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Steel Making

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Annealing
ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...



Properties Of Alloy Steels






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganese,
nickel, chromium and vanadium in typical steel alloys for engineering
purposes. It also gives the elastic limit, tensile strength, elongation
and reduction of area of the various alloys, all being given the same
heat treatment with a drawing temperature of 1,100 deg.F. (600 deg.C.). The
specimens were one inch rounds machined after heat treatment.

Tungsten is not shown in the table because it is seldom used in
engineering construction steels and then usually in combination
with chromium. Tungsten is used principally for the magnets of
magnetos, to some extent in the manufacture of hacksaws, and for
special tool steels.

TABLE I.--PROPERTIES OF ALLOY STEELS
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Manganese,/ Chromium,/ ElasticTensile ElongationReduction
Carbon, per /Nickel, per /Vanadium,limit, Strength,in 2 in., of area,
per cent per cent per cent lb. perlb. per per cent per cent
cent cent sq. in.sq. in.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
0.27 0.55 49,000 80,000 30 65
0.27 0.47 0.26 66,000 98,000 25 52
0.36 0.42 58,000 90,000 27 60
0.34 0.87 0.13 82,500 103,000 22 57
0.45 0.50 65,000 96,000 22 52
0.43 0.60 0.32 96,000 122,000 21 52
0.47 0.90 0.15 102,000 127,500 23 58
0.30 0.60 3.40 75,000 105,000 25 67
0.33 0.63 3.60 0.25 118,000 142,000 17 57
0.30 0.49 3.60 1.70 119,000 149,500 21 60
0.25 0.47 3.47 1.60 0.15 139,000 170,000 18 53
0.25 0.50 2.00 1.00 102,000 124,000 25 70
0.38 0.30 2.08 1.16 120,000 134,000 20 57
0.42 0.22 2.14 1.27 0.26 145,000 161,500 16 53
0.36 0.61 1.46 0.64 117,600 132,500 16 58
0.36 0.50 1.30 0.75 0.16 140,000 157,500 17 54
0.30 0.50 0.80 90,000 105,000 20 50
0.23 0.58 0.82 0.17 106,000 124,000 21 66
0.26 0.48 0.92 0.20 112,000 137,000 20 61
0.35 0.64 1.03 0.22 132,500 149,500 16 54
0.50 0.92 1.02 0.20 170,000 186,000 15 45
------------------------------------------------------------------------------





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