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Steel Making

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels


Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contraction
in hardening and are very desirable for test plugs, gages, punches
and dies, for milling cutters, taps, reamers, hard steel bushings
and similar work.

It is recommended that for forging these steels it be heated slowly
and uniformly to a bright red, but not in a direct flame or blast.
Harden at a dull red heat, about 1,300 deg.F. A clean coal or coke
fire, or a good muffle-gas furnace will give best results. Fish
oil is good for quenching although in some cases warm water will
give excellent results. The steel should be kept moving in the bath
until perfectly cold. Heated and cooled in this way the steel is
very tough, takes a good cutting edge and has very little expansion
or contraction which makes it desirable for long taps where the
accuracy of lead is important.

The composition of these steels is as follows:

Per cent
Manganese 1.40 to 1.60
Carbon 0.80 to 0.90
Vanadium 0.20 to 0.25

Next: Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel

Previous: Properties Of Alloy Steels

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