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Steel Making

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...



MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is Mn. It
is somewhat more active than iron in many chemical changes--notably
it has what is apparently a stronger attraction for oxygen and
sulphur than has iron. Therefore the metal is used (especially in
the so-called basic process) to free the molten steel of oxygen,
acting in a manner similar to silicon, as explained above. The
compound of manganese and oxygen is readily eliminated from the
metal. Sufficient excess of elemental manganese should remain so
that the purchaser may be sure that the iron has been properly
deoxidized, and to render harmless the traces of sulphur present.
No damage is done by the presence of a little manganese in steel,
quite the reverse. Consequently it is common to find steels containing
from 0.3 to 1.5 per cent.

Next: Alloying Elements

Previous: Silicon

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