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Steel Making

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...



Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent
depending upon their ductility, and although such operations are
commonly performed, forging usually means working heated steel.
Heating is therefore a vital part of the process.

Heating should be done slowly in a soaking heat. A soft lazy
flame with excess carbon is necessary to avoid burning the corners
of the bar or billet, and heavily scaling the surface. If the
temperature is not raised slowly, the outer part of the metal may
be at welding heat while the inner part is several hundred degrees
colder and comparatively hard and brittle.

The above refers to muffle furnaces. If the heating is done in
a small blacksmith's forge, the fire should be kept clean, and
remade at intervals of about two hours. Ashes and cinders should
be cleaned from the center down to the tuyere and oily waste and
wood used to start a new fire. As this kindles a layer of coke
from the old fire is put on top, and another layer of green coal
(screened and dampened blacksmiths' coal) as a cover. When the
green coal on top has been coked the fire is ready for use. As
the fuel burns out in the center, the coke forming around the edge
is pushed inward, and its place taken by more green coal. Thus the
fire is made up of three parts; the center where coke is burning
and the iron heating; a zone where coke is forming, and the outside
bank of green coal.

Next: Steel Worked In Austenitic State

Previous: The Forging Of Steel

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