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Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Hardening
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Annealing
There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...



Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers






Category: PYROMETRY AND PYROMETERS

For the complete calibration
of a thermo-couple of unknown electromotive force, the new couple
may be checked against a standard instrument, placing the two bare
couples side by side in a suitable tube and taking frequent readings
over the range of temperatures desired.

If only one instrument, such as a millivoltmeter, is available,
and there is no standard couple at hand, the new couple may be
calibrated over a wide range of temperatures by the use of the following
standards:

Water, boiling point 212 deg.F.
Tin, under charcoal, freezing point 450 deg.F.
Lead, under charcoal, freezing point 621 deg.F.
Zinc, under charcoal, freezing point 786 deg.F.
Sulphur, boiling point 832 deg.F.
Aluminum, under charcoal, freezing point 1,216 deg.F.
Sodium chloride (salt), freezing point 1,474 deg.F.
Potassium sulphate, freezing point 1,958 deg.F.

A good practice is to make one pyrometer a standard; calibrate it
frequently by the melting-point-of-salt method, and each morning
check up every pyrometer in the works with the standard, making the
necessary corrections to be used for the day's work. By pursuing
this course systematically, the improved quality of the product
will much more than compensate for the extra work.

The purity of the substance affects its freezing or melting point.
The melting point of common salt is given in one widely used handbook
at 1,421 deg.F., although chemically pure sodium chloride melts at
1,474 deg.F. as shown above. A sufficient quantity for an extended
period should be secured. Test the melting point with a pyrometer
of known accuracy. Knowing this temperature it will be easy to
calibrate other pyrometers.





Next: Placing Of Pyrometers

Previous: Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt



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