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Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...



Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent
depending upon their ductility, and although such operations are
commonly performed, forging usually means working heated steel.
Heating is therefore a vital part of the process.

Heating should be done slowly in a soaking heat. A soft lazy
flame with excess carbon is necessary to avoid burning the corners
of the bar or billet, and heavily scaling the surface. If the
temperature is not raised slowly, the outer part of the metal may
be at welding heat while the inner part is several hundred degrees
colder and comparatively hard and brittle.

The above refers to muffle furnaces. If the heating is done in
a small blacksmith's forge, the fire should be kept clean, and
remade at intervals of about two hours. Ashes and cinders should
be cleaned from the center down to the tuyere and oily waste and
wood used to start a new fire. As this kindles a layer of coke
from the old fire is put on top, and another layer of green coal
(screened and dampened blacksmiths' coal) as a cover. When the
green coal on top has been coked the fire is ready for use. As
the fuel burns out in the center, the coke forming around the edge
is pushed inward, and its place taken by more green coal. Thus the
fire is made up of three parts; the center where coke is burning
and the iron heating; a zone where coke is forming, and the outside
bank of green coal.

Next: Steel Worked In Austenitic State

Previous: The Forging Of Steel

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