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Steel Making

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Crankshaft
The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...



Crucible Steel






Category: STEEL MAKING

Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or graphite
crucible. Each crucible contains about 40 lb. of best puddled iron,
40 lb. of clean mill scrap--ends trimmed from tool steel bars--and
sufficient rich alloys and charcoal to make the mixture conform to
the desired chemical analysis. The crucible is covered, lowered
into a melting hole (Fig. 4) and entirely surrounded by burning
coke. In about four hours the metal is converted into a quiet white
hot liquid. Several crucibles are then pulled out of the hole, and
their contents carefully poured into a metal mold, forming an ingot.



If modern high-speed steel is being made, the ingots are taken
out of the molds while still red hot and placed in a furnace which
keeps them at this temperature for some hours, an operation known
as annealing. After slow cooling any surface defects are ground
out. Ingots are then reheated to forging temperature, hammered
down into billets of about one-quarter size, and 10 to 20 per
cent of the length cut from the top. After reheating the billets
are hammered or rolled into bars of desired size. Finished bars are
packed with a little charcoal into large pipes, the ends sealed,
and annealed for two or three days. After careful inspection and
testing the steel is ready for market.





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