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Steel Making

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Fatigue Tests


It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fail
at a relatively low stress if only repeated often enough. It has
been found, however, that each material possesses a limiting stress,
or endurance limit, within which it is safe, no matter how often
the loading occurs. That limiting stress for all steels so far
investigated causes fracture below 10 million reversals. In other
words, a steel which will not break before 10,000,000 reversals
can confidently be expected to endure 100,000,000, and doubtless
into the billions.

About the only way to test one piece such a large number of times
is to fashion it into a beam, load it, and then turn the beam in
its supports. Thus the stress in the outer fibers of the bar varies
from a maximum stretch through zero to a maximum compression, and
back again. A simple machine of this sort is shown in Fig. 10,
where B and E are bearings, A the test piece, turned slightly
down in the center, C and D ball bearings supporting a load
W. K is a pulley for driving the machine and N is a counter.

Next: Hardness Testing

Previous: Impact Tests

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