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Steel Making

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Process Of Carburizing


Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon
content to a low-carbon steel. This produces what might be termed
a dual steel, allowing for an outer shell which when hardened
would withstand wear, and a soft ductile core to produce ductility
and withstand shock. The operation is carried out by packing the
work to be carburized in boxes with a material rich in carbon and
maintaining the box so charged at a temperature in excess of the
highest critical point for a length of time to produce the desired
depth of carburized zone. Generally maintaining the temperature
at 1,650 to 1,700 deg. F. for 7 hr. will produce a carburized zone
1/32 in. deep.

Heating to a temperature slightly above the highest critical point
and cooling suddenly in some quenching medium, such as water or oil
hardens the steel. This treatment produces a maximum refinement
with the maximum strength.

Drawing to a temperature below the highest critical point (the
temperature being governed by the results required) relieves the
hardening strains set up by quenching, as well as the reducing
of the hardness and brittleness of hardened steel.

Next: Effects Of Proper Annealing

Previous: Annealing Work

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