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Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Manganese
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...



Fatigue Tests






Category: COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF STEEL

It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fail
at a relatively low stress if only repeated often enough. It has
been found, however, that each material possesses a limiting stress,
or endurance limit, within which it is safe, no matter how often
the loading occurs. That limiting stress for all steels so far
investigated causes fracture below 10 million reversals. In other
words, a steel which will not break before 10,000,000 reversals
can confidently be expected to endure 100,000,000, and doubtless
into the billions.

About the only way to test one piece such a large number of times
is to fashion it into a beam, load it, and then turn the beam in
its supports. Thus the stress in the outer fibers of the bar varies
from a maximum stretch through zero to a maximum compression, and
back again. A simple machine of this sort is shown in Fig. 10,
where B and E are bearings, A the test piece, turned slightly
down in the center, C and D ball bearings supporting a load
W. K is a pulley for driving the machine and N is a counter.





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Previous: Impact Tests



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