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Steel Making

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...



MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is Mn. It
is somewhat more active than iron in many chemical changes--notably
it has what is apparently a stronger attraction for oxygen and
sulphur than has iron. Therefore the metal is used (especially in
the so-called basic process) to free the molten steel of oxygen,
acting in a manner similar to silicon, as explained above. The
compound of manganese and oxygen is readily eliminated from the
metal. Sufficient excess of elemental manganese should remain so
that the purchaser may be sure that the iron has been properly
deoxidized, and to render harmless the traces of sulphur present.
No damage is done by the presence of a little manganese in steel,
quite the reverse. Consequently it is common to find steels containing
from 0.3 to 1.5 per cent.

Next: Alloying Elements

Previous: Silicon

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