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Steel Making

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...



Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent
depending upon their ductility, and although such operations are
commonly performed, forging usually means working heated steel.
Heating is therefore a vital part of the process.

Heating should be done slowly in a soaking heat. A soft lazy
flame with excess carbon is necessary to avoid burning the corners
of the bar or billet, and heavily scaling the surface. If the
temperature is not raised slowly, the outer part of the metal may
be at welding heat while the inner part is several hundred degrees
colder and comparatively hard and brittle.

The above refers to muffle furnaces. If the heating is done in
a small blacksmith's forge, the fire should be kept clean, and
remade at intervals of about two hours. Ashes and cinders should
be cleaned from the center down to the tuyere and oily waste and
wood used to start a new fire. As this kindles a layer of coke
from the old fire is put on top, and another layer of green coal
(screened and dampened blacksmiths' coal) as a cover. When the
green coal on top has been coked the fire is ready for use. As
the fuel burns out in the center, the coke forming around the edge
is pushed inward, and its place taken by more green coal. Thus the
fire is made up of three parts; the center where coke is burning
and the iron heating; a zone where coke is forming, and the outside
bank of green coal.

Next: Steel Worked In Austenitic State

Previous: The Forging Of Steel

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