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   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Annealing
ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...



Heating






Category: THE FORGING OF STEEL

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent
depending upon their ductility, and although such operations are
commonly performed, forging usually means working heated steel.
Heating is therefore a vital part of the process.

Heating should be done slowly in a soaking heat. A soft lazy
flame with excess carbon is necessary to avoid burning the corners
of the bar or billet, and heavily scaling the surface. If the
temperature is not raised slowly, the outer part of the metal may
be at welding heat while the inner part is several hundred degrees
colder and comparatively hard and brittle.

The above refers to muffle furnaces. If the heating is done in
a small blacksmith's forge, the fire should be kept clean, and
remade at intervals of about two hours. Ashes and cinders should
be cleaned from the center down to the tuyere and oily waste and
wood used to start a new fire. As this kindles a layer of coke
from the old fire is put on top, and another layer of green coal
(screened and dampened blacksmiths' coal) as a cover. When the
green coal on top has been coked the fire is ready for use. As
the fuel burns out in the center, the coke forming around the edge
is pushed inward, and its place taken by more green coal. Thus the
fire is made up of three parts; the center where coke is burning
and the iron heating; a zone where coke is forming, and the outside
bank of green coal.





Next: Steel Worked In Austenitic State

Previous: The Forging Of Steel



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