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Steel Making

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...



Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent
depending upon their ductility, and although such operations are
commonly performed, forging usually means working heated steel.
Heating is therefore a vital part of the process.

Heating should be done slowly in a soaking heat. A soft lazy
flame with excess carbon is necessary to avoid burning the corners
of the bar or billet, and heavily scaling the surface. If the
temperature is not raised slowly, the outer part of the metal may
be at welding heat while the inner part is several hundred degrees
colder and comparatively hard and brittle.

The above refers to muffle furnaces. If the heating is done in
a small blacksmith's forge, the fire should be kept clean, and
remade at intervals of about two hours. Ashes and cinders should
be cleaned from the center down to the tuyere and oily waste and
wood used to start a new fire. As this kindles a layer of coke
from the old fire is put on top, and another layer of green coal
(screened and dampened blacksmiths' coal) as a cover. When the
green coal on top has been coked the fire is ready for use. As
the fuel burns out in the center, the coke forming around the edge
is pushed inward, and its place taken by more green coal. Thus the
fire is made up of three parts; the center where coke is burning
and the iron heating; a zone where coke is forming, and the outside
bank of green coal.

Next: Steel Worked In Austenitic State

Previous: The Forging Of Steel

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