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Steel Making

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...



Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent
depending upon their ductility, and although such operations are
commonly performed, forging usually means working heated steel.
Heating is therefore a vital part of the process.

Heating should be done slowly in a soaking heat. A soft lazy
flame with excess carbon is necessary to avoid burning the corners
of the bar or billet, and heavily scaling the surface. If the
temperature is not raised slowly, the outer part of the metal may
be at welding heat while the inner part is several hundred degrees
colder and comparatively hard and brittle.

The above refers to muffle furnaces. If the heating is done in
a small blacksmith's forge, the fire should be kept clean, and
remade at intervals of about two hours. Ashes and cinders should
be cleaned from the center down to the tuyere and oily waste and
wood used to start a new fire. As this kindles a layer of coke
from the old fire is put on top, and another layer of green coal
(screened and dampened blacksmiths' coal) as a cover. When the
green coal on top has been coked the fire is ready for use. As
the fuel burns out in the center, the coke forming around the edge
is pushed inward, and its place taken by more green coal. Thus the
fire is made up of three parts; the center where coke is burning
and the iron heating; a zone where coke is forming, and the outside
bank of green coal.

Next: Steel Worked In Austenitic State

Previous: The Forging Of Steel

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