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Steel Making

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Pyrometers
Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...



Fatigue Tests






Category: COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF STEEL

It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fail
at a relatively low stress if only repeated often enough. It has
been found, however, that each material possesses a limiting stress,
or endurance limit, within which it is safe, no matter how often
the loading occurs. That limiting stress for all steels so far
investigated causes fracture below 10 million reversals. In other
words, a steel which will not break before 10,000,000 reversals
can confidently be expected to endure 100,000,000, and doubtless
into the billions.

About the only way to test one piece such a large number of times
is to fashion it into a beam, load it, and then turn the beam in
its supports. Thus the stress in the outer fibers of the bar varies
from a maximum stretch through zero to a maximum compression, and
back again. A simple machine of this sort is shown in Fig. 10,
where B and E are bearings, A the test piece, turned slightly
down in the center, C and D ball bearings supporting a load
W. K is a pulley for driving the machine and N is a counter.





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Previous: Impact Tests



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