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Steel Making

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Process Of Carburizing


Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon
content to a low-carbon steel. This produces what might be termed
a dual steel, allowing for an outer shell which when hardened
would withstand wear, and a soft ductile core to produce ductility
and withstand shock. The operation is carried out by packing the
work to be carburized in boxes with a material rich in carbon and
maintaining the box so charged at a temperature in excess of the
highest critical point for a length of time to produce the desired
depth of carburized zone. Generally maintaining the temperature
at 1,650 to 1,700 deg. F. for 7 hr. will produce a carburized zone
1/32 in. deep.

Heating to a temperature slightly above the highest critical point
and cooling suddenly in some quenching medium, such as water or oil
hardens the steel. This treatment produces a maximum refinement
with the maximum strength.

Drawing to a temperature below the highest critical point (the
temperature being governed by the results required) relieves the
hardening strains set up by quenching, as well as the reducing
of the hardness and brittleness of hardened steel.

Next: Effects Of Proper Annealing

Previous: Annealing Work

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