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For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Annealing
ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...



Fatigue Tests






Category: COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF STEEL

It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fail
at a relatively low stress if only repeated often enough. It has
been found, however, that each material possesses a limiting stress,
or endurance limit, within which it is safe, no matter how often
the loading occurs. That limiting stress for all steels so far
investigated causes fracture below 10 million reversals. In other
words, a steel which will not break before 10,000,000 reversals
can confidently be expected to endure 100,000,000, and doubtless
into the billions.

About the only way to test one piece such a large number of times
is to fashion it into a beam, load it, and then turn the beam in
its supports. Thus the stress in the outer fibers of the bar varies
from a maximum stretch through zero to a maximum compression, and
back again. A simple machine of this sort is shown in Fig. 10,
where B and E are bearings, A the test piece, turned slightly
down in the center, C and D ball bearings supporting a load
W. K is a pulley for driving the machine and N is a counter.





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Previous: Impact Tests



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