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Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...



Properties Of Alloy Steels






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganese,
nickel, chromium and vanadium in typical steel alloys for engineering
purposes. It also gives the elastic limit, tensile strength, elongation
and reduction of area of the various alloys, all being given the same
heat treatment with a drawing temperature of 1,100 deg.F. (600 deg.C.). The
specimens were one inch rounds machined after heat treatment.

Tungsten is not shown in the table because it is seldom used in
engineering construction steels and then usually in combination
with chromium. Tungsten is used principally for the magnets of
magnetos, to some extent in the manufacture of hacksaws, and for
special tool steels.

TABLE I.--PROPERTIES OF ALLOY STEELS
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Manganese,/ Chromium,/ ElasticTensile ElongationReduction
Carbon, per /Nickel, per /Vanadium,limit, Strength,in 2 in., of area,
per cent per cent per cent lb. perlb. per per cent per cent
cent cent sq. in.sq. in.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
0.27 0.55 49,000 80,000 30 65
0.27 0.47 0.26 66,000 98,000 25 52
0.36 0.42 58,000 90,000 27 60
0.34 0.87 0.13 82,500 103,000 22 57
0.45 0.50 65,000 96,000 22 52
0.43 0.60 0.32 96,000 122,000 21 52
0.47 0.90 0.15 102,000 127,500 23 58
0.30 0.60 3.40 75,000 105,000 25 67
0.33 0.63 3.60 0.25 118,000 142,000 17 57
0.30 0.49 3.60 1.70 119,000 149,500 21 60
0.25 0.47 3.47 1.60 0.15 139,000 170,000 18 53
0.25 0.50 2.00 1.00 102,000 124,000 25 70
0.38 0.30 2.08 1.16 120,000 134,000 20 57
0.42 0.22 2.14 1.27 0.26 145,000 161,500 16 53
0.36 0.61 1.46 0.64 117,600 132,500 16 58
0.36 0.50 1.30 0.75 0.16 140,000 157,500 17 54
0.30 0.50 0.80 90,000 105,000 20 50
0.23 0.58 0.82 0.17 106,000 124,000 21 66
0.26 0.48 0.92 0.20 112,000 137,000 20 61
0.35 0.64 1.03 0.22 132,500 149,500 16 54
0.50 0.92 1.02 0.20 170,000 186,000 15 45
------------------------------------------------------------------------------





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