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Steel Making

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Fatigue Tests


It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fail
at a relatively low stress if only repeated often enough. It has
been found, however, that each material possesses a limiting stress,
or endurance limit, within which it is safe, no matter how often
the loading occurs. That limiting stress for all steels so far
investigated causes fracture below 10 million reversals. In other
words, a steel which will not break before 10,000,000 reversals
can confidently be expected to endure 100,000,000, and doubtless
into the billions.

About the only way to test one piece such a large number of times
is to fashion it into a beam, load it, and then turn the beam in
its supports. Thus the stress in the outer fibers of the bar varies
from a maximum stretch through zero to a maximum compression, and
back again. A simple machine of this sort is shown in Fig. 10,
where B and E are bearings, A the test piece, turned slightly
down in the center, C and D ball bearings supporting a load
W. K is a pulley for driving the machine and N is a counter.

Next: Hardness Testing

Previous: Impact Tests

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