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Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...



Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers






Category: PYROMETRY AND PYROMETERS

For the complete calibration
of a thermo-couple of unknown electromotive force, the new couple
may be checked against a standard instrument, placing the two bare
couples side by side in a suitable tube and taking frequent readings
over the range of temperatures desired.

If only one instrument, such as a millivoltmeter, is available,
and there is no standard couple at hand, the new couple may be
calibrated over a wide range of temperatures by the use of the following
standards:

Water, boiling point 212 deg.F.
Tin, under charcoal, freezing point 450 deg.F.
Lead, under charcoal, freezing point 621 deg.F.
Zinc, under charcoal, freezing point 786 deg.F.
Sulphur, boiling point 832 deg.F.
Aluminum, under charcoal, freezing point 1,216 deg.F.
Sodium chloride (salt), freezing point 1,474 deg.F.
Potassium sulphate, freezing point 1,958 deg.F.

A good practice is to make one pyrometer a standard; calibrate it
frequently by the melting-point-of-salt method, and each morning
check up every pyrometer in the works with the standard, making the
necessary corrections to be used for the day's work. By pursuing
this course systematically, the improved quality of the product
will much more than compensate for the extra work.

The purity of the substance affects its freezing or melting point.
The melting point of common salt is given in one widely used handbook
at 1,421 deg.F., although chemically pure sodium chloride melts at
1,474 deg.F. as shown above. A sufficient quantity for an extended
period should be secured. Test the melting point with a pyrometer
of known accuracy. Knowing this temperature it will be easy to
calibrate other pyrometers.





Next: Placing Of Pyrometers

Previous: Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt



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