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Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Annealing
ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...



Heating






Category: THE FORGING OF STEEL

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent
depending upon their ductility, and although such operations are
commonly performed, forging usually means working heated steel.
Heating is therefore a vital part of the process.

Heating should be done slowly in a soaking heat. A soft lazy
flame with excess carbon is necessary to avoid burning the corners
of the bar or billet, and heavily scaling the surface. If the
temperature is not raised slowly, the outer part of the metal may
be at welding heat while the inner part is several hundred degrees
colder and comparatively hard and brittle.

The above refers to muffle furnaces. If the heating is done in
a small blacksmith's forge, the fire should be kept clean, and
remade at intervals of about two hours. Ashes and cinders should
be cleaned from the center down to the tuyere and oily waste and
wood used to start a new fire. As this kindles a layer of coke
from the old fire is put on top, and another layer of green coal
(screened and dampened blacksmiths' coal) as a cover. When the
green coal on top has been coked the fire is ready for use. As
the fuel burns out in the center, the coke forming around the edge
is pushed inward, and its place taken by more green coal. Thus the
fire is made up of three parts; the center where coke is burning
and the iron heating; a zone where coke is forming, and the outside
bank of green coal.





Next: Steel Worked In Austenitic State

Previous: The Forging Of Steel



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