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Steel Making

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Piston Pin


The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum resistance
to wear and to fatigue. For this reason, the piston pin is considered,
from a metallurgical standpoint, the most important part on the
engine to produce in quantities and still possess the above
characteristics. The material used for the Liberty engine piston
pin was S. A. E. No. 2315 steel, which is of the following chemical
composition: Carbon, 0.100 to 0.200 per cent; manganese, 0.500
to 0.800 per cent; phosphorus, 0.040 maximum per cent; sulphur,
0.045 maximum per cent; nickel, 3.250 to 3.750 per cent.

Each finished piston pin, after heat treatment, must show a minimum
scleroscope hardness of the case of 70, a scleroscope hardness of
the core of from 35 to 55 and a minimum crushing strength when
supported as a beam and the load applied at the center of 35,000
lb. The heat treatment used to obtain the above physical properties
consisted in carburizing at a temperature not to exceed 1,675 deg.F.,
for a sufficient length of time to secure a case of from 0.02 to
0.04 in. deep. The pins are then allowed to cool slowly from the
carbonizing heat, after which the hole is finish-machined and the
pin cut to length. The finish heat treatment of the piston pin
consisted in quenching in oil from a temperature of from 1,525 to
1,575 deg.F. to refine the grain of core properly and then quenching in
oil at a temperature of from 1,340 to 1,380 deg.F. to refine and harden
the grain of the case properly, as well as to secure proper hardness
of core. After this quenching, all piston pins are tempered in oil
at a temperature of from 375 to 400 deg.F. A 100 per cent inspection
for scleroscope hardness of the case and the core was made, and
no failures were ever recorded when the above material and heat
treatment was used.

Next: Application To The Automotive Industry

Previous: Crankshaft

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