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Steel Making

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Pyrometers
Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...



Take Time For Hardening






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

Uneven heating and poor quenching has
caused loss of many very valuable dies, and it certainly seems
that when a firm spends from $75 to $450 in cutting a die that
a few hours could be spared for proper hardening. But the usual
feeling is that a tool must be hurried as soon as the hardener
gets it, and if a burst die is the result from either uneven or
overheated steel and quenching same without judgment, the steel
gets the blame.



Give the steel a chance to heat properly, mix a little common sense
with your 30 years experience on the other fellows steel. Remember
that high-carbon steel hardens at a lower heat than low-carbon
steel, and quench when at the right heat in the two above ways,
and 99 per cent of the trouble will vanish.

When a die flies to pieces in quenching, don't rush to the
superintendent with a poor-steel story, but find out first why it
broke so that the salesman who sold it will not be able to harden
piece after piece from the same bar satisfactorily. If you find
a cold short, commonly called a pipe, you can lay the blame
on the steelmaker. If it is a case of overheating and quenching
when too hot, you will find a coarse grain with many bright spots
like crystals to the hardening depth. If uneven heating is the
cause, you will find a wider margin of hardening depth on one side
than on the other, or find the coarse grain from over-heating on
one side while on the other you will find a close grain, which
may be just right. If you find any other faults than a pipe,
or are not able to harden deep enough, then take the blame like
a man and send for information. The different steel salesmen are
good fellows and most of them know a thing or two about their own
business.

For much work a cooling bath at from 50 to 75 deg.F. is very good both
for small hobs, dies, cutter plates or plungers. Some work will
harden best in a barrel of brine, but in running cold water, splendid
results will be obtained. Cutter plates should always be dipped
corner first and if any have stripper holes, they should first
be plugged with asbestos or fire clay cement.

In general it may be said that the best hardening temperature for
carbon steel is the lowest temperature at which it will harden
properly.





Next: Carbon In Tool Steel

Previous: The Modern Hardening Room



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