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Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Crankshaft
The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...



Take Time For Hardening






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

Uneven heating and poor quenching has
caused loss of many very valuable dies, and it certainly seems
that when a firm spends from $75 to $450 in cutting a die that
a few hours could be spared for proper hardening. But the usual
feeling is that a tool must be hurried as soon as the hardener
gets it, and if a burst die is the result from either uneven or
overheated steel and quenching same without judgment, the steel
gets the blame.



Give the steel a chance to heat properly, mix a little common sense
with your 30 years experience on the other fellows steel. Remember
that high-carbon steel hardens at a lower heat than low-carbon
steel, and quench when at the right heat in the two above ways,
and 99 per cent of the trouble will vanish.

When a die flies to pieces in quenching, don't rush to the
superintendent with a poor-steel story, but find out first why it
broke so that the salesman who sold it will not be able to harden
piece after piece from the same bar satisfactorily. If you find
a cold short, commonly called a pipe, you can lay the blame
on the steelmaker. If it is a case of overheating and quenching
when too hot, you will find a coarse grain with many bright spots
like crystals to the hardening depth. If uneven heating is the
cause, you will find a wider margin of hardening depth on one side
than on the other, or find the coarse grain from over-heating on
one side while on the other you will find a close grain, which
may be just right. If you find any other faults than a pipe,
or are not able to harden deep enough, then take the blame like
a man and send for information. The different steel salesmen are
good fellows and most of them know a thing or two about their own
business.

For much work a cooling bath at from 50 to 75 deg.F. is very good both
for small hobs, dies, cutter plates or plungers. Some work will
harden best in a barrel of brine, but in running cold water, splendid
results will be obtained. Cutter plates should always be dipped
corner first and if any have stripper holes, they should first
be plugged with asbestos or fire clay cement.

In general it may be said that the best hardening temperature for
carbon steel is the lowest temperature at which it will harden
properly.





Next: Carbon In Tool Steel

Previous: The Modern Hardening Room



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