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Steel Making

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Fatigue Tests


It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fail
at a relatively low stress if only repeated often enough. It has
been found, however, that each material possesses a limiting stress,
or endurance limit, within which it is safe, no matter how often
the loading occurs. That limiting stress for all steels so far
investigated causes fracture below 10 million reversals. In other
words, a steel which will not break before 10,000,000 reversals
can confidently be expected to endure 100,000,000, and doubtless
into the billions.

About the only way to test one piece such a large number of times
is to fashion it into a beam, load it, and then turn the beam in
its supports. Thus the stress in the outer fibers of the bar varies
from a maximum stretch through zero to a maximum compression, and
back again. A simple machine of this sort is shown in Fig. 10,
where B and E are bearings, A the test piece, turned slightly
down in the center, C and D ball bearings supporting a load
W. K is a pulley for driving the machine and N is a counter.

Next: Hardness Testing

Previous: Impact Tests

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