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Steel Making

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Hardening High-speed Steel


In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly and
thoroughly to a lemon heat. Do not forge at a lower heat. Do not
let the steel cool below a bright cherry red while forging. After
the tool is dressed, reheat to forging heat to remove the forging
strain, and lay on the floor until cold. Then have the tool rough
ground on a dry emery wheel.

dotted line. Remember this is a boring mill tool and will stand
out in the tool-post, and if you do not have a high thorough lemon
heat, your tool will snap off at the dotted line. (Ninety-five
per cent of all tools which break, have been forged at too low a
heat or at a heat not thorough to the center.)]

For built-up and bent tools special care should be taken that the
forging heat does not go below a bright cherry. For tools 3/4 by
1-1/2 or larger where there is a big strain in forging, such as
bending at angles of about 45 deg. and building the tools up, they
should be heated to at least 1,700 deg.F. Slowly and without much blast.
For a 3/4 by 1-1/2 tool it should take about 10 min. with the correct
blast in a coke fire. Larger tools in proportion. They can then be
bent readily, but no attempt should be made to forge the steel
further without reheating to maintain the bright cherry red. This
is essential, as otherwise the tools crack in hardening or while
in use.

In hardening place the tool in a coke fire (hollow fire if possible)
with a slow blast and heat gradually up to a white welding heat

on the nose of the tool. Then dip the white hot part only into
thin oil or hold in a strong cold air blast. When hardening in
oil do not hold the tool in one place but keep it moving so that
it cools as quickly as possible. It is not necessary to draw the
temper after hardening these tools.

In grinding all tools should be ground as lightly as possible on
a soft wet sandstone or on a wet emery wheel, and care should be
taken not to create any surface cracks, which are invariably the
result of grinding too forcibly. The foregoing illustrations, Figs.
84 to 91, with their captions, will be found helpful.

Special points of caution to be observed when hardening high-speed

DON'T use a green coal fire; use coke, or build a hollow fire.

DON'T have the bed of the fire free from coal.

DON'T hurry the heating for forging. The heating has to be done
very slowly and the forging heat has to be kept very high (a full
lemon color) heat and the tool has to be continually brought back
into the fire to keep the high heat up. When customers complain
about seams and cracks, in 9 cases out of 10, this has been caused
by too low a forging heat, and when the blacksmith complains about
tools cracking, it is necessary to read this paragraph to him.

DON'T try to jam the tool into shape under a steam hammer with one
or two blows; take easy blows and keep the heat high.

DON'T have the tool curved at the bottom; it must lie perfectly
flat in the tool post.

DON'T harden from your forging heat; let the tool grow cold or
fairly cold. After forging you can rough grind the tool dry, but
not too forcibly.

DON'T, for hardening, get more than the nose white hot.

DON'T get the white heat on the surface only.

DON'T hurry your heating for hardening; let the heat soak thoroughly
through the nose of the tool.

DON'T melt the nose of the tool.

DON'T, as a rule, dip the nose into water; this should be done
only for extremely hard material. It is dangerous to put the nose
into water for fear of cracking and when you do put the nose into
water put just 1/2 in. only of the extreme white hot part into the
water and don't keep it too long in the water; just a few seconds,
and then harden in oil. We do not recommend water hardening.

DON'T grind too forcibly.

DON'T grind dry after hardening.

DON'T discolor the steel in grinding.

DON'T give too much clearance on tools for cutting cast iron.

DON'T start on cast iron with a razor edge on the tool. Take an
oil stone and wipe three or four times over the razor edge.

DON'T use tool holder steel from bars without hardening the nose
of each individual tool bit.

Next: Air-hardening Steels

Previous: Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels

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