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   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...



Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers






Category: PYROMETRY AND PYROMETERS

For the complete calibration
of a thermo-couple of unknown electromotive force, the new couple
may be checked against a standard instrument, placing the two bare
couples side by side in a suitable tube and taking frequent readings
over the range of temperatures desired.

If only one instrument, such as a millivoltmeter, is available,
and there is no standard couple at hand, the new couple may be
calibrated over a wide range of temperatures by the use of the following
standards:

Water, boiling point 212 deg.F.
Tin, under charcoal, freezing point 450 deg.F.
Lead, under charcoal, freezing point 621 deg.F.
Zinc, under charcoal, freezing point 786 deg.F.
Sulphur, boiling point 832 deg.F.
Aluminum, under charcoal, freezing point 1,216 deg.F.
Sodium chloride (salt), freezing point 1,474 deg.F.
Potassium sulphate, freezing point 1,958 deg.F.

A good practice is to make one pyrometer a standard; calibrate it
frequently by the melting-point-of-salt method, and each morning
check up every pyrometer in the works with the standard, making the
necessary corrections to be used for the day's work. By pursuing
this course systematically, the improved quality of the product
will much more than compensate for the extra work.

The purity of the substance affects its freezing or melting point.
The melting point of common salt is given in one widely used handbook
at 1,421 deg.F., although chemically pure sodium chloride melts at
1,474 deg.F. as shown above. A sufficient quantity for an extended
period should be secured. Test the melting point with a pyrometer
of known accuracy. Knowing this temperature it will be easy to
calibrate other pyrometers.





Next: Placing Of Pyrometers

Previous: Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt



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