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Steel Making

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Crucible Steel


Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or graphite
crucible. Each crucible contains about 40 lb. of best puddled iron,
40 lb. of clean mill scrap--ends trimmed from tool steel bars--and
sufficient rich alloys and charcoal to make the mixture conform to
the desired chemical analysis. The crucible is covered, lowered
into a melting hole (Fig. 4) and entirely surrounded by burning
coke. In about four hours the metal is converted into a quiet white
hot liquid. Several crucibles are then pulled out of the hole, and
their contents carefully poured into a metal mold, forming an ingot.

If modern high-speed steel is being made, the ingots are taken
out of the molds while still red hot and placed in a furnace which
keeps them at this temperature for some hours, an operation known
as annealing. After slow cooling any surface defects are ground
out. Ingots are then reheated to forging temperature, hammered
down into billets of about one-quarter size, and 10 to 20 per
cent of the length cut from the top. After reheating the billets
are hammered or rolled into bars of desired size. Finished bars are
packed with a little charcoal into large pipes, the ends sealed,
and annealed for two or three days. After careful inspection and
testing the steel is ready for market.

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