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Steel Making

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Crucible Steel


Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or graphite
crucible. Each crucible contains about 40 lb. of best puddled iron,
40 lb. of clean mill scrap--ends trimmed from tool steel bars--and
sufficient rich alloys and charcoal to make the mixture conform to
the desired chemical analysis. The crucible is covered, lowered
into a melting hole (Fig. 4) and entirely surrounded by burning
coke. In about four hours the metal is converted into a quiet white
hot liquid. Several crucibles are then pulled out of the hole, and
their contents carefully poured into a metal mold, forming an ingot.

If modern high-speed steel is being made, the ingots are taken
out of the molds while still red hot and placed in a furnace which
keeps them at this temperature for some hours, an operation known
as annealing. After slow cooling any surface defects are ground
out. Ingots are then reheated to forging temperature, hammered
down into billets of about one-quarter size, and 10 to 20 per
cent of the length cut from the top. After reheating the billets
are hammered or rolled into bars of desired size. Finished bars are
packed with a little charcoal into large pipes, the ends sealed,
and annealed for two or three days. After careful inspection and
testing the steel is ready for market.

Next: The Electric Process

Previous: Open Hearth Process

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