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Steel Making

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Manganese
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...



Heating






Category: THE FORGING OF STEEL

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent
depending upon their ductility, and although such operations are
commonly performed, forging usually means working heated steel.
Heating is therefore a vital part of the process.

Heating should be done slowly in a soaking heat. A soft lazy
flame with excess carbon is necessary to avoid burning the corners
of the bar or billet, and heavily scaling the surface. If the
temperature is not raised slowly, the outer part of the metal may
be at welding heat while the inner part is several hundred degrees
colder and comparatively hard and brittle.

The above refers to muffle furnaces. If the heating is done in
a small blacksmith's forge, the fire should be kept clean, and
remade at intervals of about two hours. Ashes and cinders should
be cleaned from the center down to the tuyere and oily waste and
wood used to start a new fire. As this kindles a layer of coke
from the old fire is put on top, and another layer of green coal
(screened and dampened blacksmiths' coal) as a cover. When the
green coal on top has been coked the fire is ready for use. As
the fuel burns out in the center, the coke forming around the edge
is pushed inward, and its place taken by more green coal. Thus the
fire is made up of three parts; the center where coke is burning
and the iron heating; a zone where coke is forming, and the outside
bank of green coal.





Next: Steel Worked In Austenitic State

Previous: The Forging Of Steel



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