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Steel Making

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Fatigue Tests


It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fail
at a relatively low stress if only repeated often enough. It has
been found, however, that each material possesses a limiting stress,
or endurance limit, within which it is safe, no matter how often
the loading occurs. That limiting stress for all steels so far
investigated causes fracture below 10 million reversals. In other
words, a steel which will not break before 10,000,000 reversals
can confidently be expected to endure 100,000,000, and doubtless
into the billions.

About the only way to test one piece such a large number of times
is to fashion it into a beam, load it, and then turn the beam in
its supports. Thus the stress in the outer fibers of the bar varies
from a maximum stretch through zero to a maximum compression, and
back again. A simple machine of this sort is shown in Fig. 10,
where B and E are bearings, A the test piece, turned slightly
down in the center, C and D ball bearings supporting a load
W. K is a pulley for driving the machine and N is a counter.

Next: Hardness Testing

Previous: Impact Tests

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