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Steel Making

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...



Piston Pin






Category: APPLICATION OF LIBERTY ENGINE MATERIALS TO THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum resistance
to wear and to fatigue. For this reason, the piston pin is considered,
from a metallurgical standpoint, the most important part on the
engine to produce in quantities and still possess the above
characteristics. The material used for the Liberty engine piston
pin was S. A. E. No. 2315 steel, which is of the following chemical
composition: Carbon, 0.100 to 0.200 per cent; manganese, 0.500
to 0.800 per cent; phosphorus, 0.040 maximum per cent; sulphur,
0.045 maximum per cent; nickel, 3.250 to 3.750 per cent.

Each finished piston pin, after heat treatment, must show a minimum
scleroscope hardness of the case of 70, a scleroscope hardness of
the core of from 35 to 55 and a minimum crushing strength when
supported as a beam and the load applied at the center of 35,000
lb. The heat treatment used to obtain the above physical properties
consisted in carburizing at a temperature not to exceed 1,675 deg.F.,
for a sufficient length of time to secure a case of from 0.02 to
0.04 in. deep. The pins are then allowed to cool slowly from the
carbonizing heat, after which the hole is finish-machined and the
pin cut to length. The finish heat treatment of the piston pin
consisted in quenching in oil from a temperature of from 1,525 to
1,575 deg.F. to refine the grain of core properly and then quenching in
oil at a temperature of from 1,340 to 1,380 deg.F. to refine and harden
the grain of the case properly, as well as to secure proper hardness
of core. After this quenching, all piston pins are tempered in oil
at a temperature of from 375 to 400 deg.F. A 100 per cent inspection
for scleroscope hardness of the case and the core was made, and
no failures were ever recorded when the above material and heat
treatment was used.





Next: Application To The Automotive Industry

Previous: Crankshaft



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