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Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...



Piston Pin






Category: APPLICATION OF LIBERTY ENGINE MATERIALS TO THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum resistance
to wear and to fatigue. For this reason, the piston pin is considered,
from a metallurgical standpoint, the most important part on the
engine to produce in quantities and still possess the above
characteristics. The material used for the Liberty engine piston
pin was S. A. E. No. 2315 steel, which is of the following chemical
composition: Carbon, 0.100 to 0.200 per cent; manganese, 0.500
to 0.800 per cent; phosphorus, 0.040 maximum per cent; sulphur,
0.045 maximum per cent; nickel, 3.250 to 3.750 per cent.

Each finished piston pin, after heat treatment, must show a minimum
scleroscope hardness of the case of 70, a scleroscope hardness of
the core of from 35 to 55 and a minimum crushing strength when
supported as a beam and the load applied at the center of 35,000
lb. The heat treatment used to obtain the above physical properties
consisted in carburizing at a temperature not to exceed 1,675 deg.F.,
for a sufficient length of time to secure a case of from 0.02 to
0.04 in. deep. The pins are then allowed to cool slowly from the
carbonizing heat, after which the hole is finish-machined and the
pin cut to length. The finish heat treatment of the piston pin
consisted in quenching in oil from a temperature of from 1,525 to
1,575 deg.F. to refine the grain of core properly and then quenching in
oil at a temperature of from 1,340 to 1,380 deg.F. to refine and harden
the grain of the case properly, as well as to secure proper hardness
of core. After this quenching, all piston pins are tempered in oil
at a temperature of from 375 to 400 deg.F. A 100 per cent inspection
for scleroscope hardness of the case and the core was made, and
no failures were ever recorded when the above material and heat
treatment was used.





Next: Application To The Automotive Industry

Previous: Crankshaft



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