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Steel Making

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...



Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent
depending upon their ductility, and although such operations are
commonly performed, forging usually means working heated steel.
Heating is therefore a vital part of the process.

Heating should be done slowly in a soaking heat. A soft lazy
flame with excess carbon is necessary to avoid burning the corners
of the bar or billet, and heavily scaling the surface. If the
temperature is not raised slowly, the outer part of the metal may
be at welding heat while the inner part is several hundred degrees
colder and comparatively hard and brittle.

The above refers to muffle furnaces. If the heating is done in
a small blacksmith's forge, the fire should be kept clean, and
remade at intervals of about two hours. Ashes and cinders should
be cleaned from the center down to the tuyere and oily waste and
wood used to start a new fire. As this kindles a layer of coke
from the old fire is put on top, and another layer of green coal
(screened and dampened blacksmiths' coal) as a cover. When the
green coal on top has been coked the fire is ready for use. As
the fuel burns out in the center, the coke forming around the edge
is pushed inward, and its place taken by more green coal. Thus the
fire is made up of three parts; the center where coke is burning
and the iron heating; a zone where coke is forming, and the outside
bank of green coal.

Next: Steel Worked In Austenitic State

Previous: The Forging Of Steel

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