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   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Hardening
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...



Heating






Category: THE FORGING OF STEEL

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent
depending upon their ductility, and although such operations are
commonly performed, forging usually means working heated steel.
Heating is therefore a vital part of the process.

Heating should be done slowly in a soaking heat. A soft lazy
flame with excess carbon is necessary to avoid burning the corners
of the bar or billet, and heavily scaling the surface. If the
temperature is not raised slowly, the outer part of the metal may
be at welding heat while the inner part is several hundred degrees
colder and comparatively hard and brittle.

The above refers to muffle furnaces. If the heating is done in
a small blacksmith's forge, the fire should be kept clean, and
remade at intervals of about two hours. Ashes and cinders should
be cleaned from the center down to the tuyere and oily waste and
wood used to start a new fire. As this kindles a layer of coke
from the old fire is put on top, and another layer of green coal
(screened and dampened blacksmiths' coal) as a cover. When the
green coal on top has been coked the fire is ready for use. As
the fuel burns out in the center, the coke forming around the edge
is pushed inward, and its place taken by more green coal. Thus the
fire is made up of three parts; the center where coke is burning
and the iron heating; a zone where coke is forming, and the outside
bank of green coal.





Next: Steel Worked In Austenitic State

Previous: The Forging Of Steel



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