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Steel Making

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...



MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is Mn. It
is somewhat more active than iron in many chemical changes--notably
it has what is apparently a stronger attraction for oxygen and
sulphur than has iron. Therefore the metal is used (especially in
the so-called basic process) to free the molten steel of oxygen,
acting in a manner similar to silicon, as explained above. The
compound of manganese and oxygen is readily eliminated from the
metal. Sufficient excess of elemental manganese should remain so
that the purchaser may be sure that the iron has been properly
deoxidized, and to render harmless the traces of sulphur present.
No damage is done by the presence of a little manganese in steel,
quite the reverse. Consequently it is common to find steels containing
from 0.3 to 1.5 per cent.

Next: Alloying Elements

Previous: Silicon

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