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Steel Making

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...



MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is Mn. It
is somewhat more active than iron in many chemical changes--notably
it has what is apparently a stronger attraction for oxygen and
sulphur than has iron. Therefore the metal is used (especially in
the so-called basic process) to free the molten steel of oxygen,
acting in a manner similar to silicon, as explained above. The
compound of manganese and oxygen is readily eliminated from the
metal. Sufficient excess of elemental manganese should remain so
that the purchaser may be sure that the iron has been properly
deoxidized, and to render harmless the traces of sulphur present.
No damage is done by the presence of a little manganese in steel,
quite the reverse. Consequently it is common to find steels containing
from 0.3 to 1.5 per cent.

Next: Alloying Elements

Previous: Silicon

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