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Steel Making

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Crucible Steel


Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or graphite
crucible. Each crucible contains about 40 lb. of best puddled iron,
40 lb. of clean mill scrap--ends trimmed from tool steel bars--and
sufficient rich alloys and charcoal to make the mixture conform to
the desired chemical analysis. The crucible is covered, lowered
into a melting hole (Fig. 4) and entirely surrounded by burning
coke. In about four hours the metal is converted into a quiet white
hot liquid. Several crucibles are then pulled out of the hole, and
their contents carefully poured into a metal mold, forming an ingot.

If modern high-speed steel is being made, the ingots are taken
out of the molds while still red hot and placed in a furnace which
keeps them at this temperature for some hours, an operation known
as annealing. After slow cooling any surface defects are ground
out. Ingots are then reheated to forging temperature, hammered
down into billets of about one-quarter size, and 10 to 20 per
cent of the length cut from the top. After reheating the billets
are hammered or rolled into bars of desired size. Finished bars are
packed with a little charcoal into large pipes, the ends sealed,
and annealed for two or three days. After careful inspection and
testing the steel is ready for market.

Next: The Electric Process

Previous: Open Hearth Process

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