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Steel Making

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening


The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually very
limited, often consisting of a forge, a small open hard-coal furnace,
a barrel of water and a can of oil must have skill and experience.
With this equipment the smith is expected to, and usually can,
produce good results if proper care is taken.

In hardening carbon tool steel in water, too much cannot be said in
favor of slow, careful heating, nor against overheating if cracks
are to be avoided.

It is not wise to take the work from the hardening bath and leave
it exposed to the air if there is any heat left in it, because
it is more liable to crack than if left in the bath until cold.
In heating, plenty of time is taken for the work to heat evenly
clear through, thus avoiding strains caused by quick and improper
heating, In quenching in water, contraction is much more rapid
than was the expansion while heating, and strains begin the moment
the work touches the water. If the piece has any considerable size
and is taken from the bath before it is cold and allowed to come to
the air, expansion starts again from the inside so rapidly that the
chilled hardened surface cracks before the strains can be relieved.

Many are most successful with the hardening bath about blood warm.
When the work that is being hardened is nearly cold, it is taken
from the water and instantly put into a can of oil, where it is
allowed to finish cooling. The heat in the body of the tool will
come to the surface more slowly, thus relieving the strain and
overcoming much of the danger of cracking.

Some contend that the temper should be drawn as soon as possible
after hardening: but that if this cannot be done for some hours, the
work should be left in the oil until the tempering can be done. It
is claimed that forming dies and punch-press dies that are difficult
to harden will seldom crack if treated in this way.

Small tools or pieces that are very troublesome because of peculiar
shape should be made of steel which has been thoroughly annealed.
It is often well to mill or turn off the outer skin of the bar,
to remove metal which has been cold-worked. Then heat slowly just
through the critical range and cool in the furnace, in order to
produce a very fine grain. Tools machined from such stock, and
hardened with the utmost care, will have the best chance to survive
without warping, growth or cracking.

Next: Shrinking And Enlarging Work

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