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Steel Making

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Take Time For Hardening


Uneven heating and poor quenching has
caused loss of many very valuable dies, and it certainly seems
that when a firm spends from $75 to $450 in cutting a die that
a few hours could be spared for proper hardening. But the usual
feeling is that a tool must be hurried as soon as the hardener
gets it, and if a burst die is the result from either uneven or
overheated steel and quenching same without judgment, the steel
gets the blame.

Give the steel a chance to heat properly, mix a little common sense
with your 30 years experience on the other fellows steel. Remember
that high-carbon steel hardens at a lower heat than low-carbon
steel, and quench when at the right heat in the two above ways,
and 99 per cent of the trouble will vanish.

When a die flies to pieces in quenching, don't rush to the
superintendent with a poor-steel story, but find out first why it
broke so that the salesman who sold it will not be able to harden
piece after piece from the same bar satisfactorily. If you find
a cold short, commonly called a pipe, you can lay the blame
on the steelmaker. If it is a case of overheating and quenching
when too hot, you will find a coarse grain with many bright spots
like crystals to the hardening depth. If uneven heating is the
cause, you will find a wider margin of hardening depth on one side
than on the other, or find the coarse grain from over-heating on
one side while on the other you will find a close grain, which
may be just right. If you find any other faults than a pipe,
or are not able to harden deep enough, then take the blame like
a man and send for information. The different steel salesmen are
good fellows and most of them know a thing or two about their own

For much work a cooling bath at from 50 to 75 deg.F. is very good both
for small hobs, dies, cutter plates or plungers. Some work will
harden best in a barrel of brine, but in running cold water, splendid
results will be obtained. Cutter plates should always be dipped
corner first and if any have stripper holes, they should first
be plugged with asbestos or fire clay cement.

In general it may be said that the best hardening temperature for
carbon steel is the lowest temperature at which it will harden

Next: Carbon In Tool Steel

Previous: The Modern Hardening Room

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