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Steel Making

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...



Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent
depending upon their ductility, and although such operations are
commonly performed, forging usually means working heated steel.
Heating is therefore a vital part of the process.

Heating should be done slowly in a soaking heat. A soft lazy
flame with excess carbon is necessary to avoid burning the corners
of the bar or billet, and heavily scaling the surface. If the
temperature is not raised slowly, the outer part of the metal may
be at welding heat while the inner part is several hundred degrees
colder and comparatively hard and brittle.

The above refers to muffle furnaces. If the heating is done in
a small blacksmith's forge, the fire should be kept clean, and
remade at intervals of about two hours. Ashes and cinders should
be cleaned from the center down to the tuyere and oily waste and
wood used to start a new fire. As this kindles a layer of coke
from the old fire is put on top, and another layer of green coal
(screened and dampened blacksmiths' coal) as a cover. When the
green coal on top has been coked the fire is ready for use. As
the fuel burns out in the center, the coke forming around the edge
is pushed inward, and its place taken by more green coal. Thus the
fire is made up of three parts; the center where coke is burning
and the iron heating; a zone where coke is forming, and the outside
bank of green coal.

Next: Steel Worked In Austenitic State

Previous: The Forging Of Steel

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