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Steel Making

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Process Of Carburizing


Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon
content to a low-carbon steel. This produces what might be termed
a dual steel, allowing for an outer shell which when hardened
would withstand wear, and a soft ductile core to produce ductility
and withstand shock. The operation is carried out by packing the
work to be carburized in boxes with a material rich in carbon and
maintaining the box so charged at a temperature in excess of the
highest critical point for a length of time to produce the desired
depth of carburized zone. Generally maintaining the temperature
at 1,650 to 1,700 deg. F. for 7 hr. will produce a carburized zone
1/32 in. deep.

Heating to a temperature slightly above the highest critical point
and cooling suddenly in some quenching medium, such as water or oil
hardens the steel. This treatment produces a maximum refinement
with the maximum strength.

Drawing to a temperature below the highest critical point (the
temperature being governed by the results required) relieves the
hardening strains set up by quenching, as well as the reducing
of the hardness and brittleness of hardened steel.

Next: Effects Of Proper Annealing

Previous: Annealing Work

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