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Steel Making

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Process Of Carburizing


Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon
content to a low-carbon steel. This produces what might be termed
a dual steel, allowing for an outer shell which when hardened
would withstand wear, and a soft ductile core to produce ductility
and withstand shock. The operation is carried out by packing the
work to be carburized in boxes with a material rich in carbon and
maintaining the box so charged at a temperature in excess of the
highest critical point for a length of time to produce the desired
depth of carburized zone. Generally maintaining the temperature
at 1,650 to 1,700 deg. F. for 7 hr. will produce a carburized zone
1/32 in. deep.

Heating to a temperature slightly above the highest critical point
and cooling suddenly in some quenching medium, such as water or oil
hardens the steel. This treatment produces a maximum refinement
with the maximum strength.

Drawing to a temperature below the highest critical point (the
temperature being governed by the results required) relieves the
hardening strains set up by quenching, as well as the reducing
of the hardness and brittleness of hardened steel.

Next: Effects Of Proper Annealing

Previous: Annealing Work

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