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Steel Making

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Annealing
There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Crankshaft
The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...



Crucible Steel






Category: STEEL MAKING

Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or graphite
crucible. Each crucible contains about 40 lb. of best puddled iron,
40 lb. of clean mill scrap--ends trimmed from tool steel bars--and
sufficient rich alloys and charcoal to make the mixture conform to
the desired chemical analysis. The crucible is covered, lowered
into a melting hole (Fig. 4) and entirely surrounded by burning
coke. In about four hours the metal is converted into a quiet white
hot liquid. Several crucibles are then pulled out of the hole, and
their contents carefully poured into a metal mold, forming an ingot.



If modern high-speed steel is being made, the ingots are taken
out of the molds while still red hot and placed in a furnace which
keeps them at this temperature for some hours, an operation known
as annealing. After slow cooling any surface defects are ground
out. Ingots are then reheated to forging temperature, hammered
down into billets of about one-quarter size, and 10 to 20 per
cent of the length cut from the top. After reheating the billets
are hammered or rolled into bars of desired size. Finished bars are
packed with a little charcoal into large pipes, the ends sealed,
and annealed for two or three days. After careful inspection and
testing the steel is ready for market.





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Previous: Open Hearth Process



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