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Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...



Piston Pin






Category: APPLICATION OF LIBERTY ENGINE MATERIALS TO THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum resistance
to wear and to fatigue. For this reason, the piston pin is considered,
from a metallurgical standpoint, the most important part on the
engine to produce in quantities and still possess the above
characteristics. The material used for the Liberty engine piston
pin was S. A. E. No. 2315 steel, which is of the following chemical
composition: Carbon, 0.100 to 0.200 per cent; manganese, 0.500
to 0.800 per cent; phosphorus, 0.040 maximum per cent; sulphur,
0.045 maximum per cent; nickel, 3.250 to 3.750 per cent.

Each finished piston pin, after heat treatment, must show a minimum
scleroscope hardness of the case of 70, a scleroscope hardness of
the core of from 35 to 55 and a minimum crushing strength when
supported as a beam and the load applied at the center of 35,000
lb. The heat treatment used to obtain the above physical properties
consisted in carburizing at a temperature not to exceed 1,675 deg.F.,
for a sufficient length of time to secure a case of from 0.02 to
0.04 in. deep. The pins are then allowed to cool slowly from the
carbonizing heat, after which the hole is finish-machined and the
pin cut to length. The finish heat treatment of the piston pin
consisted in quenching in oil from a temperature of from 1,525 to
1,575 deg.F. to refine the grain of core properly and then quenching in
oil at a temperature of from 1,340 to 1,380 deg.F. to refine and harden
the grain of the case properly, as well as to secure proper hardness
of core. After this quenching, all piston pins are tempered in oil
at a temperature of from 375 to 400 deg.F. A 100 per cent inspection
for scleroscope hardness of the case and the core was made, and
no failures were ever recorded when the above material and heat
treatment was used.





Next: Application To The Automotive Industry

Previous: Crankshaft



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