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Steel Making

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...



Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent
depending upon their ductility, and although such operations are
commonly performed, forging usually means working heated steel.
Heating is therefore a vital part of the process.

Heating should be done slowly in a soaking heat. A soft lazy
flame with excess carbon is necessary to avoid burning the corners
of the bar or billet, and heavily scaling the surface. If the
temperature is not raised slowly, the outer part of the metal may
be at welding heat while the inner part is several hundred degrees
colder and comparatively hard and brittle.

The above refers to muffle furnaces. If the heating is done in
a small blacksmith's forge, the fire should be kept clean, and
remade at intervals of about two hours. Ashes and cinders should
be cleaned from the center down to the tuyere and oily waste and
wood used to start a new fire. As this kindles a layer of coke
from the old fire is put on top, and another layer of green coal
(screened and dampened blacksmiths' coal) as a cover. When the
green coal on top has been coked the fire is ready for use. As
the fuel burns out in the center, the coke forming around the edge
is pushed inward, and its place taken by more green coal. Thus the
fire is made up of three parts; the center where coke is burning
and the iron heating; a zone where coke is forming, and the outside
bank of green coal.

Next: Steel Worked In Austenitic State

Previous: The Forging Of Steel

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