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Steel Making

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Process Of Carburizing


Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon
content to a low-carbon steel. This produces what might be termed
a dual steel, allowing for an outer shell which when hardened
would withstand wear, and a soft ductile core to produce ductility
and withstand shock. The operation is carried out by packing the
work to be carburized in boxes with a material rich in carbon and
maintaining the box so charged at a temperature in excess of the
highest critical point for a length of time to produce the desired
depth of carburized zone. Generally maintaining the temperature
at 1,650 to 1,700 deg. F. for 7 hr. will produce a carburized zone
1/32 in. deep.

Heating to a temperature slightly above the highest critical point
and cooling suddenly in some quenching medium, such as water or oil
hardens the steel. This treatment produces a maximum refinement
with the maximum strength.

Drawing to a temperature below the highest critical point (the
temperature being governed by the results required) relieves the
hardening strains set up by quenching, as well as the reducing
of the hardness and brittleness of hardened steel.

Next: Effects Of Proper Annealing

Previous: Annealing Work

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