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Steel Making

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...



Heating






Category: THE FORGING OF STEEL

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent
depending upon their ductility, and although such operations are
commonly performed, forging usually means working heated steel.
Heating is therefore a vital part of the process.

Heating should be done slowly in a soaking heat. A soft lazy
flame with excess carbon is necessary to avoid burning the corners
of the bar or billet, and heavily scaling the surface. If the
temperature is not raised slowly, the outer part of the metal may
be at welding heat while the inner part is several hundred degrees
colder and comparatively hard and brittle.

The above refers to muffle furnaces. If the heating is done in
a small blacksmith's forge, the fire should be kept clean, and
remade at intervals of about two hours. Ashes and cinders should
be cleaned from the center down to the tuyere and oily waste and
wood used to start a new fire. As this kindles a layer of coke
from the old fire is put on top, and another layer of green coal
(screened and dampened blacksmiths' coal) as a cover. When the
green coal on top has been coked the fire is ready for use. As
the fuel burns out in the center, the coke forming around the edge
is pushed inward, and its place taken by more green coal. Thus the
fire is made up of three parts; the center where coke is burning
and the iron heating; a zone where coke is forming, and the outside
bank of green coal.





Next: Steel Worked In Austenitic State

Previous: The Forging Of Steel



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