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Steel Making

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Hardening
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Manganese
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...



Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contraction
in hardening and are very desirable for test plugs, gages, punches
and dies, for milling cutters, taps, reamers, hard steel bushings
and similar work.

It is recommended that for forging these steels it be heated slowly
and uniformly to a bright red, but not in a direct flame or blast.
Harden at a dull red heat, about 1,300 deg.F. A clean coal or coke
fire, or a good muffle-gas furnace will give best results. Fish
oil is good for quenching although in some cases warm water will
give excellent results. The steel should be kept moving in the bath
until perfectly cold. Heated and cooled in this way the steel is
very tough, takes a good cutting edge and has very little expansion
or contraction which makes it desirable for long taps where the
accuracy of lead is important.

The composition of these steels is as follows:

Per cent
Manganese 1.40 to 1.60
Carbon 0.80 to 0.90
Vanadium 0.20 to 0.25





Next: Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel

Previous: Properties Of Alloy Steels



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