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Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Introduction Of Carbon


The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the
introduction of carbon into the case of the article to be hardened.
In the first place the chances of success are increased by selecting
as few brands of steel as practicable to cover the requirements of
each component of the mechanism. The hardener is then able to become
accustomed to the characteristics of that particular material, and
after determining the most suitable treatment for it no further
experimenting beyond the usual check-test pieces is necessary.

Although a certain make of material may vary in composition from
time to time the products of a manufacturer of good steel can be
generally relied upon, and it is better to deal directly with him
than with others.

In most cases the case-hardening steels can be chosen from the
following: (1) Case-hardening mild steel of 0.20 per cent carbon;
(2) case-hardening 3-1/2 per cent nickel steel; (3) case-hardening
nickel-chromium steel; (4) case-hardening chromium vanadium. After
having chosen a suitable steel it is best to have the sample analyzed
by reliable chemists and also to have test pieces machined and pulled.

To prepare samples for analysis place a sheet of paper on the table
of a drilling machine, and with a 3/8-in. diameter drill, machine
a few holes about 3/8 in. deep in various parts of the sample bar,
collecting about 3 oz. of fine drillings free from dust. This can be
placed in a bottle and dispatched to the laboratory with instructions
to search for carbon, silicon, manganese, sulphur, phosphorus and
alloys. The results of the different tests should be carefully
tabulated, and as there would most probably be some variation an
average should be made as a fair basis of each element present,
and the following tables may be used with confidence when deciding
if the material is reliable enough to be used.


Carbon 0.15 to 0.25 per cent
Silicon Not over 0.20 per cent
Manganese 0.30 to 0.60 per cent
Sulphur Not over 0.04 per cent
Phosphorus Not over 0.04 per cent

A tension test should register at least 60,000 lb. per square inch.


Carbon 0.12 to 0.20 per cent
Manganese 0.65 per cent
Sulphur Not over 0.045 per cent
Phosphorus Not over 0.04 per cent
Nickel 3.25 to 3.75 per cent


Carbon 0.15 to 0.25 per cent
Manganese 0.50 to 0.80 per cent
Sulphur Not over 0.045 per cent
Phosphorus Not over 0.04 per cent
Nickel 1 to 1.5 per cent
Chromium 0.45 to 0.75 per cent


Carbon Not over 0.25 per cent
Manganese 0.50 to 0.85 per cent
Sulphur Not over 0.04 per cent
Phosphorus Not over 0.04 per cent
Chromium 0.80 to 1.10 per cent
Vanadium Not less than 0.15 per cent

Having determined what is required we now proceed to inquire into
the question of carburizing, which is of vital importance.

Next: Using Illuminating Gas

Previous: The Penetration Of Carbon

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