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Steel Making

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Piston Pin


The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum resistance
to wear and to fatigue. For this reason, the piston pin is considered,
from a metallurgical standpoint, the most important part on the
engine to produce in quantities and still possess the above
characteristics. The material used for the Liberty engine piston
pin was S. A. E. No. 2315 steel, which is of the following chemical
composition: Carbon, 0.100 to 0.200 per cent; manganese, 0.500
to 0.800 per cent; phosphorus, 0.040 maximum per cent; sulphur,
0.045 maximum per cent; nickel, 3.250 to 3.750 per cent.

Each finished piston pin, after heat treatment, must show a minimum
scleroscope hardness of the case of 70, a scleroscope hardness of
the core of from 35 to 55 and a minimum crushing strength when
supported as a beam and the load applied at the center of 35,000
lb. The heat treatment used to obtain the above physical properties
consisted in carburizing at a temperature not to exceed 1,675 deg.F.,
for a sufficient length of time to secure a case of from 0.02 to
0.04 in. deep. The pins are then allowed to cool slowly from the
carbonizing heat, after which the hole is finish-machined and the
pin cut to length. The finish heat treatment of the piston pin
consisted in quenching in oil from a temperature of from 1,525 to
1,575 deg.F. to refine the grain of core properly and then quenching in
oil at a temperature of from 1,340 to 1,380 deg.F. to refine and harden
the grain of the case properly, as well as to secure proper hardness
of core. After this quenching, all piston pins are tempered in oil
at a temperature of from 375 to 400 deg.F. A 100 per cent inspection
for scleroscope hardness of the case and the core was made, and
no failures were ever recorded when the above material and heat
treatment was used.

Next: Application To The Automotive Industry

Previous: Crankshaft

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