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Steel Making

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...



Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent
depending upon their ductility, and although such operations are
commonly performed, forging usually means working heated steel.
Heating is therefore a vital part of the process.

Heating should be done slowly in a soaking heat. A soft lazy
flame with excess carbon is necessary to avoid burning the corners
of the bar or billet, and heavily scaling the surface. If the
temperature is not raised slowly, the outer part of the metal may
be at welding heat while the inner part is several hundred degrees
colder and comparatively hard and brittle.

The above refers to muffle furnaces. If the heating is done in
a small blacksmith's forge, the fire should be kept clean, and
remade at intervals of about two hours. Ashes and cinders should
be cleaned from the center down to the tuyere and oily waste and
wood used to start a new fire. As this kindles a layer of coke
from the old fire is put on top, and another layer of green coal
(screened and dampened blacksmiths' coal) as a cover. When the
green coal on top has been coked the fire is ready for use. As
the fuel burns out in the center, the coke forming around the edge
is pushed inward, and its place taken by more green coal. Thus the
fire is made up of three parts; the center where coke is burning
and the iron heating; a zone where coke is forming, and the outside
bank of green coal.

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