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Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Hardening
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...



Piston Pin






Category: APPLICATION OF LIBERTY ENGINE MATERIALS TO THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum resistance
to wear and to fatigue. For this reason, the piston pin is considered,
from a metallurgical standpoint, the most important part on the
engine to produce in quantities and still possess the above
characteristics. The material used for the Liberty engine piston
pin was S. A. E. No. 2315 steel, which is of the following chemical
composition: Carbon, 0.100 to 0.200 per cent; manganese, 0.500
to 0.800 per cent; phosphorus, 0.040 maximum per cent; sulphur,
0.045 maximum per cent; nickel, 3.250 to 3.750 per cent.

Each finished piston pin, after heat treatment, must show a minimum
scleroscope hardness of the case of 70, a scleroscope hardness of
the core of from 35 to 55 and a minimum crushing strength when
supported as a beam and the load applied at the center of 35,000
lb. The heat treatment used to obtain the above physical properties
consisted in carburizing at a temperature not to exceed 1,675 deg.F.,
for a sufficient length of time to secure a case of from 0.02 to
0.04 in. deep. The pins are then allowed to cool slowly from the
carbonizing heat, after which the hole is finish-machined and the
pin cut to length. The finish heat treatment of the piston pin
consisted in quenching in oil from a temperature of from 1,525 to
1,575 deg.F. to refine the grain of core properly and then quenching in
oil at a temperature of from 1,340 to 1,380 deg.F. to refine and harden
the grain of the case properly, as well as to secure proper hardness
of core. After this quenching, all piston pins are tempered in oil
at a temperature of from 375 to 400 deg.F. A 100 per cent inspection
for scleroscope hardness of the case and the core was made, and
no failures were ever recorded when the above material and heat
treatment was used.





Next: Application To The Automotive Industry

Previous: Crankshaft



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