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Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...



Hardening Operation






Category: HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows:
The gear is taken from the furnace by the furnaceman and placed in
the lower die, surrounding the centering jaws, as shown at H in
Fig. 62 and C in Fig. 63. Air is then turned into the cylinder
D, and the piston rod E, the die carrier B, the top die F
and the expander G descend. The pilot H enters a hole in the
center of the lower die, and the expander G enters the centering
jaws I, causing them to expand and center the gear C in the
lower die. On further advance of the piston rod E, the expander
G is forced upward against the pressure of the springs J and
the upper die F comes in contact with the upper surface of the
gear. Further downward movement of the dies, which now clamp the
work securely, overcomes the resistance of the pressure weight
K (which normally keeps up the plunger A), and the gear is
submerged in the oil. The quenching oil is circulated through a
cooling system outside the building and enters the tempering machine
through the inlet pipe L. When the machine is in the position
shown, the oil passes out through the ports M in the lower plunger
to the outer reservoir N, passing to the cooling system by way of
the overflow O. When the lower plunger A is forced downward,
the ports M are automatically closed and the cool quenching oil
from the inlet pipe L, having no other means of escape, passes
through the holes in the lower die and the grooves in the upper,
circulating in contact with the surfaces of the gear and passes to
the overflow. When the air pressure is released, the counterweights
return the parts to the positions shown in Fig. 63, and the operator
removes the gear.

The gear comes out uniformly hard all over and of the same degree of
hardness as when tempered in an open tank. The output of the machine
depends on the amount of metal to be cooled, but will average from
8 to 16 per hour. Each machine is served by one man, two furnaces
being required to heat the work. A slight excess of oil is used
in the firing of the furnaces to give a reducing atmosphere and
to avoid scale.





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Previous: Temperature Recording And Regulation



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