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Steel Making

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Manganese
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...



Crucible Steel






Category: STEEL MAKING

Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or graphite
crucible. Each crucible contains about 40 lb. of best puddled iron,
40 lb. of clean mill scrap--ends trimmed from tool steel bars--and
sufficient rich alloys and charcoal to make the mixture conform to
the desired chemical analysis. The crucible is covered, lowered
into a melting hole (Fig. 4) and entirely surrounded by burning
coke. In about four hours the metal is converted into a quiet white
hot liquid. Several crucibles are then pulled out of the hole, and
their contents carefully poured into a metal mold, forming an ingot.



If modern high-speed steel is being made, the ingots are taken
out of the molds while still red hot and placed in a furnace which
keeps them at this temperature for some hours, an operation known
as annealing. After slow cooling any surface defects are ground
out. Ingots are then reheated to forging temperature, hammered
down into billets of about one-quarter size, and 10 to 20 per
cent of the length cut from the top. After reheating the billets
are hammered or rolled into bars of desired size. Finished bars are
packed with a little charcoal into large pipes, the ends sealed,
and annealed for two or three days. After careful inspection and
testing the steel is ready for market.





Next: The Electric Process

Previous: Open Hearth Process



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