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Steel Making

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Crucible Steel


Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or graphite
crucible. Each crucible contains about 40 lb. of best puddled iron,
40 lb. of clean mill scrap--ends trimmed from tool steel bars--and
sufficient rich alloys and charcoal to make the mixture conform to
the desired chemical analysis. The crucible is covered, lowered
into a melting hole (Fig. 4) and entirely surrounded by burning
coke. In about four hours the metal is converted into a quiet white
hot liquid. Several crucibles are then pulled out of the hole, and
their contents carefully poured into a metal mold, forming an ingot.

If modern high-speed steel is being made, the ingots are taken
out of the molds while still red hot and placed in a furnace which
keeps them at this temperature for some hours, an operation known
as annealing. After slow cooling any surface defects are ground
out. Ingots are then reheated to forging temperature, hammered
down into billets of about one-quarter size, and 10 to 20 per
cent of the length cut from the top. After reheating the billets
are hammered or rolled into bars of desired size. Finished bars are
packed with a little charcoal into large pipes, the ends sealed,
and annealed for two or three days. After careful inspection and
testing the steel is ready for market.

Next: The Electric Process

Previous: Open Hearth Process

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