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Steel Making

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Piston Pin


The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum resistance
to wear and to fatigue. For this reason, the piston pin is considered,
from a metallurgical standpoint, the most important part on the
engine to produce in quantities and still possess the above
characteristics. The material used for the Liberty engine piston
pin was S. A. E. No. 2315 steel, which is of the following chemical
composition: Carbon, 0.100 to 0.200 per cent; manganese, 0.500
to 0.800 per cent; phosphorus, 0.040 maximum per cent; sulphur,
0.045 maximum per cent; nickel, 3.250 to 3.750 per cent.

Each finished piston pin, after heat treatment, must show a minimum
scleroscope hardness of the case of 70, a scleroscope hardness of
the core of from 35 to 55 and a minimum crushing strength when
supported as a beam and the load applied at the center of 35,000
lb. The heat treatment used to obtain the above physical properties
consisted in carburizing at a temperature not to exceed 1,675 deg.F.,
for a sufficient length of time to secure a case of from 0.02 to
0.04 in. deep. The pins are then allowed to cool slowly from the
carbonizing heat, after which the hole is finish-machined and the
pin cut to length. The finish heat treatment of the piston pin
consisted in quenching in oil from a temperature of from 1,525 to
1,575 deg.F. to refine the grain of core properly and then quenching in
oil at a temperature of from 1,340 to 1,380 deg.F. to refine and harden
the grain of the case properly, as well as to secure proper hardness
of core. After this quenching, all piston pins are tempered in oil
at a temperature of from 375 to 400 deg.F. A 100 per cent inspection
for scleroscope hardness of the case and the core was made, and
no failures were ever recorded when the above material and heat
treatment was used.

Next: Application To The Automotive Industry

Previous: Crankshaft

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