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The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...



Introduction Of Carbon






Category: CASE-HARDENING OR SURFACE-CARBURIZING

The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the
introduction of carbon into the case of the article to be hardened.
In the first place the chances of success are increased by selecting
as few brands of steel as practicable to cover the requirements of
each component of the mechanism. The hardener is then able to become
accustomed to the characteristics of that particular material, and
after determining the most suitable treatment for it no further
experimenting beyond the usual check-test pieces is necessary.

Although a certain make of material may vary in composition from
time to time the products of a manufacturer of good steel can be
generally relied upon, and it is better to deal directly with him
than with others.

In most cases the case-hardening steels can be chosen from the
following: (1) Case-hardening mild steel of 0.20 per cent carbon;
(2) case-hardening 3-1/2 per cent nickel steel; (3) case-hardening
nickel-chromium steel; (4) case-hardening chromium vanadium. After
having chosen a suitable steel it is best to have the sample analyzed
by reliable chemists and also to have test pieces machined and pulled.

To prepare samples for analysis place a sheet of paper on the table
of a drilling machine, and with a 3/8-in. diameter drill, machine
a few holes about 3/8 in. deep in various parts of the sample bar,
collecting about 3 oz. of fine drillings free from dust. This can be
placed in a bottle and dispatched to the laboratory with instructions
to search for carbon, silicon, manganese, sulphur, phosphorus and
alloys. The results of the different tests should be carefully
tabulated, and as there would most probably be some variation an
average should be made as a fair basis of each element present,
and the following tables may be used with confidence when deciding
if the material is reliable enough to be used.

TABLE 16.--CASE-HARDENING MILD STEEL OF 0.20 PER CENT CARBON

Carbon 0.15 to 0.25 per cent
Silicon Not over 0.20 per cent
Manganese 0.30 to 0.60 per cent
Sulphur Not over 0.04 per cent
Phosphorus Not over 0.04 per cent

A tension test should register at least 60,000 lb. per square inch.

TABLE 17.--CASE-HARDENING 3-1/2 PER CENT NICKEL STEEL

Carbon 0.12 to 0.20 per cent
Manganese 0.65 per cent
Sulphur Not over 0.045 per cent
Phosphorus Not over 0.04 per cent
Nickel 3.25 to 3.75 per cent

TABLE 18.--CASE-HARDENING NICKEL CHROMIUM STEEL

Carbon 0.15 to 0.25 per cent
Manganese 0.50 to 0.80 per cent
Sulphur Not over 0.045 per cent
Phosphorus Not over 0.04 per cent
Nickel 1 to 1.5 per cent
Chromium 0.45 to 0.75 per cent

TABLE 19.--CASE-HARDENING CHROMIUM VANADIUM STEEL

Carbon Not over 0.25 per cent
Manganese 0.50 to 0.85 per cent
Sulphur Not over 0.04 per cent
Phosphorus Not over 0.04 per cent
Chromium 0.80 to 1.10 per cent
Vanadium Not less than 0.15 per cent

Having determined what is required we now proceed to inquire into
the question of carburizing, which is of vital importance.





Next: Using Illuminating Gas

Previous: The Penetration Of Carbon



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