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Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...



Hardening Operation






Category: HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows:
The gear is taken from the furnace by the furnaceman and placed in
the lower die, surrounding the centering jaws, as shown at H in
Fig. 62 and C in Fig. 63. Air is then turned into the cylinder
D, and the piston rod E, the die carrier B, the top die F
and the expander G descend. The pilot H enters a hole in the
center of the lower die, and the expander G enters the centering
jaws I, causing them to expand and center the gear C in the
lower die. On further advance of the piston rod E, the expander
G is forced upward against the pressure of the springs J and
the upper die F comes in contact with the upper surface of the
gear. Further downward movement of the dies, which now clamp the
work securely, overcomes the resistance of the pressure weight
K (which normally keeps up the plunger A), and the gear is
submerged in the oil. The quenching oil is circulated through a
cooling system outside the building and enters the tempering machine
through the inlet pipe L. When the machine is in the position
shown, the oil passes out through the ports M in the lower plunger
to the outer reservoir N, passing to the cooling system by way of
the overflow O. When the lower plunger A is forced downward,
the ports M are automatically closed and the cool quenching oil
from the inlet pipe L, having no other means of escape, passes
through the holes in the lower die and the grooves in the upper,
circulating in contact with the surfaces of the gear and passes to
the overflow. When the air pressure is released, the counterweights
return the parts to the positions shown in Fig. 63, and the operator
removes the gear.

The gear comes out uniformly hard all over and of the same degree of
hardness as when tempered in an open tank. The output of the machine
depends on the amount of metal to be cooled, but will average from
8 to 16 per hour. Each machine is served by one man, two furnaces
being required to heat the work. A slight excess of oil is used
in the firing of the furnaces to give a reducing atmosphere and
to avoid scale.





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Previous: Temperature Recording And Regulation



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