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Steel Making

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel


It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such tools
as taps and form cutters, which must keep their shape after hardening
and which cannot be ground away on the profile. For this reason
it is well to put taps, reamers and the like into pieces of pipe
in heating them. The pipe need be closed on one end only, as the
air will not circulate readily unless there is an opening at both

Even if used in connection with a blacksmith's forge the lead bath
has an advantage for heating tools of complicated shapes, since
it is easier to heat them uniformly and they are submerged and
away from the air. The lead must be stirred frequently or the heat
is not uniform in all parts of the lead bath. Covering the lead
with powdered charcoal will largely prevent oxidization and waste
of lead.

Such a bath is good for temperatures between 620 and 1,150 deg.F. At
higher temperatures there is much waste of lead.

Next: Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses

Previous: Steel For Chisels And Punches

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