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Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Process Of Carburizing


Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon
content to a low-carbon steel. This produces what might be termed
a dual steel, allowing for an outer shell which when hardened
would withstand wear, and a soft ductile core to produce ductility
and withstand shock. The operation is carried out by packing the
work to be carburized in boxes with a material rich in carbon and
maintaining the box so charged at a temperature in excess of the
highest critical point for a length of time to produce the desired
depth of carburized zone. Generally maintaining the temperature
at 1,650 to 1,700 deg. F. for 7 hr. will produce a carburized zone
1/32 in. deep.

Heating to a temperature slightly above the highest critical point
and cooling suddenly in some quenching medium, such as water or oil
hardens the steel. This treatment produces a maximum refinement
with the maximum strength.

Drawing to a temperature below the highest critical point (the
temperature being governed by the results required) relieves the
hardening strains set up by quenching, as well as the reducing
of the hardness and brittleness of hardened steel.

Next: Effects Of Proper Annealing

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