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Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Rate Of Cooling


At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gear
forgings could be substituted by normalizing the forgings at a
temperature of from 1,550 to 1,600 deg.F. The most important criterion
for proper normalizing, consisted in allowing the forgings to cool
through the critical temperature of the steel, at a rate not to exceed
50 deg.F. per hour. For the two standard steels used, this consisted in
cooling from the normalizing temperature down to a temperature
of 1,100 deg.F., at the rate indicated. Forgings normalized in this
manner will show a Brinell hardness of from 177 to 217. The question
has been repeatedly asked as to which treatment will produce the
higher quality finished part. In answer to this I will state that
on simple forgings of comparatively small section, the normalizing
treatment will produce a finished part which is of equal quality to
that of the quenched and annealed forgings. However, in the case of
complex forgings, or those of large section, more uniform physical
properties of the finished part will be obtained by quenching and
annealing the forgings in the place of normalizing.

The heat treatment of the finished gears consisted of quenching
in oil from a temperature of from 1,420 to 1,440 deg.F. for the No.
X-3,340 steel, or from a temperature of from 1,500 to 1,540 deg.F.
for No. 6,140 steel, followed by tempering in saltpeter or in an
electric furnace at a temperature of from 650 to 700 deg.F.

The question has been asked by many engineers, why is the comparatively
low scleroscope hardness specified for gears? The reason for this is
that at best the life of an aviation engine is short, as compared with
that of an automobile, truck or tractor, and that shock resistance
is of vital importance. A sclerescope hardness of from 55 to 65
will give sufficient resistance to wear to prevent replacements
during the life of an aviation engine, while at the same time this
hardness produces approximately 50 per cent greater shock-resisting
properties to the gear. In the case of the automobile, truck or
tractor, resistance to wear is the main criterion and for that
reason the higher hardness is specified.

Great care should be taken in the design of an aviation engine
gear to eliminate sharp corners at the bottom of teeth as well
as in keyways. Any change of section in any stressed part of an
aviation engine must have a radius of at least 1/32 in. to give
proper shock and fatigue resistance. This fact has been demonstrated
many times during the Liberty engine program.

Next: Connecting Rods

Previous: Gears

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