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Steel Making

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Fatigue Tests


It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fail
at a relatively low stress if only repeated often enough. It has
been found, however, that each material possesses a limiting stress,
or endurance limit, within which it is safe, no matter how often
the loading occurs. That limiting stress for all steels so far
investigated causes fracture below 10 million reversals. In other
words, a steel which will not break before 10,000,000 reversals
can confidently be expected to endure 100,000,000, and doubtless
into the billions.

About the only way to test one piece such a large number of times
is to fashion it into a beam, load it, and then turn the beam in
its supports. Thus the stress in the outer fibers of the bar varies
from a maximum stretch through zero to a maximum compression, and
back again. A simple machine of this sort is shown in Fig. 10,
where B and E are bearings, A the test piece, turned slightly
down in the center, C and D ball bearings supporting a load
W. K is a pulley for driving the machine and N is a counter.

Next: Hardness Testing

Previous: Impact Tests

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