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Steel Making

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...



Take Time For Hardening






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

Uneven heating and poor quenching has
caused loss of many very valuable dies, and it certainly seems
that when a firm spends from $75 to $450 in cutting a die that
a few hours could be spared for proper hardening. But the usual
feeling is that a tool must be hurried as soon as the hardener
gets it, and if a burst die is the result from either uneven or
overheated steel and quenching same without judgment, the steel
gets the blame.



Give the steel a chance to heat properly, mix a little common sense
with your 30 years experience on the other fellows steel. Remember
that high-carbon steel hardens at a lower heat than low-carbon
steel, and quench when at the right heat in the two above ways,
and 99 per cent of the trouble will vanish.

When a die flies to pieces in quenching, don't rush to the
superintendent with a poor-steel story, but find out first why it
broke so that the salesman who sold it will not be able to harden
piece after piece from the same bar satisfactorily. If you find
a cold short, commonly called a pipe, you can lay the blame
on the steelmaker. If it is a case of overheating and quenching
when too hot, you will find a coarse grain with many bright spots
like crystals to the hardening depth. If uneven heating is the
cause, you will find a wider margin of hardening depth on one side
than on the other, or find the coarse grain from over-heating on
one side while on the other you will find a close grain, which
may be just right. If you find any other faults than a pipe,
or are not able to harden deep enough, then take the blame like
a man and send for information. The different steel salesmen are
good fellows and most of them know a thing or two about their own
business.

For much work a cooling bath at from 50 to 75 deg.F. is very good both
for small hobs, dies, cutter plates or plungers. Some work will
harden best in a barrel of brine, but in running cold water, splendid
results will be obtained. Cutter plates should always be dipped
corner first and if any have stripper holes, they should first
be plugged with asbestos or fire clay cement.

In general it may be said that the best hardening temperature for
carbon steel is the lowest temperature at which it will harden
properly.





Next: Carbon In Tool Steel

Previous: The Modern Hardening Room



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