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Steel Making

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Fatigue Tests


It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fail
at a relatively low stress if only repeated often enough. It has
been found, however, that each material possesses a limiting stress,
or endurance limit, within which it is safe, no matter how often
the loading occurs. That limiting stress for all steels so far
investigated causes fracture below 10 million reversals. In other
words, a steel which will not break before 10,000,000 reversals
can confidently be expected to endure 100,000,000, and doubtless
into the billions.

About the only way to test one piece such a large number of times
is to fashion it into a beam, load it, and then turn the beam in
its supports. Thus the stress in the outer fibers of the bar varies
from a maximum stretch through zero to a maximum compression, and
back again. A simple machine of this sort is shown in Fig. 10,
where B and E are bearings, A the test piece, turned slightly
down in the center, C and D ball bearings supporting a load
W. K is a pulley for driving the machine and N is a counter.

Next: Hardness Testing

Previous: Impact Tests

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