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Steel Making

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Fatigue Tests


It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fail
at a relatively low stress if only repeated often enough. It has
been found, however, that each material possesses a limiting stress,
or endurance limit, within which it is safe, no matter how often
the loading occurs. That limiting stress for all steels so far
investigated causes fracture below 10 million reversals. In other
words, a steel which will not break before 10,000,000 reversals
can confidently be expected to endure 100,000,000, and doubtless
into the billions.

About the only way to test one piece such a large number of times
is to fashion it into a beam, load it, and then turn the beam in
its supports. Thus the stress in the outer fibers of the bar varies
from a maximum stretch through zero to a maximum compression, and
back again. A simple machine of this sort is shown in Fig. 10,
where B and E are bearings, A the test piece, turned slightly
down in the center, C and D ball bearings supporting a load
W. K is a pulley for driving the machine and N is a counter.

Next: Hardness Testing

Previous: Impact Tests

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