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Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...



MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is Mn. It
is somewhat more active than iron in many chemical changes--notably
it has what is apparently a stronger attraction for oxygen and
sulphur than has iron. Therefore the metal is used (especially in
the so-called basic process) to free the molten steel of oxygen,
acting in a manner similar to silicon, as explained above. The
compound of manganese and oxygen is readily eliminated from the
metal. Sufficient excess of elemental manganese should remain so
that the purchaser may be sure that the iron has been properly
deoxidized, and to render harmless the traces of sulphur present.
No damage is done by the presence of a little manganese in steel,
quite the reverse. Consequently it is common to find steels containing
from 0.3 to 1.5 per cent.

Next: Alloying Elements

Previous: Silicon

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