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Steel Making

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Crucible Steel


Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or graphite
crucible. Each crucible contains about 40 lb. of best puddled iron,
40 lb. of clean mill scrap--ends trimmed from tool steel bars--and
sufficient rich alloys and charcoal to make the mixture conform to
the desired chemical analysis. The crucible is covered, lowered
into a melting hole (Fig. 4) and entirely surrounded by burning
coke. In about four hours the metal is converted into a quiet white
hot liquid. Several crucibles are then pulled out of the hole, and
their contents carefully poured into a metal mold, forming an ingot.

If modern high-speed steel is being made, the ingots are taken
out of the molds while still red hot and placed in a furnace which
keeps them at this temperature for some hours, an operation known
as annealing. After slow cooling any surface defects are ground
out. Ingots are then reheated to forging temperature, hammered
down into billets of about one-quarter size, and 10 to 20 per
cent of the length cut from the top. After reheating the billets
are hammered or rolled into bars of desired size. Finished bars are
packed with a little charcoal into large pipes, the ends sealed,
and annealed for two or three days. After careful inspection and
testing the steel is ready for market.

Next: The Electric Process

Previous: Open Hearth Process

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