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Steel Making

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Crankshaft
The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...



Fatigue Tests






Category: COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF STEEL

It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fail
at a relatively low stress if only repeated often enough. It has
been found, however, that each material possesses a limiting stress,
or endurance limit, within which it is safe, no matter how often
the loading occurs. That limiting stress for all steels so far
investigated causes fracture below 10 million reversals. In other
words, a steel which will not break before 10,000,000 reversals
can confidently be expected to endure 100,000,000, and doubtless
into the billions.

About the only way to test one piece such a large number of times
is to fashion it into a beam, load it, and then turn the beam in
its supports. Thus the stress in the outer fibers of the bar varies
from a maximum stretch through zero to a maximum compression, and
back again. A simple machine of this sort is shown in Fig. 10,
where B and E are bearings, A the test piece, turned slightly
down in the center, C and D ball bearings supporting a load
W. K is a pulley for driving the machine and N is a counter.





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Previous: Impact Tests



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