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Steel Making

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Crucible Steel


Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or graphite
crucible. Each crucible contains about 40 lb. of best puddled iron,
40 lb. of clean mill scrap--ends trimmed from tool steel bars--and
sufficient rich alloys and charcoal to make the mixture conform to
the desired chemical analysis. The crucible is covered, lowered
into a melting hole (Fig. 4) and entirely surrounded by burning
coke. In about four hours the metal is converted into a quiet white
hot liquid. Several crucibles are then pulled out of the hole, and
their contents carefully poured into a metal mold, forming an ingot.

If modern high-speed steel is being made, the ingots are taken
out of the molds while still red hot and placed in a furnace which
keeps them at this temperature for some hours, an operation known
as annealing. After slow cooling any surface defects are ground
out. Ingots are then reheated to forging temperature, hammered
down into billets of about one-quarter size, and 10 to 20 per
cent of the length cut from the top. After reheating the billets
are hammered or rolled into bars of desired size. Finished bars are
packed with a little charcoal into large pipes, the ends sealed,
and annealed for two or three days. After careful inspection and
testing the steel is ready for market.

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