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Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...



Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent
depending upon their ductility, and although such operations are
commonly performed, forging usually means working heated steel.
Heating is therefore a vital part of the process.

Heating should be done slowly in a soaking heat. A soft lazy
flame with excess carbon is necessary to avoid burning the corners
of the bar or billet, and heavily scaling the surface. If the
temperature is not raised slowly, the outer part of the metal may
be at welding heat while the inner part is several hundred degrees
colder and comparatively hard and brittle.

The above refers to muffle furnaces. If the heating is done in
a small blacksmith's forge, the fire should be kept clean, and
remade at intervals of about two hours. Ashes and cinders should
be cleaned from the center down to the tuyere and oily waste and
wood used to start a new fire. As this kindles a layer of coke
from the old fire is put on top, and another layer of green coal
(screened and dampened blacksmiths' coal) as a cover. When the
green coal on top has been coked the fire is ready for use. As
the fuel burns out in the center, the coke forming around the edge
is pushed inward, and its place taken by more green coal. Thus the
fire is made up of three parts; the center where coke is burning
and the iron heating; a zone where coke is forming, and the outside
bank of green coal.

Next: Steel Worked In Austenitic State

Previous: The Forging Of Steel

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