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Steel Making

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Fatigue Tests


It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fail
at a relatively low stress if only repeated often enough. It has
been found, however, that each material possesses a limiting stress,
or endurance limit, within which it is safe, no matter how often
the loading occurs. That limiting stress for all steels so far
investigated causes fracture below 10 million reversals. In other
words, a steel which will not break before 10,000,000 reversals
can confidently be expected to endure 100,000,000, and doubtless
into the billions.

About the only way to test one piece such a large number of times
is to fashion it into a beam, load it, and then turn the beam in
its supports. Thus the stress in the outer fibers of the bar varies
from a maximum stretch through zero to a maximum compression, and
back again. A simple machine of this sort is shown in Fig. 10,
where B and E are bearings, A the test piece, turned slightly
down in the center, C and D ball bearings supporting a load
W. K is a pulley for driving the machine and N is a counter.

Next: Hardness Testing

Previous: Impact Tests

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