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High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Take Time For Hardening


Uneven heating and poor quenching has
caused loss of many very valuable dies, and it certainly seems
that when a firm spends from $75 to $450 in cutting a die that
a few hours could be spared for proper hardening. But the usual
feeling is that a tool must be hurried as soon as the hardener
gets it, and if a burst die is the result from either uneven or
overheated steel and quenching same without judgment, the steel
gets the blame.

Give the steel a chance to heat properly, mix a little common sense
with your 30 years experience on the other fellows steel. Remember
that high-carbon steel hardens at a lower heat than low-carbon
steel, and quench when at the right heat in the two above ways,
and 99 per cent of the trouble will vanish.

When a die flies to pieces in quenching, don't rush to the
superintendent with a poor-steel story, but find out first why it
broke so that the salesman who sold it will not be able to harden
piece after piece from the same bar satisfactorily. If you find
a cold short, commonly called a pipe, you can lay the blame
on the steelmaker. If it is a case of overheating and quenching
when too hot, you will find a coarse grain with many bright spots
like crystals to the hardening depth. If uneven heating is the
cause, you will find a wider margin of hardening depth on one side
than on the other, or find the coarse grain from over-heating on
one side while on the other you will find a close grain, which
may be just right. If you find any other faults than a pipe,
or are not able to harden deep enough, then take the blame like
a man and send for information. The different steel salesmen are
good fellows and most of them know a thing or two about their own

For much work a cooling bath at from 50 to 75 deg.F. is very good both
for small hobs, dies, cutter plates or plungers. Some work will
harden best in a barrel of brine, but in running cold water, splendid
results will be obtained. Cutter plates should always be dipped
corner first and if any have stripper holes, they should first
be plugged with asbestos or fire clay cement.

In general it may be said that the best hardening temperature for
carbon steel is the lowest temperature at which it will harden

Next: Carbon In Tool Steel

Previous: The Modern Hardening Room

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