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Steel Making

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Pyrometers
Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...



Crucible Steel






Category: STEEL MAKING

Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or graphite
crucible. Each crucible contains about 40 lb. of best puddled iron,
40 lb. of clean mill scrap--ends trimmed from tool steel bars--and
sufficient rich alloys and charcoal to make the mixture conform to
the desired chemical analysis. The crucible is covered, lowered
into a melting hole (Fig. 4) and entirely surrounded by burning
coke. In about four hours the metal is converted into a quiet white
hot liquid. Several crucibles are then pulled out of the hole, and
their contents carefully poured into a metal mold, forming an ingot.



If modern high-speed steel is being made, the ingots are taken
out of the molds while still red hot and placed in a furnace which
keeps them at this temperature for some hours, an operation known
as annealing. After slow cooling any surface defects are ground
out. Ingots are then reheated to forging temperature, hammered
down into billets of about one-quarter size, and 10 to 20 per
cent of the length cut from the top. After reheating the billets
are hammered or rolled into bars of desired size. Finished bars are
packed with a little charcoal into large pipes, the ends sealed,
and annealed for two or three days. After careful inspection and
testing the steel is ready for market.





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Previous: Open Hearth Process



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