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Steel Making

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...



Crucible Steel






Category: STEEL MAKING

Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or graphite
crucible. Each crucible contains about 40 lb. of best puddled iron,
40 lb. of clean mill scrap--ends trimmed from tool steel bars--and
sufficient rich alloys and charcoal to make the mixture conform to
the desired chemical analysis. The crucible is covered, lowered
into a melting hole (Fig. 4) and entirely surrounded by burning
coke. In about four hours the metal is converted into a quiet white
hot liquid. Several crucibles are then pulled out of the hole, and
their contents carefully poured into a metal mold, forming an ingot.



If modern high-speed steel is being made, the ingots are taken
out of the molds while still red hot and placed in a furnace which
keeps them at this temperature for some hours, an operation known
as annealing. After slow cooling any surface defects are ground
out. Ingots are then reheated to forging temperature, hammered
down into billets of about one-quarter size, and 10 to 20 per
cent of the length cut from the top. After reheating the billets
are hammered or rolled into bars of desired size. Finished bars are
packed with a little charcoal into large pipes, the ends sealed,
and annealed for two or three days. After careful inspection and
testing the steel is ready for market.





Next: The Electric Process

Previous: Open Hearth Process



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