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Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Take Time For Hardening


Uneven heating and poor quenching has
caused loss of many very valuable dies, and it certainly seems
that when a firm spends from $75 to $450 in cutting a die that
a few hours could be spared for proper hardening. But the usual
feeling is that a tool must be hurried as soon as the hardener
gets it, and if a burst die is the result from either uneven or
overheated steel and quenching same without judgment, the steel
gets the blame.

Give the steel a chance to heat properly, mix a little common sense
with your 30 years experience on the other fellows steel. Remember
that high-carbon steel hardens at a lower heat than low-carbon
steel, and quench when at the right heat in the two above ways,
and 99 per cent of the trouble will vanish.

When a die flies to pieces in quenching, don't rush to the
superintendent with a poor-steel story, but find out first why it
broke so that the salesman who sold it will not be able to harden
piece after piece from the same bar satisfactorily. If you find
a cold short, commonly called a pipe, you can lay the blame
on the steelmaker. If it is a case of overheating and quenching
when too hot, you will find a coarse grain with many bright spots
like crystals to the hardening depth. If uneven heating is the
cause, you will find a wider margin of hardening depth on one side
than on the other, or find the coarse grain from over-heating on
one side while on the other you will find a close grain, which
may be just right. If you find any other faults than a pipe,
or are not able to harden deep enough, then take the blame like
a man and send for information. The different steel salesmen are
good fellows and most of them know a thing or two about their own

For much work a cooling bath at from 50 to 75 deg.F. is very good both
for small hobs, dies, cutter plates or plungers. Some work will
harden best in a barrel of brine, but in running cold water, splendid
results will be obtained. Cutter plates should always be dipped
corner first and if any have stripper holes, they should first
be plugged with asbestos or fire clay cement.

In general it may be said that the best hardening temperature for
carbon steel is the lowest temperature at which it will harden

Next: Carbon In Tool Steel

Previous: The Modern Hardening Room

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