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Steel Making

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Machineability
Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...



Heating






Category: THE FORGING OF STEEL

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent
depending upon their ductility, and although such operations are
commonly performed, forging usually means working heated steel.
Heating is therefore a vital part of the process.

Heating should be done slowly in a soaking heat. A soft lazy
flame with excess carbon is necessary to avoid burning the corners
of the bar or billet, and heavily scaling the surface. If the
temperature is not raised slowly, the outer part of the metal may
be at welding heat while the inner part is several hundred degrees
colder and comparatively hard and brittle.

The above refers to muffle furnaces. If the heating is done in
a small blacksmith's forge, the fire should be kept clean, and
remade at intervals of about two hours. Ashes and cinders should
be cleaned from the center down to the tuyere and oily waste and
wood used to start a new fire. As this kindles a layer of coke
from the old fire is put on top, and another layer of green coal
(screened and dampened blacksmiths' coal) as a cover. When the
green coal on top has been coked the fire is ready for use. As
the fuel burns out in the center, the coke forming around the edge
is pushed inward, and its place taken by more green coal. Thus the
fire is made up of three parts; the center where coke is burning
and the iron heating; a zone where coke is forming, and the outside
bank of green coal.





Next: Steel Worked In Austenitic State

Previous: The Forging Of Steel



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