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Steel Making

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...



Crucible Steel






Category: STEEL MAKING

Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or graphite
crucible. Each crucible contains about 40 lb. of best puddled iron,
40 lb. of clean mill scrap--ends trimmed from tool steel bars--and
sufficient rich alloys and charcoal to make the mixture conform to
the desired chemical analysis. The crucible is covered, lowered
into a melting hole (Fig. 4) and entirely surrounded by burning
coke. In about four hours the metal is converted into a quiet white
hot liquid. Several crucibles are then pulled out of the hole, and
their contents carefully poured into a metal mold, forming an ingot.



If modern high-speed steel is being made, the ingots are taken
out of the molds while still red hot and placed in a furnace which
keeps them at this temperature for some hours, an operation known
as annealing. After slow cooling any surface defects are ground
out. Ingots are then reheated to forging temperature, hammered
down into billets of about one-quarter size, and 10 to 20 per
cent of the length cut from the top. After reheating the billets
are hammered or rolled into bars of desired size. Finished bars are
packed with a little charcoal into large pipes, the ends sealed,
and annealed for two or three days. After careful inspection and
testing the steel is ready for market.





Next: The Electric Process

Previous: Open Hearth Process



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