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Steel Making

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Process Of Carburizing


Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon
content to a low-carbon steel. This produces what might be termed
a dual steel, allowing for an outer shell which when hardened
would withstand wear, and a soft ductile core to produce ductility
and withstand shock. The operation is carried out by packing the
work to be carburized in boxes with a material rich in carbon and
maintaining the box so charged at a temperature in excess of the
highest critical point for a length of time to produce the desired
depth of carburized zone. Generally maintaining the temperature
at 1,650 to 1,700 deg. F. for 7 hr. will produce a carburized zone
1/32 in. deep.

Heating to a temperature slightly above the highest critical point
and cooling suddenly in some quenching medium, such as water or oil
hardens the steel. This treatment produces a maximum refinement
with the maximum strength.

Drawing to a temperature below the highest critical point (the
temperature being governed by the results required) relieves the
hardening strains set up by quenching, as well as the reducing
of the hardness and brittleness of hardened steel.

Next: Effects Of Proper Annealing

Previous: Annealing Work

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