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Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Crankshaft
The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...



Hardening Operation






Category: HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows:
The gear is taken from the furnace by the furnaceman and placed in
the lower die, surrounding the centering jaws, as shown at H in
Fig. 62 and C in Fig. 63. Air is then turned into the cylinder
D, and the piston rod E, the die carrier B, the top die F
and the expander G descend. The pilot H enters a hole in the
center of the lower die, and the expander G enters the centering
jaws I, causing them to expand and center the gear C in the
lower die. On further advance of the piston rod E, the expander
G is forced upward against the pressure of the springs J and
the upper die F comes in contact with the upper surface of the
gear. Further downward movement of the dies, which now clamp the
work securely, overcomes the resistance of the pressure weight
K (which normally keeps up the plunger A), and the gear is
submerged in the oil. The quenching oil is circulated through a
cooling system outside the building and enters the tempering machine
through the inlet pipe L. When the machine is in the position
shown, the oil passes out through the ports M in the lower plunger
to the outer reservoir N, passing to the cooling system by way of
the overflow O. When the lower plunger A is forced downward,
the ports M are automatically closed and the cool quenching oil
from the inlet pipe L, having no other means of escape, passes
through the holes in the lower die and the grooves in the upper,
circulating in contact with the surfaces of the gear and passes to
the overflow. When the air pressure is released, the counterweights
return the parts to the positions shown in Fig. 63, and the operator
removes the gear.

The gear comes out uniformly hard all over and of the same degree of
hardness as when tempered in an open tank. The output of the machine
depends on the amount of metal to be cooled, but will average from
8 to 16 per hour. Each machine is served by one man, two furnaces
being required to heat the work. A slight excess of oil is used
in the firing of the furnaces to give a reducing atmosphere and
to avoid scale.





Next: Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves

Previous: Temperature Recording And Regulation



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