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Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Crankshaft
The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...



Heating






Category: THE FORGING OF STEEL

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent
depending upon their ductility, and although such operations are
commonly performed, forging usually means working heated steel.
Heating is therefore a vital part of the process.

Heating should be done slowly in a soaking heat. A soft lazy
flame with excess carbon is necessary to avoid burning the corners
of the bar or billet, and heavily scaling the surface. If the
temperature is not raised slowly, the outer part of the metal may
be at welding heat while the inner part is several hundred degrees
colder and comparatively hard and brittle.

The above refers to muffle furnaces. If the heating is done in
a small blacksmith's forge, the fire should be kept clean, and
remade at intervals of about two hours. Ashes and cinders should
be cleaned from the center down to the tuyere and oily waste and
wood used to start a new fire. As this kindles a layer of coke
from the old fire is put on top, and another layer of green coal
(screened and dampened blacksmiths' coal) as a cover. When the
green coal on top has been coked the fire is ready for use. As
the fuel burns out in the center, the coke forming around the edge
is pushed inward, and its place taken by more green coal. Thus the
fire is made up of three parts; the center where coke is burning
and the iron heating; a zone where coke is forming, and the outside
bank of green coal.





Next: Steel Worked In Austenitic State

Previous: The Forging Of Steel



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