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Steel Making

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...



Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent
depending upon their ductility, and although such operations are
commonly performed, forging usually means working heated steel.
Heating is therefore a vital part of the process.

Heating should be done slowly in a soaking heat. A soft lazy
flame with excess carbon is necessary to avoid burning the corners
of the bar or billet, and heavily scaling the surface. If the
temperature is not raised slowly, the outer part of the metal may
be at welding heat while the inner part is several hundred degrees
colder and comparatively hard and brittle.

The above refers to muffle furnaces. If the heating is done in
a small blacksmith's forge, the fire should be kept clean, and
remade at intervals of about two hours. Ashes and cinders should
be cleaned from the center down to the tuyere and oily waste and
wood used to start a new fire. As this kindles a layer of coke
from the old fire is put on top, and another layer of green coal
(screened and dampened blacksmiths' coal) as a cover. When the
green coal on top has been coked the fire is ready for use. As
the fuel burns out in the center, the coke forming around the edge
is pushed inward, and its place taken by more green coal. Thus the
fire is made up of three parts; the center where coke is burning
and the iron heating; a zone where coke is forming, and the outside
bank of green coal.

Next: Steel Worked In Austenitic State

Previous: The Forging Of Steel

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