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Steel Making

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...



Hardening Operation






Category: HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows:
The gear is taken from the furnace by the furnaceman and placed in
the lower die, surrounding the centering jaws, as shown at H in
Fig. 62 and C in Fig. 63. Air is then turned into the cylinder
D, and the piston rod E, the die carrier B, the top die F
and the expander G descend. The pilot H enters a hole in the
center of the lower die, and the expander G enters the centering
jaws I, causing them to expand and center the gear C in the
lower die. On further advance of the piston rod E, the expander
G is forced upward against the pressure of the springs J and
the upper die F comes in contact with the upper surface of the
gear. Further downward movement of the dies, which now clamp the
work securely, overcomes the resistance of the pressure weight
K (which normally keeps up the plunger A), and the gear is
submerged in the oil. The quenching oil is circulated through a
cooling system outside the building and enters the tempering machine
through the inlet pipe L. When the machine is in the position
shown, the oil passes out through the ports M in the lower plunger
to the outer reservoir N, passing to the cooling system by way of
the overflow O. When the lower plunger A is forced downward,
the ports M are automatically closed and the cool quenching oil
from the inlet pipe L, having no other means of escape, passes
through the holes in the lower die and the grooves in the upper,
circulating in contact with the surfaces of the gear and passes to
the overflow. When the air pressure is released, the counterweights
return the parts to the positions shown in Fig. 63, and the operator
removes the gear.

The gear comes out uniformly hard all over and of the same degree of
hardness as when tempered in an open tank. The output of the machine
depends on the amount of metal to be cooled, but will average from
8 to 16 per hour. Each machine is served by one man, two furnaces
being required to heat the work. A slight excess of oil is used
in the firing of the furnaces to give a reducing atmosphere and
to avoid scale.





Next: Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves

Previous: Temperature Recording And Regulation



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