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Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...



MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is Mn. It
is somewhat more active than iron in many chemical changes--notably
it has what is apparently a stronger attraction for oxygen and
sulphur than has iron. Therefore the metal is used (especially in
the so-called basic process) to free the molten steel of oxygen,
acting in a manner similar to silicon, as explained above. The
compound of manganese and oxygen is readily eliminated from the
metal. Sufficient excess of elemental manganese should remain so
that the purchaser may be sure that the iron has been properly
deoxidized, and to render harmless the traces of sulphur present.
No damage is done by the presence of a little manganese in steel,
quite the reverse. Consequently it is common to find steels containing
from 0.3 to 1.5 per cent.

Next: Alloying Elements

Previous: Silicon

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