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Steel Making

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Piston Pin


The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum resistance
to wear and to fatigue. For this reason, the piston pin is considered,
from a metallurgical standpoint, the most important part on the
engine to produce in quantities and still possess the above
characteristics. The material used for the Liberty engine piston
pin was S. A. E. No. 2315 steel, which is of the following chemical
composition: Carbon, 0.100 to 0.200 per cent; manganese, 0.500
to 0.800 per cent; phosphorus, 0.040 maximum per cent; sulphur,
0.045 maximum per cent; nickel, 3.250 to 3.750 per cent.

Each finished piston pin, after heat treatment, must show a minimum
scleroscope hardness of the case of 70, a scleroscope hardness of
the core of from 35 to 55 and a minimum crushing strength when
supported as a beam and the load applied at the center of 35,000
lb. The heat treatment used to obtain the above physical properties
consisted in carburizing at a temperature not to exceed 1,675 deg.F.,
for a sufficient length of time to secure a case of from 0.02 to
0.04 in. deep. The pins are then allowed to cool slowly from the
carbonizing heat, after which the hole is finish-machined and the
pin cut to length. The finish heat treatment of the piston pin
consisted in quenching in oil from a temperature of from 1,525 to
1,575 deg.F. to refine the grain of core properly and then quenching in
oil at a temperature of from 1,340 to 1,380 deg.F. to refine and harden
the grain of the case properly, as well as to secure proper hardness
of core. After this quenching, all piston pins are tempered in oil
at a temperature of from 375 to 400 deg.F. A 100 per cent inspection
for scleroscope hardness of the case and the core was made, and
no failures were ever recorded when the above material and heat
treatment was used.

Next: Application To The Automotive Industry

Previous: Crankshaft

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