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Steel Making

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Machineability
Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...



Crucible Steel






Category: STEEL MAKING

Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or graphite
crucible. Each crucible contains about 40 lb. of best puddled iron,
40 lb. of clean mill scrap--ends trimmed from tool steel bars--and
sufficient rich alloys and charcoal to make the mixture conform to
the desired chemical analysis. The crucible is covered, lowered
into a melting hole (Fig. 4) and entirely surrounded by burning
coke. In about four hours the metal is converted into a quiet white
hot liquid. Several crucibles are then pulled out of the hole, and
their contents carefully poured into a metal mold, forming an ingot.



If modern high-speed steel is being made, the ingots are taken
out of the molds while still red hot and placed in a furnace which
keeps them at this temperature for some hours, an operation known
as annealing. After slow cooling any surface defects are ground
out. Ingots are then reheated to forging temperature, hammered
down into billets of about one-quarter size, and 10 to 20 per
cent of the length cut from the top. After reheating the billets
are hammered or rolled into bars of desired size. Finished bars are
packed with a little charcoal into large pipes, the ends sealed,
and annealed for two or three days. After careful inspection and
testing the steel is ready for market.





Next: The Electric Process

Previous: Open Hearth Process



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