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Steel Making

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Piston Pin


The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum resistance
to wear and to fatigue. For this reason, the piston pin is considered,
from a metallurgical standpoint, the most important part on the
engine to produce in quantities and still possess the above
characteristics. The material used for the Liberty engine piston
pin was S. A. E. No. 2315 steel, which is of the following chemical
composition: Carbon, 0.100 to 0.200 per cent; manganese, 0.500
to 0.800 per cent; phosphorus, 0.040 maximum per cent; sulphur,
0.045 maximum per cent; nickel, 3.250 to 3.750 per cent.

Each finished piston pin, after heat treatment, must show a minimum
scleroscope hardness of the case of 70, a scleroscope hardness of
the core of from 35 to 55 and a minimum crushing strength when
supported as a beam and the load applied at the center of 35,000
lb. The heat treatment used to obtain the above physical properties
consisted in carburizing at a temperature not to exceed 1,675 deg.F.,
for a sufficient length of time to secure a case of from 0.02 to
0.04 in. deep. The pins are then allowed to cool slowly from the
carbonizing heat, after which the hole is finish-machined and the
pin cut to length. The finish heat treatment of the piston pin
consisted in quenching in oil from a temperature of from 1,525 to
1,575 deg.F. to refine the grain of core properly and then quenching in
oil at a temperature of from 1,340 to 1,380 deg.F. to refine and harden
the grain of the case properly, as well as to secure proper hardness
of core. After this quenching, all piston pins are tempered in oil
at a temperature of from 375 to 400 deg.F. A 100 per cent inspection
for scleroscope hardness of the case and the core was made, and
no failures were ever recorded when the above material and heat
treatment was used.

Next: Application To The Automotive Industry

Previous: Crankshaft

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