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Steel Making

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels


Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contraction
in hardening and are very desirable for test plugs, gages, punches
and dies, for milling cutters, taps, reamers, hard steel bushings
and similar work.

It is recommended that for forging these steels it be heated slowly
and uniformly to a bright red, but not in a direct flame or blast.
Harden at a dull red heat, about 1,300 deg.F. A clean coal or coke
fire, or a good muffle-gas furnace will give best results. Fish
oil is good for quenching although in some cases warm water will
give excellent results. The steel should be kept moving in the bath
until perfectly cold. Heated and cooled in this way the steel is
very tough, takes a good cutting edge and has very little expansion
or contraction which makes it desirable for long taps where the
accuracy of lead is important.

The composition of these steels is as follows:

Per cent
Manganese 1.40 to 1.60
Carbon 0.80 to 0.90
Vanadium 0.20 to 0.25

Next: Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel

Previous: Properties Of Alloy Steels

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