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The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...



MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is Mn. It
is somewhat more active than iron in many chemical changes--notably
it has what is apparently a stronger attraction for oxygen and
sulphur than has iron. Therefore the metal is used (especially in
the so-called basic process) to free the molten steel of oxygen,
acting in a manner similar to silicon, as explained above. The
compound of manganese and oxygen is readily eliminated from the
metal. Sufficient excess of elemental manganese should remain so
that the purchaser may be sure that the iron has been properly
deoxidized, and to render harmless the traces of sulphur present.
No damage is done by the presence of a little manganese in steel,
quite the reverse. Consequently it is common to find steels containing
from 0.3 to 1.5 per cent.

Next: Alloying Elements

Previous: Silicon

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