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Steel Making

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Crucible Steel


Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or graphite
crucible. Each crucible contains about 40 lb. of best puddled iron,
40 lb. of clean mill scrap--ends trimmed from tool steel bars--and
sufficient rich alloys and charcoal to make the mixture conform to
the desired chemical analysis. The crucible is covered, lowered
into a melting hole (Fig. 4) and entirely surrounded by burning
coke. In about four hours the metal is converted into a quiet white
hot liquid. Several crucibles are then pulled out of the hole, and
their contents carefully poured into a metal mold, forming an ingot.

If modern high-speed steel is being made, the ingots are taken
out of the molds while still red hot and placed in a furnace which
keeps them at this temperature for some hours, an operation known
as annealing. After slow cooling any surface defects are ground
out. Ingots are then reheated to forging temperature, hammered
down into billets of about one-quarter size, and 10 to 20 per
cent of the length cut from the top. After reheating the billets
are hammered or rolled into bars of desired size. Finished bars are
packed with a little charcoal into large pipes, the ends sealed,
and annealed for two or three days. After careful inspection and
testing the steel is ready for market.

Next: The Electric Process

Previous: Open Hearth Process

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