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Steel Making

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Crucible Steel


Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or graphite
crucible. Each crucible contains about 40 lb. of best puddled iron,
40 lb. of clean mill scrap--ends trimmed from tool steel bars--and
sufficient rich alloys and charcoal to make the mixture conform to
the desired chemical analysis. The crucible is covered, lowered
into a melting hole (Fig. 4) and entirely surrounded by burning
coke. In about four hours the metal is converted into a quiet white
hot liquid. Several crucibles are then pulled out of the hole, and
their contents carefully poured into a metal mold, forming an ingot.

If modern high-speed steel is being made, the ingots are taken
out of the molds while still red hot and placed in a furnace which
keeps them at this temperature for some hours, an operation known
as annealing. After slow cooling any surface defects are ground
out. Ingots are then reheated to forging temperature, hammered
down into billets of about one-quarter size, and 10 to 20 per
cent of the length cut from the top. After reheating the billets
are hammered or rolled into bars of desired size. Finished bars are
packed with a little charcoal into large pipes, the ends sealed,
and annealed for two or three days. After careful inspection and
testing the steel is ready for market.

Next: The Electric Process

Previous: Open Hearth Process

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