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Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...



Rate Of Absorption






Category: CASE-HARDENING OR SURFACE-CARBURIZING

According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by those
special elements which exist as double carbides in steel. For example,
manganese exists as manganese carbide in combination with the iron
carbide. The elements that favor the absorption of carbon are:
manganese, tungsten, chromium and molybdenum those opposing it,
nickel, silicon, and aluminum. Guillet has worked out the effect
of the different elements on the rate of penetration in comparison
with steel that absorbed carbon at a given temperature, at an average
rate of 0.035 in. per hour.

His tables show that the following elements require an increased
time of exposure to the carburizing material in order to obtain
the same depth of penetration as with simple steel:

When steel contains Increased time of exposure
2.0 per cent nickel 28 per cent
7.0 per cent nickel 30 per cent
1.0 per cent titanium 12 per cent
2.0 per cent titanium 28 per cent
0.5 per cent silicon 50 per cent
1.0 per cent silicon 80 per cent
2.0 per cent silicon 122 per cent
5.0 per cent silicon No penetration
1.0 per cent aluminum 122 per cent
2.0 per cent aluminum 350 per cent

The following elements seem to assist the rate of penetration of
carbon, and the carburizing time may therefore be reduced as follows:

When steel contains Decreased time of exposure
0.5 per cent manganese 18 per cent
1.0 per cent manganese 25 per cent
1.0 per cent chromium 10 per cent
2.0 per cent chromium 18 per cent
0.5 per cent tungsten 0
1.0 per cent tungsten 0
2.0 per cent tungsten 25 per cent
1.0 per cent molybdenum 0
2.0 per cent molybdenum 18 per cent

The temperature at which carburization is accomplished is a very
important factor. Hence the necessity for a reliable pyrometer,
located so as to give the temperature just below the tops of the
pots. It must be remembered, however, that the pyrometer gives
the temperature of only one spot, and is therefore only an aid to
the operator, who must use his eyes for successful results.

The carbon content of the case generally is governed by the temperature
of the carburization. It generally proves advisable to have the
case contain between 0.90 per cent and 1.10 carbon; more carbon
than this gives rise to excess free cementite or carbide of iron,
which is detrimental, causing the case to be brittle and apt to chip.

T. G. Selleck gives a very useful table of temperatures and the
relative carbon contents of the case of steels carburized between
4 and 6 hrs. using a good charcoal carburizer. This data is as
follows:

TABLE 15.--CARBON CONTENT OBTAINED AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES

At 1,500 deg.F., the surface carbon content will be 0.90 per cent
At 1,600 deg.F., the surface carbon content will be 1.00 per cent
At 1,650 deg.F., the surface carbon content will be 1.10 per cent
At 1,700 deg.F., the surface carbon content will be 1.25 per cent
At 1,750 deg.F., the surface carbon content will be 1.40 per cent
At 1,800 deg.F., the surface carbon content will be 1.75 per cent

To this very valuable table, it seems best to add the following
data, which we have used for a number of years. We do not know
the name of its author, but it has proved very valuable, and seems
to complete the above information. The table is self-explanatory,
giving depth of penetration of the carbon of the case at different
temperatures for different lengths of time:

---------------------------------------------------------
Temperature
Penetration -----------------------------
1,550 1,650 1,800
------------------------------------------------------
Penetration after 1/2 hr. 0.008 0.012 0.030
Penetration after 1 hr. 0.018 0.026 0.045
Penetration after 2 hr. 0.035 0.048 0.060
Penetration after 3 hr. 0.045 0.055 0.075
Penetration after 4 hr. 0.052 0.061 0.092
Penetration after 6 hr. 0.056 0.075 0.110
Penetration after 8 hr. 0.062 0.083 0.130
---------------------------------------------------------

From the tables given, we may calculate with a fair degree of certainty
the amount of carbon in the case, and its penetration. These figures
vary widely with different carburizers, and as pointed out immediately
above, with different alloy steels.





Next: Carburizing Material

Previous: Surface Carburizing



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