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Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...



Take Time For Hardening






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

Uneven heating and poor quenching has
caused loss of many very valuable dies, and it certainly seems
that when a firm spends from $75 to $450 in cutting a die that
a few hours could be spared for proper hardening. But the usual
feeling is that a tool must be hurried as soon as the hardener
gets it, and if a burst die is the result from either uneven or
overheated steel and quenching same without judgment, the steel
gets the blame.



Give the steel a chance to heat properly, mix a little common sense
with your 30 years experience on the other fellows steel. Remember
that high-carbon steel hardens at a lower heat than low-carbon
steel, and quench when at the right heat in the two above ways,
and 99 per cent of the trouble will vanish.

When a die flies to pieces in quenching, don't rush to the
superintendent with a poor-steel story, but find out first why it
broke so that the salesman who sold it will not be able to harden
piece after piece from the same bar satisfactorily. If you find
a cold short, commonly called a pipe, you can lay the blame
on the steelmaker. If it is a case of overheating and quenching
when too hot, you will find a coarse grain with many bright spots
like crystals to the hardening depth. If uneven heating is the
cause, you will find a wider margin of hardening depth on one side
than on the other, or find the coarse grain from over-heating on
one side while on the other you will find a close grain, which
may be just right. If you find any other faults than a pipe,
or are not able to harden deep enough, then take the blame like
a man and send for information. The different steel salesmen are
good fellows and most of them know a thing or two about their own
business.

For much work a cooling bath at from 50 to 75 deg.F. is very good both
for small hobs, dies, cutter plates or plungers. Some work will
harden best in a barrel of brine, but in running cold water, splendid
results will be obtained. Cutter plates should always be dipped
corner first and if any have stripper holes, they should first
be plugged with asbestos or fire clay cement.

In general it may be said that the best hardening temperature for
carbon steel is the lowest temperature at which it will harden
properly.





Next: Carbon In Tool Steel

Previous: The Modern Hardening Room



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