"Mary, the wife of John Goffe of Rochester, being afflicted with a long illness, removed to her father's house at West Mulling, about nine miles from her own. There she died on 4th June, this present year, 1691. "The day before her departur... Read more of The Dying Mother {101} at Scary Stories.caInformational Site Network Informational
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Steel Making

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers


For the complete calibration
of a thermo-couple of unknown electromotive force, the new couple
may be checked against a standard instrument, placing the two bare
couples side by side in a suitable tube and taking frequent readings
over the range of temperatures desired.

If only one instrument, such as a millivoltmeter, is available,
and there is no standard couple at hand, the new couple may be
calibrated over a wide range of temperatures by the use of the following

Water, boiling point 212 deg.F.
Tin, under charcoal, freezing point 450 deg.F.
Lead, under charcoal, freezing point 621 deg.F.
Zinc, under charcoal, freezing point 786 deg.F.
Sulphur, boiling point 832 deg.F.
Aluminum, under charcoal, freezing point 1,216 deg.F.
Sodium chloride (salt), freezing point 1,474 deg.F.
Potassium sulphate, freezing point 1,958 deg.F.

A good practice is to make one pyrometer a standard; calibrate it
frequently by the melting-point-of-salt method, and each morning
check up every pyrometer in the works with the standard, making the
necessary corrections to be used for the day's work. By pursuing
this course systematically, the improved quality of the product
will much more than compensate for the extra work.

The purity of the substance affects its freezing or melting point.
The melting point of common salt is given in one widely used handbook
at 1,421 deg.F., although chemically pure sodium chloride melts at
1,474 deg.F. as shown above. A sufficient quantity for an extended
period should be secured. Test the melting point with a pyrometer
of known accuracy. Knowing this temperature it will be easy to
calibrate other pyrometers.

Next: Placing Of Pyrometers

Previous: Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt

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