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Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Annealing
There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...



Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers






Category: PYROMETRY AND PYROMETERS

For the complete calibration
of a thermo-couple of unknown electromotive force, the new couple
may be checked against a standard instrument, placing the two bare
couples side by side in a suitable tube and taking frequent readings
over the range of temperatures desired.

If only one instrument, such as a millivoltmeter, is available,
and there is no standard couple at hand, the new couple may be
calibrated over a wide range of temperatures by the use of the following
standards:

Water, boiling point 212 deg.F.
Tin, under charcoal, freezing point 450 deg.F.
Lead, under charcoal, freezing point 621 deg.F.
Zinc, under charcoal, freezing point 786 deg.F.
Sulphur, boiling point 832 deg.F.
Aluminum, under charcoal, freezing point 1,216 deg.F.
Sodium chloride (salt), freezing point 1,474 deg.F.
Potassium sulphate, freezing point 1,958 deg.F.

A good practice is to make one pyrometer a standard; calibrate it
frequently by the melting-point-of-salt method, and each morning
check up every pyrometer in the works with the standard, making the
necessary corrections to be used for the day's work. By pursuing
this course systematically, the improved quality of the product
will much more than compensate for the extra work.

The purity of the substance affects its freezing or melting point.
The melting point of common salt is given in one widely used handbook
at 1,421 deg.F., although chemically pure sodium chloride melts at
1,474 deg.F. as shown above. A sufficient quantity for an extended
period should be secured. Test the melting point with a pyrometer
of known accuracy. Knowing this temperature it will be easy to
calibrate other pyrometers.





Next: Placing Of Pyrometers

Previous: Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt



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