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The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Take Time For Hardening


Uneven heating and poor quenching has
caused loss of many very valuable dies, and it certainly seems
that when a firm spends from $75 to $450 in cutting a die that
a few hours could be spared for proper hardening. But the usual
feeling is that a tool must be hurried as soon as the hardener
gets it, and if a burst die is the result from either uneven or
overheated steel and quenching same without judgment, the steel
gets the blame.

Give the steel a chance to heat properly, mix a little common sense
with your 30 years experience on the other fellows steel. Remember
that high-carbon steel hardens at a lower heat than low-carbon
steel, and quench when at the right heat in the two above ways,
and 99 per cent of the trouble will vanish.

When a die flies to pieces in quenching, don't rush to the
superintendent with a poor-steel story, but find out first why it
broke so that the salesman who sold it will not be able to harden
piece after piece from the same bar satisfactorily. If you find
a cold short, commonly called a pipe, you can lay the blame
on the steelmaker. If it is a case of overheating and quenching
when too hot, you will find a coarse grain with many bright spots
like crystals to the hardening depth. If uneven heating is the
cause, you will find a wider margin of hardening depth on one side
than on the other, or find the coarse grain from over-heating on
one side while on the other you will find a close grain, which
may be just right. If you find any other faults than a pipe,
or are not able to harden deep enough, then take the blame like
a man and send for information. The different steel salesmen are
good fellows and most of them know a thing or two about their own

For much work a cooling bath at from 50 to 75 deg.F. is very good both
for small hobs, dies, cutter plates or plungers. Some work will
harden best in a barrel of brine, but in running cold water, splendid
results will be obtained. Cutter plates should always be dipped
corner first and if any have stripper holes, they should first
be plugged with asbestos or fire clay cement.

In general it may be said that the best hardening temperature for
carbon steel is the lowest temperature at which it will harden

Next: Carbon In Tool Steel

Previous: The Modern Hardening Room

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