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Steel Making

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels


Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contraction
in hardening and are very desirable for test plugs, gages, punches
and dies, for milling cutters, taps, reamers, hard steel bushings
and similar work.

It is recommended that for forging these steels it be heated slowly
and uniformly to a bright red, but not in a direct flame or blast.
Harden at a dull red heat, about 1,300 deg.F. A clean coal or coke
fire, or a good muffle-gas furnace will give best results. Fish
oil is good for quenching although in some cases warm water will
give excellent results. The steel should be kept moving in the bath
until perfectly cold. Heated and cooled in this way the steel is
very tough, takes a good cutting edge and has very little expansion
or contraction which makes it desirable for long taps where the
accuracy of lead is important.

The composition of these steels is as follows:

Per cent
Manganese 1.40 to 1.60
Carbon 0.80 to 0.90
Vanadium 0.20 to 0.25

Next: Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel

Previous: Properties Of Alloy Steels

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