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Steel Making

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...



MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is Mn. It
is somewhat more active than iron in many chemical changes--notably
it has what is apparently a stronger attraction for oxygen and
sulphur than has iron. Therefore the metal is used (especially in
the so-called basic process) to free the molten steel of oxygen,
acting in a manner similar to silicon, as explained above. The
compound of manganese and oxygen is readily eliminated from the
metal. Sufficient excess of elemental manganese should remain so
that the purchaser may be sure that the iron has been properly
deoxidized, and to render harmless the traces of sulphur present.
No damage is done by the presence of a little manganese in steel,
quite the reverse. Consequently it is common to find steels containing
from 0.3 to 1.5 per cent.

Next: Alloying Elements

Previous: Silicon

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