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Steel Making

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Piston Pin


The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum resistance
to wear and to fatigue. For this reason, the piston pin is considered,
from a metallurgical standpoint, the most important part on the
engine to produce in quantities and still possess the above
characteristics. The material used for the Liberty engine piston
pin was S. A. E. No. 2315 steel, which is of the following chemical
composition: Carbon, 0.100 to 0.200 per cent; manganese, 0.500
to 0.800 per cent; phosphorus, 0.040 maximum per cent; sulphur,
0.045 maximum per cent; nickel, 3.250 to 3.750 per cent.

Each finished piston pin, after heat treatment, must show a minimum
scleroscope hardness of the case of 70, a scleroscope hardness of
the core of from 35 to 55 and a minimum crushing strength when
supported as a beam and the load applied at the center of 35,000
lb. The heat treatment used to obtain the above physical properties
consisted in carburizing at a temperature not to exceed 1,675 deg.F.,
for a sufficient length of time to secure a case of from 0.02 to
0.04 in. deep. The pins are then allowed to cool slowly from the
carbonizing heat, after which the hole is finish-machined and the
pin cut to length. The finish heat treatment of the piston pin
consisted in quenching in oil from a temperature of from 1,525 to
1,575 deg.F. to refine the grain of core properly and then quenching in
oil at a temperature of from 1,340 to 1,380 deg.F. to refine and harden
the grain of the case properly, as well as to secure proper hardness
of core. After this quenching, all piston pins are tempered in oil
at a temperature of from 375 to 400 deg.F. A 100 per cent inspection
for scleroscope hardness of the case and the core was made, and
no failures were ever recorded when the above material and heat
treatment was used.

Next: Application To The Automotive Industry

Previous: Crankshaft

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