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   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Piston Pin


The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum resistance
to wear and to fatigue. For this reason, the piston pin is considered,
from a metallurgical standpoint, the most important part on the
engine to produce in quantities and still possess the above
characteristics. The material used for the Liberty engine piston
pin was S. A. E. No. 2315 steel, which is of the following chemical
composition: Carbon, 0.100 to 0.200 per cent; manganese, 0.500
to 0.800 per cent; phosphorus, 0.040 maximum per cent; sulphur,
0.045 maximum per cent; nickel, 3.250 to 3.750 per cent.

Each finished piston pin, after heat treatment, must show a minimum
scleroscope hardness of the case of 70, a scleroscope hardness of
the core of from 35 to 55 and a minimum crushing strength when
supported as a beam and the load applied at the center of 35,000
lb. The heat treatment used to obtain the above physical properties
consisted in carburizing at a temperature not to exceed 1,675 deg.F.,
for a sufficient length of time to secure a case of from 0.02 to
0.04 in. deep. The pins are then allowed to cool slowly from the
carbonizing heat, after which the hole is finish-machined and the
pin cut to length. The finish heat treatment of the piston pin
consisted in quenching in oil from a temperature of from 1,525 to
1,575 deg.F. to refine the grain of core properly and then quenching in
oil at a temperature of from 1,340 to 1,380 deg.F. to refine and harden
the grain of the case properly, as well as to secure proper hardness
of core. After this quenching, all piston pins are tempered in oil
at a temperature of from 375 to 400 deg.F. A 100 per cent inspection
for scleroscope hardness of the case and the core was made, and
no failures were ever recorded when the above material and heat
treatment was used.

Next: Application To The Automotive Industry

Previous: Crankshaft

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