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Steel Making

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Fatigue Tests


It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fail
at a relatively low stress if only repeated often enough. It has
been found, however, that each material possesses a limiting stress,
or endurance limit, within which it is safe, no matter how often
the loading occurs. That limiting stress for all steels so far
investigated causes fracture below 10 million reversals. In other
words, a steel which will not break before 10,000,000 reversals
can confidently be expected to endure 100,000,000, and doubtless
into the billions.

About the only way to test one piece such a large number of times
is to fashion it into a beam, load it, and then turn the beam in
its supports. Thus the stress in the outer fibers of the bar varies
from a maximum stretch through zero to a maximum compression, and
back again. A simple machine of this sort is shown in Fig. 10,
where B and E are bearings, A the test piece, turned slightly
down in the center, C and D ball bearings supporting a load
W. K is a pulley for driving the machine and N is a counter.

Next: Hardness Testing

Previous: Impact Tests

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