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Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...



Heating






Category: THE FORGING OF STEEL

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent
depending upon their ductility, and although such operations are
commonly performed, forging usually means working heated steel.
Heating is therefore a vital part of the process.

Heating should be done slowly in a soaking heat. A soft lazy
flame with excess carbon is necessary to avoid burning the corners
of the bar or billet, and heavily scaling the surface. If the
temperature is not raised slowly, the outer part of the metal may
be at welding heat while the inner part is several hundred degrees
colder and comparatively hard and brittle.

The above refers to muffle furnaces. If the heating is done in
a small blacksmith's forge, the fire should be kept clean, and
remade at intervals of about two hours. Ashes and cinders should
be cleaned from the center down to the tuyere and oily waste and
wood used to start a new fire. As this kindles a layer of coke
from the old fire is put on top, and another layer of green coal
(screened and dampened blacksmiths' coal) as a cover. When the
green coal on top has been coked the fire is ready for use. As
the fuel burns out in the center, the coke forming around the edge
is pushed inward, and its place taken by more green coal. Thus the
fire is made up of three parts; the center where coke is burning
and the iron heating; a zone where coke is forming, and the outside
bank of green coal.





Next: Steel Worked In Austenitic State

Previous: The Forging Of Steel



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