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Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...



Fatigue Tests






Category: COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF STEEL

It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fail
at a relatively low stress if only repeated often enough. It has
been found, however, that each material possesses a limiting stress,
or endurance limit, within which it is safe, no matter how often
the loading occurs. That limiting stress for all steels so far
investigated causes fracture below 10 million reversals. In other
words, a steel which will not break before 10,000,000 reversals
can confidently be expected to endure 100,000,000, and doubtless
into the billions.

About the only way to test one piece such a large number of times
is to fashion it into a beam, load it, and then turn the beam in
its supports. Thus the stress in the outer fibers of the bar varies
from a maximum stretch through zero to a maximum compression, and
back again. A simple machine of this sort is shown in Fig. 10,
where B and E are bearings, A the test piece, turned slightly
down in the center, C and D ball bearings supporting a load
W. K is a pulley for driving the machine and N is a counter.





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Previous: Impact Tests



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