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Steel Making

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Rate Of Absorption


According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by those
special elements which exist as double carbides in steel. For example,
manganese exists as manganese carbide in combination with the iron
carbide. The elements that favor the absorption of carbon are:
manganese, tungsten, chromium and molybdenum those opposing it,
nickel, silicon, and aluminum. Guillet has worked out the effect
of the different elements on the rate of penetration in comparison
with steel that absorbed carbon at a given temperature, at an average
rate of 0.035 in. per hour.

His tables show that the following elements require an increased
time of exposure to the carburizing material in order to obtain
the same depth of penetration as with simple steel:

When steel contains Increased time of exposure
2.0 per cent nickel 28 per cent
7.0 per cent nickel 30 per cent
1.0 per cent titanium 12 per cent
2.0 per cent titanium 28 per cent
0.5 per cent silicon 50 per cent
1.0 per cent silicon 80 per cent
2.0 per cent silicon 122 per cent
5.0 per cent silicon No penetration
1.0 per cent aluminum 122 per cent
2.0 per cent aluminum 350 per cent

The following elements seem to assist the rate of penetration of
carbon, and the carburizing time may therefore be reduced as follows:

When steel contains Decreased time of exposure
0.5 per cent manganese 18 per cent
1.0 per cent manganese 25 per cent
1.0 per cent chromium 10 per cent
2.0 per cent chromium 18 per cent
0.5 per cent tungsten 0
1.0 per cent tungsten 0
2.0 per cent tungsten 25 per cent
1.0 per cent molybdenum 0
2.0 per cent molybdenum 18 per cent

The temperature at which carburization is accomplished is a very
important factor. Hence the necessity for a reliable pyrometer,
located so as to give the temperature just below the tops of the
pots. It must be remembered, however, that the pyrometer gives
the temperature of only one spot, and is therefore only an aid to
the operator, who must use his eyes for successful results.

The carbon content of the case generally is governed by the temperature
of the carburization. It generally proves advisable to have the
case contain between 0.90 per cent and 1.10 carbon; more carbon
than this gives rise to excess free cementite or carbide of iron,
which is detrimental, causing the case to be brittle and apt to chip.

T. G. Selleck gives a very useful table of temperatures and the
relative carbon contents of the case of steels carburized between
4 and 6 hrs. using a good charcoal carburizer. This data is as


At 1,500 deg.F., the surface carbon content will be 0.90 per cent
At 1,600 deg.F., the surface carbon content will be 1.00 per cent
At 1,650 deg.F., the surface carbon content will be 1.10 per cent
At 1,700 deg.F., the surface carbon content will be 1.25 per cent
At 1,750 deg.F., the surface carbon content will be 1.40 per cent
At 1,800 deg.F., the surface carbon content will be 1.75 per cent

To this very valuable table, it seems best to add the following
data, which we have used for a number of years. We do not know
the name of its author, but it has proved very valuable, and seems
to complete the above information. The table is self-explanatory,
giving depth of penetration of the carbon of the case at different
temperatures for different lengths of time:

Penetration -----------------------------
1,550 1,650 1,800
Penetration after 1/2 hr. 0.008 0.012 0.030
Penetration after 1 hr. 0.018 0.026 0.045
Penetration after 2 hr. 0.035 0.048 0.060
Penetration after 3 hr. 0.045 0.055 0.075
Penetration after 4 hr. 0.052 0.061 0.092
Penetration after 6 hr. 0.056 0.075 0.110
Penetration after 8 hr. 0.062 0.083 0.130

From the tables given, we may calculate with a fair degree of certainty
the amount of carbon in the case, and its penetration. These figures
vary widely with different carburizers, and as pointed out immediately
above, with different alloy steels.

Next: Carburizing Material

Previous: Surface Carburizing

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