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Steel Making

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Crucible Steel


Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or graphite
crucible. Each crucible contains about 40 lb. of best puddled iron,
40 lb. of clean mill scrap--ends trimmed from tool steel bars--and
sufficient rich alloys and charcoal to make the mixture conform to
the desired chemical analysis. The crucible is covered, lowered
into a melting hole (Fig. 4) and entirely surrounded by burning
coke. In about four hours the metal is converted into a quiet white
hot liquid. Several crucibles are then pulled out of the hole, and
their contents carefully poured into a metal mold, forming an ingot.

If modern high-speed steel is being made, the ingots are taken
out of the molds while still red hot and placed in a furnace which
keeps them at this temperature for some hours, an operation known
as annealing. After slow cooling any surface defects are ground
out. Ingots are then reheated to forging temperature, hammered
down into billets of about one-quarter size, and 10 to 20 per
cent of the length cut from the top. After reheating the billets
are hammered or rolled into bars of desired size. Finished bars are
packed with a little charcoal into large pipes, the ends sealed,
and annealed for two or three days. After careful inspection and
testing the steel is ready for market.

Next: The Electric Process

Previous: Open Hearth Process

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