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Steel Making

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Crankshaft
The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...



Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers






Category: PYROMETRY AND PYROMETERS

For the complete calibration
of a thermo-couple of unknown electromotive force, the new couple
may be checked against a standard instrument, placing the two bare
couples side by side in a suitable tube and taking frequent readings
over the range of temperatures desired.

If only one instrument, such as a millivoltmeter, is available,
and there is no standard couple at hand, the new couple may be
calibrated over a wide range of temperatures by the use of the following
standards:

Water, boiling point 212 deg.F.
Tin, under charcoal, freezing point 450 deg.F.
Lead, under charcoal, freezing point 621 deg.F.
Zinc, under charcoal, freezing point 786 deg.F.
Sulphur, boiling point 832 deg.F.
Aluminum, under charcoal, freezing point 1,216 deg.F.
Sodium chloride (salt), freezing point 1,474 deg.F.
Potassium sulphate, freezing point 1,958 deg.F.

A good practice is to make one pyrometer a standard; calibrate it
frequently by the melting-point-of-salt method, and each morning
check up every pyrometer in the works with the standard, making the
necessary corrections to be used for the day's work. By pursuing
this course systematically, the improved quality of the product
will much more than compensate for the extra work.

The purity of the substance affects its freezing or melting point.
The melting point of common salt is given in one widely used handbook
at 1,421 deg.F., although chemically pure sodium chloride melts at
1,474 deg.F. as shown above. A sufficient quantity for an extended
period should be secured. Test the melting point with a pyrometer
of known accuracy. Knowing this temperature it will be easy to
calibrate other pyrometers.





Next: Placing Of Pyrometers

Previous: Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt



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