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Steel Making

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Quenching Tool Steel


To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel is
as important as its heating. Quenching baths vary in nature, there
being a large number of ways to cool a piece of steel in contrast
to the comparatively few ways of heating it.

Plain water, brine and oil are the three most common quenching
materials. Of these three the brine will give the most hardness,
and plain water and oil come next. The colder that any of these
baths is when the piece is put into it the harder will be the steel;
but this does not mean that it is a good plan to dip the heated
steel into a tank of ice water, for the shock would be so great
that the bar would probably fly to pieces. In fact, the quenching
bath must be sometimes heated a bit to take off the edge of the

Brine solutions will work uniformly, or give the same degree of
hardness, until they reach a temperature of 150 deg.F. above which
their grip relaxes and the metals quenched in them become softer.
Plain water holds its grip up to a temperature of approximately
100 deg.F.; but oil baths, which are used to secure a slower rate of
cooling, may be used up to 500 deg. or more. A compromise is sometimes
effected by using a bath consisting of an inch or two of oil floating
on the surface of water. As the hot steel passes through the oil,
the shock is not as severe as if it were to be thrust directly
into the water; and in addition, oil adheres to the tool and keeps
the water from direct contact with the metal.

The old idea that mercury will harden steel more than any other
quenching material has been exploded. A bath consisting of melted
cyanide of potassium is useful for heating fine engraved dies and
other articles that are required to come out free from scale. One
must always be careful to provide a hood or exhaust system to get
rid of the deadly fumes coming from the cyanide pot.

The one main thing to remember in hardening tool steel is to quench
on a rising heat. This does not mean a rapid heating as a slow
increase in temperature is much better in every way.

Next: The Theory Of Tempering

Previous: Double Annealing

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