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Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Manganese
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...



Heating






Category: THE FORGING OF STEEL

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent
depending upon their ductility, and although such operations are
commonly performed, forging usually means working heated steel.
Heating is therefore a vital part of the process.

Heating should be done slowly in a soaking heat. A soft lazy
flame with excess carbon is necessary to avoid burning the corners
of the bar or billet, and heavily scaling the surface. If the
temperature is not raised slowly, the outer part of the metal may
be at welding heat while the inner part is several hundred degrees
colder and comparatively hard and brittle.

The above refers to muffle furnaces. If the heating is done in
a small blacksmith's forge, the fire should be kept clean, and
remade at intervals of about two hours. Ashes and cinders should
be cleaned from the center down to the tuyere and oily waste and
wood used to start a new fire. As this kindles a layer of coke
from the old fire is put on top, and another layer of green coal
(screened and dampened blacksmiths' coal) as a cover. When the
green coal on top has been coked the fire is ready for use. As
the fuel burns out in the center, the coke forming around the edge
is pushed inward, and its place taken by more green coal. Thus the
fire is made up of three parts; the center where coke is burning
and the iron heating; a zone where coke is forming, and the outside
bank of green coal.





Next: Steel Worked In Austenitic State

Previous: The Forging Of Steel



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