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Steel Making

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...



Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent
depending upon their ductility, and although such operations are
commonly performed, forging usually means working heated steel.
Heating is therefore a vital part of the process.

Heating should be done slowly in a soaking heat. A soft lazy
flame with excess carbon is necessary to avoid burning the corners
of the bar or billet, and heavily scaling the surface. If the
temperature is not raised slowly, the outer part of the metal may
be at welding heat while the inner part is several hundred degrees
colder and comparatively hard and brittle.

The above refers to muffle furnaces. If the heating is done in
a small blacksmith's forge, the fire should be kept clean, and
remade at intervals of about two hours. Ashes and cinders should
be cleaned from the center down to the tuyere and oily waste and
wood used to start a new fire. As this kindles a layer of coke
from the old fire is put on top, and another layer of green coal
(screened and dampened blacksmiths' coal) as a cover. When the
green coal on top has been coked the fire is ready for use. As
the fuel burns out in the center, the coke forming around the edge
is pushed inward, and its place taken by more green coal. Thus the
fire is made up of three parts; the center where coke is burning
and the iron heating; a zone where coke is forming, and the outside
bank of green coal.

Next: Steel Worked In Austenitic State

Previous: The Forging Of Steel

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