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Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...



Piston Pin






Category: APPLICATION OF LIBERTY ENGINE MATERIALS TO THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum resistance
to wear and to fatigue. For this reason, the piston pin is considered,
from a metallurgical standpoint, the most important part on the
engine to produce in quantities and still possess the above
characteristics. The material used for the Liberty engine piston
pin was S. A. E. No. 2315 steel, which is of the following chemical
composition: Carbon, 0.100 to 0.200 per cent; manganese, 0.500
to 0.800 per cent; phosphorus, 0.040 maximum per cent; sulphur,
0.045 maximum per cent; nickel, 3.250 to 3.750 per cent.

Each finished piston pin, after heat treatment, must show a minimum
scleroscope hardness of the case of 70, a scleroscope hardness of
the core of from 35 to 55 and a minimum crushing strength when
supported as a beam and the load applied at the center of 35,000
lb. The heat treatment used to obtain the above physical properties
consisted in carburizing at a temperature not to exceed 1,675 deg.F.,
for a sufficient length of time to secure a case of from 0.02 to
0.04 in. deep. The pins are then allowed to cool slowly from the
carbonizing heat, after which the hole is finish-machined and the
pin cut to length. The finish heat treatment of the piston pin
consisted in quenching in oil from a temperature of from 1,525 to
1,575 deg.F. to refine the grain of core properly and then quenching in
oil at a temperature of from 1,340 to 1,380 deg.F. to refine and harden
the grain of the case properly, as well as to secure proper hardness
of core. After this quenching, all piston pins are tempered in oil
at a temperature of from 375 to 400 deg.F. A 100 per cent inspection
for scleroscope hardness of the case and the core was made, and
no failures were ever recorded when the above material and heat
treatment was used.





Next: Application To The Automotive Industry

Previous: Crankshaft



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