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Steel Making

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Annealing
There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...



Crucible Steel






Category: STEEL MAKING

Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or graphite
crucible. Each crucible contains about 40 lb. of best puddled iron,
40 lb. of clean mill scrap--ends trimmed from tool steel bars--and
sufficient rich alloys and charcoal to make the mixture conform to
the desired chemical analysis. The crucible is covered, lowered
into a melting hole (Fig. 4) and entirely surrounded by burning
coke. In about four hours the metal is converted into a quiet white
hot liquid. Several crucibles are then pulled out of the hole, and
their contents carefully poured into a metal mold, forming an ingot.



If modern high-speed steel is being made, the ingots are taken
out of the molds while still red hot and placed in a furnace which
keeps them at this temperature for some hours, an operation known
as annealing. After slow cooling any surface defects are ground
out. Ingots are then reheated to forging temperature, hammered
down into billets of about one-quarter size, and 10 to 20 per
cent of the length cut from the top. After reheating the billets
are hammered or rolled into bars of desired size. Finished bars are
packed with a little charcoal into large pipes, the ends sealed,
and annealed for two or three days. After careful inspection and
testing the steel is ready for market.





Next: The Electric Process

Previous: Open Hearth Process



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