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Steel Making

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Take Time For Hardening


Uneven heating and poor quenching has
caused loss of many very valuable dies, and it certainly seems
that when a firm spends from $75 to $450 in cutting a die that
a few hours could be spared for proper hardening. But the usual
feeling is that a tool must be hurried as soon as the hardener
gets it, and if a burst die is the result from either uneven or
overheated steel and quenching same without judgment, the steel
gets the blame.

Give the steel a chance to heat properly, mix a little common sense
with your 30 years experience on the other fellows steel. Remember
that high-carbon steel hardens at a lower heat than low-carbon
steel, and quench when at the right heat in the two above ways,
and 99 per cent of the trouble will vanish.

When a die flies to pieces in quenching, don't rush to the
superintendent with a poor-steel story, but find out first why it
broke so that the salesman who sold it will not be able to harden
piece after piece from the same bar satisfactorily. If you find
a cold short, commonly called a pipe, you can lay the blame
on the steelmaker. If it is a case of overheating and quenching
when too hot, you will find a coarse grain with many bright spots
like crystals to the hardening depth. If uneven heating is the
cause, you will find a wider margin of hardening depth on one side
than on the other, or find the coarse grain from over-heating on
one side while on the other you will find a close grain, which
may be just right. If you find any other faults than a pipe,
or are not able to harden deep enough, then take the blame like
a man and send for information. The different steel salesmen are
good fellows and most of them know a thing or two about their own

For much work a cooling bath at from 50 to 75 deg.F. is very good both
for small hobs, dies, cutter plates or plungers. Some work will
harden best in a barrel of brine, but in running cold water, splendid
results will be obtained. Cutter plates should always be dipped
corner first and if any have stripper holes, they should first
be plugged with asbestos or fire clay cement.

In general it may be said that the best hardening temperature for
carbon steel is the lowest temperature at which it will harden

Next: Carbon In Tool Steel

Previous: The Modern Hardening Room

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