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Steel Making

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Fatigue Tests


It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fail
at a relatively low stress if only repeated often enough. It has
been found, however, that each material possesses a limiting stress,
or endurance limit, within which it is safe, no matter how often
the loading occurs. That limiting stress for all steels so far
investigated causes fracture below 10 million reversals. In other
words, a steel which will not break before 10,000,000 reversals
can confidently be expected to endure 100,000,000, and doubtless
into the billions.

About the only way to test one piece such a large number of times
is to fashion it into a beam, load it, and then turn the beam in
its supports. Thus the stress in the outer fibers of the bar varies
from a maximum stretch through zero to a maximum compression, and
back again. A simple machine of this sort is shown in Fig. 10,
where B and E are bearings, A the test piece, turned slightly
down in the center, C and D ball bearings supporting a load
W. K is a pulley for driving the machine and N is a counter.

Next: Hardness Testing

Previous: Impact Tests

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