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Steel Making

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Process Of Carburizing


Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon
content to a low-carbon steel. This produces what might be termed
a dual steel, allowing for an outer shell which when hardened
would withstand wear, and a soft ductile core to produce ductility
and withstand shock. The operation is carried out by packing the
work to be carburized in boxes with a material rich in carbon and
maintaining the box so charged at a temperature in excess of the
highest critical point for a length of time to produce the desired
depth of carburized zone. Generally maintaining the temperature
at 1,650 to 1,700 deg. F. for 7 hr. will produce a carburized zone
1/32 in. deep.

Heating to a temperature slightly above the highest critical point
and cooling suddenly in some quenching medium, such as water or oil
hardens the steel. This treatment produces a maximum refinement
with the maximum strength.

Drawing to a temperature below the highest critical point (the
temperature being governed by the results required) relieves the
hardening strains set up by quenching, as well as the reducing
of the hardness and brittleness of hardened steel.

Next: Effects Of Proper Annealing

Previous: Annealing Work

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