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Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...



Crucible Steel






Category: STEEL MAKING

Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or graphite
crucible. Each crucible contains about 40 lb. of best puddled iron,
40 lb. of clean mill scrap--ends trimmed from tool steel bars--and
sufficient rich alloys and charcoal to make the mixture conform to
the desired chemical analysis. The crucible is covered, lowered
into a melting hole (Fig. 4) and entirely surrounded by burning
coke. In about four hours the metal is converted into a quiet white
hot liquid. Several crucibles are then pulled out of the hole, and
their contents carefully poured into a metal mold, forming an ingot.



If modern high-speed steel is being made, the ingots are taken
out of the molds while still red hot and placed in a furnace which
keeps them at this temperature for some hours, an operation known
as annealing. After slow cooling any surface defects are ground
out. Ingots are then reheated to forging temperature, hammered
down into billets of about one-quarter size, and 10 to 20 per
cent of the length cut from the top. After reheating the billets
are hammered or rolled into bars of desired size. Finished bars are
packed with a little charcoal into large pipes, the ends sealed,
and annealed for two or three days. After careful inspection and
testing the steel is ready for market.





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Previous: Open Hearth Process



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