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Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...



Crucible Steel






Category: STEEL MAKING

Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or graphite
crucible. Each crucible contains about 40 lb. of best puddled iron,
40 lb. of clean mill scrap--ends trimmed from tool steel bars--and
sufficient rich alloys and charcoal to make the mixture conform to
the desired chemical analysis. The crucible is covered, lowered
into a melting hole (Fig. 4) and entirely surrounded by burning
coke. In about four hours the metal is converted into a quiet white
hot liquid. Several crucibles are then pulled out of the hole, and
their contents carefully poured into a metal mold, forming an ingot.



If modern high-speed steel is being made, the ingots are taken
out of the molds while still red hot and placed in a furnace which
keeps them at this temperature for some hours, an operation known
as annealing. After slow cooling any surface defects are ground
out. Ingots are then reheated to forging temperature, hammered
down into billets of about one-quarter size, and 10 to 20 per
cent of the length cut from the top. After reheating the billets
are hammered or rolled into bars of desired size. Finished bars are
packed with a little charcoal into large pipes, the ends sealed,
and annealed for two or three days. After careful inspection and
testing the steel is ready for market.





Next: The Electric Process

Previous: Open Hearth Process



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