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   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Manganese
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...



Introduction Of Carbon






Category: CASE-HARDENING OR SURFACE-CARBURIZING

The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the
introduction of carbon into the case of the article to be hardened.
In the first place the chances of success are increased by selecting
as few brands of steel as practicable to cover the requirements of
each component of the mechanism. The hardener is then able to become
accustomed to the characteristics of that particular material, and
after determining the most suitable treatment for it no further
experimenting beyond the usual check-test pieces is necessary.

Although a certain make of material may vary in composition from
time to time the products of a manufacturer of good steel can be
generally relied upon, and it is better to deal directly with him
than with others.

In most cases the case-hardening steels can be chosen from the
following: (1) Case-hardening mild steel of 0.20 per cent carbon;
(2) case-hardening 3-1/2 per cent nickel steel; (3) case-hardening
nickel-chromium steel; (4) case-hardening chromium vanadium. After
having chosen a suitable steel it is best to have the sample analyzed
by reliable chemists and also to have test pieces machined and pulled.

To prepare samples for analysis place a sheet of paper on the table
of a drilling machine, and with a 3/8-in. diameter drill, machine
a few holes about 3/8 in. deep in various parts of the sample bar,
collecting about 3 oz. of fine drillings free from dust. This can be
placed in a bottle and dispatched to the laboratory with instructions
to search for carbon, silicon, manganese, sulphur, phosphorus and
alloys. The results of the different tests should be carefully
tabulated, and as there would most probably be some variation an
average should be made as a fair basis of each element present,
and the following tables may be used with confidence when deciding
if the material is reliable enough to be used.

TABLE 16.--CASE-HARDENING MILD STEEL OF 0.20 PER CENT CARBON

Carbon 0.15 to 0.25 per cent
Silicon Not over 0.20 per cent
Manganese 0.30 to 0.60 per cent
Sulphur Not over 0.04 per cent
Phosphorus Not over 0.04 per cent

A tension test should register at least 60,000 lb. per square inch.

TABLE 17.--CASE-HARDENING 3-1/2 PER CENT NICKEL STEEL

Carbon 0.12 to 0.20 per cent
Manganese 0.65 per cent
Sulphur Not over 0.045 per cent
Phosphorus Not over 0.04 per cent
Nickel 3.25 to 3.75 per cent

TABLE 18.--CASE-HARDENING NICKEL CHROMIUM STEEL

Carbon 0.15 to 0.25 per cent
Manganese 0.50 to 0.80 per cent
Sulphur Not over 0.045 per cent
Phosphorus Not over 0.04 per cent
Nickel 1 to 1.5 per cent
Chromium 0.45 to 0.75 per cent

TABLE 19.--CASE-HARDENING CHROMIUM VANADIUM STEEL

Carbon Not over 0.25 per cent
Manganese 0.50 to 0.85 per cent
Sulphur Not over 0.04 per cent
Phosphorus Not over 0.04 per cent
Chromium 0.80 to 1.10 per cent
Vanadium Not less than 0.15 per cent

Having determined what is required we now proceed to inquire into
the question of carburizing, which is of vital importance.





Next: Using Illuminating Gas

Previous: The Penetration Of Carbon



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