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Steel Making

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Crucible Steel


Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or graphite
crucible. Each crucible contains about 40 lb. of best puddled iron,
40 lb. of clean mill scrap--ends trimmed from tool steel bars--and
sufficient rich alloys and charcoal to make the mixture conform to
the desired chemical analysis. The crucible is covered, lowered
into a melting hole (Fig. 4) and entirely surrounded by burning
coke. In about four hours the metal is converted into a quiet white
hot liquid. Several crucibles are then pulled out of the hole, and
their contents carefully poured into a metal mold, forming an ingot.

If modern high-speed steel is being made, the ingots are taken
out of the molds while still red hot and placed in a furnace which
keeps them at this temperature for some hours, an operation known
as annealing. After slow cooling any surface defects are ground
out. Ingots are then reheated to forging temperature, hammered
down into billets of about one-quarter size, and 10 to 20 per
cent of the length cut from the top. After reheating the billets
are hammered or rolled into bars of desired size. Finished bars are
packed with a little charcoal into large pipes, the ends sealed,
and annealed for two or three days. After careful inspection and
testing the steel is ready for market.

Next: The Electric Process

Previous: Open Hearth Process

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