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Steel Making

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Crucible Steel


Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or graphite
crucible. Each crucible contains about 40 lb. of best puddled iron,
40 lb. of clean mill scrap--ends trimmed from tool steel bars--and
sufficient rich alloys and charcoal to make the mixture conform to
the desired chemical analysis. The crucible is covered, lowered
into a melting hole (Fig. 4) and entirely surrounded by burning
coke. In about four hours the metal is converted into a quiet white
hot liquid. Several crucibles are then pulled out of the hole, and
their contents carefully poured into a metal mold, forming an ingot.

If modern high-speed steel is being made, the ingots are taken
out of the molds while still red hot and placed in a furnace which
keeps them at this temperature for some hours, an operation known
as annealing. After slow cooling any surface defects are ground
out. Ingots are then reheated to forging temperature, hammered
down into billets of about one-quarter size, and 10 to 20 per
cent of the length cut from the top. After reheating the billets
are hammered or rolled into bars of desired size. Finished bars are
packed with a little charcoal into large pipes, the ends sealed,
and annealed for two or three days. After careful inspection and
testing the steel is ready for market.

Next: The Electric Process

Previous: Open Hearth Process

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