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Steel Making

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...



Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent
depending upon their ductility, and although such operations are
commonly performed, forging usually means working heated steel.
Heating is therefore a vital part of the process.

Heating should be done slowly in a soaking heat. A soft lazy
flame with excess carbon is necessary to avoid burning the corners
of the bar or billet, and heavily scaling the surface. If the
temperature is not raised slowly, the outer part of the metal may
be at welding heat while the inner part is several hundred degrees
colder and comparatively hard and brittle.

The above refers to muffle furnaces. If the heating is done in
a small blacksmith's forge, the fire should be kept clean, and
remade at intervals of about two hours. Ashes and cinders should
be cleaned from the center down to the tuyere and oily waste and
wood used to start a new fire. As this kindles a layer of coke
from the old fire is put on top, and another layer of green coal
(screened and dampened blacksmiths' coal) as a cover. When the
green coal on top has been coked the fire is ready for use. As
the fuel burns out in the center, the coke forming around the edge
is pushed inward, and its place taken by more green coal. Thus the
fire is made up of three parts; the center where coke is burning
and the iron heating; a zone where coke is forming, and the outside
bank of green coal.

Next: Steel Worked In Austenitic State

Previous: The Forging Of Steel

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