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Steel Making

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Piston Pin


The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum resistance
to wear and to fatigue. For this reason, the piston pin is considered,
from a metallurgical standpoint, the most important part on the
engine to produce in quantities and still possess the above
characteristics. The material used for the Liberty engine piston
pin was S. A. E. No. 2315 steel, which is of the following chemical
composition: Carbon, 0.100 to 0.200 per cent; manganese, 0.500
to 0.800 per cent; phosphorus, 0.040 maximum per cent; sulphur,
0.045 maximum per cent; nickel, 3.250 to 3.750 per cent.

Each finished piston pin, after heat treatment, must show a minimum
scleroscope hardness of the case of 70, a scleroscope hardness of
the core of from 35 to 55 and a minimum crushing strength when
supported as a beam and the load applied at the center of 35,000
lb. The heat treatment used to obtain the above physical properties
consisted in carburizing at a temperature not to exceed 1,675 deg.F.,
for a sufficient length of time to secure a case of from 0.02 to
0.04 in. deep. The pins are then allowed to cool slowly from the
carbonizing heat, after which the hole is finish-machined and the
pin cut to length. The finish heat treatment of the piston pin
consisted in quenching in oil from a temperature of from 1,525 to
1,575 deg.F. to refine the grain of core properly and then quenching in
oil at a temperature of from 1,340 to 1,380 deg.F. to refine and harden
the grain of the case properly, as well as to secure proper hardness
of core. After this quenching, all piston pins are tempered in oil
at a temperature of from 375 to 400 deg.F. A 100 per cent inspection
for scleroscope hardness of the case and the core was made, and
no failures were ever recorded when the above material and heat
treatment was used.

Next: Application To The Automotive Industry

Previous: Crankshaft

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