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Steel Making

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...



Fatigue Tests






Category: COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF STEEL

It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fail
at a relatively low stress if only repeated often enough. It has
been found, however, that each material possesses a limiting stress,
or endurance limit, within which it is safe, no matter how often
the loading occurs. That limiting stress for all steels so far
investigated causes fracture below 10 million reversals. In other
words, a steel which will not break before 10,000,000 reversals
can confidently be expected to endure 100,000,000, and doubtless
into the billions.

About the only way to test one piece such a large number of times
is to fashion it into a beam, load it, and then turn the beam in
its supports. Thus the stress in the outer fibers of the bar varies
from a maximum stretch through zero to a maximum compression, and
back again. A simple machine of this sort is shown in Fig. 10,
where B and E are bearings, A the test piece, turned slightly
down in the center, C and D ball bearings supporting a load
W. K is a pulley for driving the machine and N is a counter.





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Previous: Impact Tests



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