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Steel Making

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...



Heating






Category: THE FORGING OF STEEL

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent
depending upon their ductility, and although such operations are
commonly performed, forging usually means working heated steel.
Heating is therefore a vital part of the process.

Heating should be done slowly in a soaking heat. A soft lazy
flame with excess carbon is necessary to avoid burning the corners
of the bar or billet, and heavily scaling the surface. If the
temperature is not raised slowly, the outer part of the metal may
be at welding heat while the inner part is several hundred degrees
colder and comparatively hard and brittle.

The above refers to muffle furnaces. If the heating is done in
a small blacksmith's forge, the fire should be kept clean, and
remade at intervals of about two hours. Ashes and cinders should
be cleaned from the center down to the tuyere and oily waste and
wood used to start a new fire. As this kindles a layer of coke
from the old fire is put on top, and another layer of green coal
(screened and dampened blacksmiths' coal) as a cover. When the
green coal on top has been coked the fire is ready for use. As
the fuel burns out in the center, the coke forming around the edge
is pushed inward, and its place taken by more green coal. Thus the
fire is made up of three parts; the center where coke is burning
and the iron heating; a zone where coke is forming, and the outside
bank of green coal.





Next: Steel Worked In Austenitic State

Previous: The Forging Of Steel



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