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Steel Making

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel


It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such tools
as taps and form cutters, which must keep their shape after hardening
and which cannot be ground away on the profile. For this reason
it is well to put taps, reamers and the like into pieces of pipe
in heating them. The pipe need be closed on one end only, as the
air will not circulate readily unless there is an opening at both

Even if used in connection with a blacksmith's forge the lead bath
has an advantage for heating tools of complicated shapes, since
it is easier to heat them uniformly and they are submerged and
away from the air. The lead must be stirred frequently or the heat
is not uniform in all parts of the lead bath. Covering the lead
with powdered charcoal will largely prevent oxidization and waste
of lead.

Such a bath is good for temperatures between 620 and 1,150 deg.F. At
higher temperatures there is much waste of lead.

Next: Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses

Previous: Steel For Chisels And Punches

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