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Steel Making

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Process Of Carburizing


Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon
content to a low-carbon steel. This produces what might be termed
a dual steel, allowing for an outer shell which when hardened
would withstand wear, and a soft ductile core to produce ductility
and withstand shock. The operation is carried out by packing the
work to be carburized in boxes with a material rich in carbon and
maintaining the box so charged at a temperature in excess of the
highest critical point for a length of time to produce the desired
depth of carburized zone. Generally maintaining the temperature
at 1,650 to 1,700 deg. F. for 7 hr. will produce a carburized zone
1/32 in. deep.

Heating to a temperature slightly above the highest critical point
and cooling suddenly in some quenching medium, such as water or oil
hardens the steel. This treatment produces a maximum refinement
with the maximum strength.

Drawing to a temperature below the highest critical point (the
temperature being governed by the results required) relieves the
hardening strains set up by quenching, as well as the reducing
of the hardness and brittleness of hardened steel.

Next: Effects Of Proper Annealing

Previous: Annealing Work

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