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Steel Making

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...



Crucible Steel






Category: STEEL MAKING

Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or graphite
crucible. Each crucible contains about 40 lb. of best puddled iron,
40 lb. of clean mill scrap--ends trimmed from tool steel bars--and
sufficient rich alloys and charcoal to make the mixture conform to
the desired chemical analysis. The crucible is covered, lowered
into a melting hole (Fig. 4) and entirely surrounded by burning
coke. In about four hours the metal is converted into a quiet white
hot liquid. Several crucibles are then pulled out of the hole, and
their contents carefully poured into a metal mold, forming an ingot.



If modern high-speed steel is being made, the ingots are taken
out of the molds while still red hot and placed in a furnace which
keeps them at this temperature for some hours, an operation known
as annealing. After slow cooling any surface defects are ground
out. Ingots are then reheated to forging temperature, hammered
down into billets of about one-quarter size, and 10 to 20 per
cent of the length cut from the top. After reheating the billets
are hammered or rolled into bars of desired size. Finished bars are
packed with a little charcoal into large pipes, the ends sealed,
and annealed for two or three days. After careful inspection and
testing the steel is ready for market.





Next: The Electric Process

Previous: Open Hearth Process



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