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Steel Making

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Fatigue Tests


It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fail
at a relatively low stress if only repeated often enough. It has
been found, however, that each material possesses a limiting stress,
or endurance limit, within which it is safe, no matter how often
the loading occurs. That limiting stress for all steels so far
investigated causes fracture below 10 million reversals. In other
words, a steel which will not break before 10,000,000 reversals
can confidently be expected to endure 100,000,000, and doubtless
into the billions.

About the only way to test one piece such a large number of times
is to fashion it into a beam, load it, and then turn the beam in
its supports. Thus the stress in the outer fibers of the bar varies
from a maximum stretch through zero to a maximum compression, and
back again. A simple machine of this sort is shown in Fig. 10,
where B and E are bearings, A the test piece, turned slightly
down in the center, C and D ball bearings supporting a load
W. K is a pulley for driving the machine and N is a counter.

Next: Hardness Testing

Previous: Impact Tests

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