't rush to the
superintendent with a poor-steel story, but find out first why it
broke so that the salesman who sold it will not be able to harden
piece after piece from the same bar satisfactorily. If you find
a cold short, commonly called a pipe, you can lay the blame
on the steelmaker. If it is a case of overheating and quenching
when too hot, you will find a coarse grain with many bright spots
like crystals to the hardening depth. If uneven heating is the
cause, you will find a wider margin of hardening depth on one side
than on the other, or find the coarse grain from over-heating on
one side while on the other you will find a close grain, which
may be just right. If you find any other faults than a pipe,
or are not able to harden deep enough, then take the blame like
a man and send for information. The different steel salesmen are
good fellows and most of them know a thing or two about their own
business.

For much work a cooling bath at from 50 to 75 deg.F. is very good both
for small hobs, dies, cutter plates or plungers. Some work will
harden best in a barrel of brine, but in running cold water, splendid
results will be obtained. Cutter plates should always be dipped
corner first and if any have stripper holes, they should first
be plugged with asbestos or fire clay cement.

In general it may be said that the best hardening temperature for
carbon steel is the lowest temperature at which it will harden
properly.





Next: Carbon In Tool Steel

Previous: The Modern Hardening Room



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