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Steel Making

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Process Of Carburizing


Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon
content to a low-carbon steel. This produces what might be termed
a dual steel, allowing for an outer shell which when hardened
would withstand wear, and a soft ductile core to produce ductility
and withstand shock. The operation is carried out by packing the
work to be carburized in boxes with a material rich in carbon and
maintaining the box so charged at a temperature in excess of the
highest critical point for a length of time to produce the desired
depth of carburized zone. Generally maintaining the temperature
at 1,650 to 1,700 deg. F. for 7 hr. will produce a carburized zone
1/32 in. deep.

Heating to a temperature slightly above the highest critical point
and cooling suddenly in some quenching medium, such as water or oil
hardens the steel. This treatment produces a maximum refinement
with the maximum strength.

Drawing to a temperature below the highest critical point (the
temperature being governed by the results required) relieves the
hardening strains set up by quenching, as well as the reducing
of the hardness and brittleness of hardened steel.

Next: Effects Of Proper Annealing

Previous: Annealing Work

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