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Steel Making

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Hardening Operation


Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows:
The gear is taken from the furnace by the furnaceman and placed in
the lower die, surrounding the centering jaws, as shown at H in
Fig. 62 and C in Fig. 63. Air is then turned into the cylinder
D, and the piston rod E, the die carrier B, the top die F
and the expander G descend. The pilot H enters a hole in the
center of the lower die, and the expander G enters the centering
jaws I, causing them to expand and center the gear C in the
lower die. On further advance of the piston rod E, the expander
G is forced upward against the pressure of the springs J and
the upper die F comes in contact with the upper surface of the
gear. Further downward movement of the dies, which now clamp the
work securely, overcomes the resistance of the pressure weight
K (which normally keeps up the plunger A), and the gear is
submerged in the oil. The quenching oil is circulated through a
cooling system outside the building and enters the tempering machine
through the inlet pipe L. When the machine is in the position
shown, the oil passes out through the ports M in the lower plunger
to the outer reservoir N, passing to the cooling system by way of
the overflow O. When the lower plunger A is forced downward,
the ports M are automatically closed and the cool quenching oil
from the inlet pipe L, having no other means of escape, passes
through the holes in the lower die and the grooves in the upper,
circulating in contact with the surfaces of the gear and passes to
the overflow. When the air pressure is released, the counterweights
return the parts to the positions shown in Fig. 63, and the operator
removes the gear.

The gear comes out uniformly hard all over and of the same degree of
hardness as when tempered in an open tank. The output of the machine
depends on the amount of metal to be cooled, but will average from
8 to 16 per hour. Each machine is served by one man, two furnaces
being required to heat the work. A slight excess of oil is used
in the firing of the furnaces to give a reducing atmosphere and
to avoid scale.

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