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Steel Making

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Pyrometers
Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Hardening
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...



Crucible Steel






Category: STEEL MAKING

Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or graphite
crucible. Each crucible contains about 40 lb. of best puddled iron,
40 lb. of clean mill scrap--ends trimmed from tool steel bars--and
sufficient rich alloys and charcoal to make the mixture conform to
the desired chemical analysis. The crucible is covered, lowered
into a melting hole (Fig. 4) and entirely surrounded by burning
coke. In about four hours the metal is converted into a quiet white
hot liquid. Several crucibles are then pulled out of the hole, and
their contents carefully poured into a metal mold, forming an ingot.



If modern high-speed steel is being made, the ingots are taken
out of the molds while still red hot and placed in a furnace which
keeps them at this temperature for some hours, an operation known
as annealing. After slow cooling any surface defects are ground
out. Ingots are then reheated to forging temperature, hammered
down into billets of about one-quarter size, and 10 to 20 per
cent of the length cut from the top. After reheating the billets
are hammered or rolled into bars of desired size. Finished bars are
packed with a little charcoal into large pipes, the ends sealed,
and annealed for two or three days. After careful inspection and
testing the steel is ready for market.





Next: The Electric Process

Previous: Open Hearth Process



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