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Steel Making

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...



Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent
depending upon their ductility, and although such operations are
commonly performed, forging usually means working heated steel.
Heating is therefore a vital part of the process.

Heating should be done slowly in a soaking heat. A soft lazy
flame with excess carbon is necessary to avoid burning the corners
of the bar or billet, and heavily scaling the surface. If the
temperature is not raised slowly, the outer part of the metal may
be at welding heat while the inner part is several hundred degrees
colder and comparatively hard and brittle.

The above refers to muffle furnaces. If the heating is done in
a small blacksmith's forge, the fire should be kept clean, and
remade at intervals of about two hours. Ashes and cinders should
be cleaned from the center down to the tuyere and oily waste and
wood used to start a new fire. As this kindles a layer of coke
from the old fire is put on top, and another layer of green coal
(screened and dampened blacksmiths' coal) as a cover. When the
green coal on top has been coked the fire is ready for use. As
the fuel burns out in the center, the coke forming around the edge
is pushed inward, and its place taken by more green coal. Thus the
fire is made up of three parts; the center where coke is burning
and the iron heating; a zone where coke is forming, and the outside
bank of green coal.

Next: Steel Worked In Austenitic State

Previous: The Forging Of Steel

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