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The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...



Take Time For Hardening






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

Uneven heating and poor quenching has
caused loss of many very valuable dies, and it certainly seems
that when a firm spends from $75 to $450 in cutting a die that
a few hours could be spared for proper hardening. But the usual
feeling is that a tool must be hurried as soon as the hardener
gets it, and if a burst die is the result from either uneven or
overheated steel and quenching same without judgment, the steel
gets the blame.



Give the steel a chance to heat properly, mix a little common sense
with your 30 years experience on the other fellows steel. Remember
that high-carbon steel hardens at a lower heat than low-carbon
steel, and quench when at the right heat in the two above ways,
and 99 per cent of the trouble will vanish.

When a die flies to pieces in quenching, don't rush to the
superintendent with a poor-steel story, but find out first why it
broke so that the salesman who sold it will not be able to harden
piece after piece from the same bar satisfactorily. If you find
a cold short, commonly called a pipe, you can lay the blame
on the steelmaker. If it is a case of overheating and quenching
when too hot, you will find a coarse grain with many bright spots
like crystals to the hardening depth. If uneven heating is the
cause, you will find a wider margin of hardening depth on one side
than on the other, or find the coarse grain from over-heating on
one side while on the other you will find a close grain, which
may be just right. If you find any other faults than a pipe,
or are not able to harden deep enough, then take the blame like
a man and send for information. The different steel salesmen are
good fellows and most of them know a thing or two about their own
business.

For much work a cooling bath at from 50 to 75 deg.F. is very good both
for small hobs, dies, cutter plates or plungers. Some work will
harden best in a barrel of brine, but in running cold water, splendid
results will be obtained. Cutter plates should always be dipped
corner first and if any have stripper holes, they should first
be plugged with asbestos or fire clay cement.

In general it may be said that the best hardening temperature for
carbon steel is the lowest temperature at which it will harden
properly.





Next: Carbon In Tool Steel

Previous: The Modern Hardening Room



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