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Steel Making

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...



MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is Mn. It
is somewhat more active than iron in many chemical changes--notably
it has what is apparently a stronger attraction for oxygen and
sulphur than has iron. Therefore the metal is used (especially in
the so-called basic process) to free the molten steel of oxygen,
acting in a manner similar to silicon, as explained above. The
compound of manganese and oxygen is readily eliminated from the
metal. Sufficient excess of elemental manganese should remain so
that the purchaser may be sure that the iron has been properly
deoxidized, and to render harmless the traces of sulphur present.
No damage is done by the presence of a little manganese in steel,
quite the reverse. Consequently it is common to find steels containing
from 0.3 to 1.5 per cent.

Next: Alloying Elements

Previous: Silicon

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