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Steel Making

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels


Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contraction
in hardening and are very desirable for test plugs, gages, punches
and dies, for milling cutters, taps, reamers, hard steel bushings
and similar work.

It is recommended that for forging these steels it be heated slowly
and uniformly to a bright red, but not in a direct flame or blast.
Harden at a dull red heat, about 1,300 deg.F. A clean coal or coke
fire, or a good muffle-gas furnace will give best results. Fish
oil is good for quenching although in some cases warm water will
give excellent results. The steel should be kept moving in the bath
until perfectly cold. Heated and cooled in this way the steel is
very tough, takes a good cutting edge and has very little expansion
or contraction which makes it desirable for long taps where the
accuracy of lead is important.

The composition of these steels is as follows:

Per cent
Manganese 1.40 to 1.60
Carbon 0.80 to 0.90
Vanadium 0.20 to 0.25

Next: Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel

Previous: Properties Of Alloy Steels

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