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Steel Making

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Hardening
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Machineability
Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...



Crucible Steel






Category: STEEL MAKING

Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or graphite
crucible. Each crucible contains about 40 lb. of best puddled iron,
40 lb. of clean mill scrap--ends trimmed from tool steel bars--and
sufficient rich alloys and charcoal to make the mixture conform to
the desired chemical analysis. The crucible is covered, lowered
into a melting hole (Fig. 4) and entirely surrounded by burning
coke. In about four hours the metal is converted into a quiet white
hot liquid. Several crucibles are then pulled out of the hole, and
their contents carefully poured into a metal mold, forming an ingot.



If modern high-speed steel is being made, the ingots are taken
out of the molds while still red hot and placed in a furnace which
keeps them at this temperature for some hours, an operation known
as annealing. After slow cooling any surface defects are ground
out. Ingots are then reheated to forging temperature, hammered
down into billets of about one-quarter size, and 10 to 20 per
cent of the length cut from the top. After reheating the billets
are hammered or rolled into bars of desired size. Finished bars are
packed with a little charcoal into large pipes, the ends sealed,
and annealed for two or three days. After careful inspection and
testing the steel is ready for market.





Next: The Electric Process

Previous: Open Hearth Process



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