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Steel Making

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Crucible Steel


Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or graphite
crucible. Each crucible contains about 40 lb. of best puddled iron,
40 lb. of clean mill scrap--ends trimmed from tool steel bars--and
sufficient rich alloys and charcoal to make the mixture conform to
the desired chemical analysis. The crucible is covered, lowered
into a melting hole (Fig. 4) and entirely surrounded by burning
coke. In about four hours the metal is converted into a quiet white
hot liquid. Several crucibles are then pulled out of the hole, and
their contents carefully poured into a metal mold, forming an ingot.

If modern high-speed steel is being made, the ingots are taken
out of the molds while still red hot and placed in a furnace which
keeps them at this temperature for some hours, an operation known
as annealing. After slow cooling any surface defects are ground
out. Ingots are then reheated to forging temperature, hammered
down into billets of about one-quarter size, and 10 to 20 per
cent of the length cut from the top. After reheating the billets
are hammered or rolled into bars of desired size. Finished bars are
packed with a little charcoal into large pipes, the ends sealed,
and annealed for two or three days. After careful inspection and
testing the steel is ready for market.

Next: The Electric Process

Previous: Open Hearth Process

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