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Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Annealing
There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...



Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers






Category: PYROMETRY AND PYROMETERS

For the complete calibration
of a thermo-couple of unknown electromotive force, the new couple
may be checked against a standard instrument, placing the two bare
couples side by side in a suitable tube and taking frequent readings
over the range of temperatures desired.

If only one instrument, such as a millivoltmeter, is available,
and there is no standard couple at hand, the new couple may be
calibrated over a wide range of temperatures by the use of the following
standards:

Water, boiling point 212 deg.F.
Tin, under charcoal, freezing point 450 deg.F.
Lead, under charcoal, freezing point 621 deg.F.
Zinc, under charcoal, freezing point 786 deg.F.
Sulphur, boiling point 832 deg.F.
Aluminum, under charcoal, freezing point 1,216 deg.F.
Sodium chloride (salt), freezing point 1,474 deg.F.
Potassium sulphate, freezing point 1,958 deg.F.

A good practice is to make one pyrometer a standard; calibrate it
frequently by the melting-point-of-salt method, and each morning
check up every pyrometer in the works with the standard, making the
necessary corrections to be used for the day's work. By pursuing
this course systematically, the improved quality of the product
will much more than compensate for the extra work.

The purity of the substance affects its freezing or melting point.
The melting point of common salt is given in one widely used handbook
at 1,421 deg.F., although chemically pure sodium chloride melts at
1,474 deg.F. as shown above. A sufficient quantity for an extended
period should be secured. Test the melting point with a pyrometer
of known accuracy. Knowing this temperature it will be easy to
calibrate other pyrometers.





Next: Placing Of Pyrometers

Previous: Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt



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