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Steel Making

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Piston Pin


The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum resistance
to wear and to fatigue. For this reason, the piston pin is considered,
from a metallurgical standpoint, the most important part on the
engine to produce in quantities and still possess the above
characteristics. The material used for the Liberty engine piston
pin was S. A. E. No. 2315 steel, which is of the following chemical
composition: Carbon, 0.100 to 0.200 per cent; manganese, 0.500
to 0.800 per cent; phosphorus, 0.040 maximum per cent; sulphur,
0.045 maximum per cent; nickel, 3.250 to 3.750 per cent.

Each finished piston pin, after heat treatment, must show a minimum
scleroscope hardness of the case of 70, a scleroscope hardness of
the core of from 35 to 55 and a minimum crushing strength when
supported as a beam and the load applied at the center of 35,000
lb. The heat treatment used to obtain the above physical properties
consisted in carburizing at a temperature not to exceed 1,675 deg.F.,
for a sufficient length of time to secure a case of from 0.02 to
0.04 in. deep. The pins are then allowed to cool slowly from the
carbonizing heat, after which the hole is finish-machined and the
pin cut to length. The finish heat treatment of the piston pin
consisted in quenching in oil from a temperature of from 1,525 to
1,575 deg.F. to refine the grain of core properly and then quenching in
oil at a temperature of from 1,340 to 1,380 deg.F. to refine and harden
the grain of the case properly, as well as to secure proper hardness
of core. After this quenching, all piston pins are tempered in oil
at a temperature of from 375 to 400 deg.F. A 100 per cent inspection
for scleroscope hardness of the case and the core was made, and
no failures were ever recorded when the above material and heat
treatment was used.

Next: Application To The Automotive Industry

Previous: Crankshaft

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