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Steel Making

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Process Of Carburizing


Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon
content to a low-carbon steel. This produces what might be termed
a dual steel, allowing for an outer shell which when hardened
would withstand wear, and a soft ductile core to produce ductility
and withstand shock. The operation is carried out by packing the
work to be carburized in boxes with a material rich in carbon and
maintaining the box so charged at a temperature in excess of the
highest critical point for a length of time to produce the desired
depth of carburized zone. Generally maintaining the temperature
at 1,650 to 1,700 deg. F. for 7 hr. will produce a carburized zone
1/32 in. deep.

Heating to a temperature slightly above the highest critical point
and cooling suddenly in some quenching medium, such as water or oil
hardens the steel. This treatment produces a maximum refinement
with the maximum strength.

Drawing to a temperature below the highest critical point (the
temperature being governed by the results required) relieves the
hardening strains set up by quenching, as well as the reducing
of the hardness and brittleness of hardened steel.

Next: Effects Of Proper Annealing

Previous: Annealing Work

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