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Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...



Hardening Operation






Category: HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows:
The gear is taken from the furnace by the furnaceman and placed in
the lower die, surrounding the centering jaws, as shown at H in
Fig. 62 and C in Fig. 63. Air is then turned into the cylinder
D, and the piston rod E, the die carrier B, the top die F
and the expander G descend. The pilot H enters a hole in the
center of the lower die, and the expander G enters the centering
jaws I, causing them to expand and center the gear C in the
lower die. On further advance of the piston rod E, the expander
G is forced upward against the pressure of the springs J and
the upper die F comes in contact with the upper surface of the
gear. Further downward movement of the dies, which now clamp the
work securely, overcomes the resistance of the pressure weight
K (which normally keeps up the plunger A), and the gear is
submerged in the oil. The quenching oil is circulated through a
cooling system outside the building and enters the tempering machine
through the inlet pipe L. When the machine is in the position
shown, the oil passes out through the ports M in the lower plunger
to the outer reservoir N, passing to the cooling system by way of
the overflow O. When the lower plunger A is forced downward,
the ports M are automatically closed and the cool quenching oil
from the inlet pipe L, having no other means of escape, passes
through the holes in the lower die and the grooves in the upper,
circulating in contact with the surfaces of the gear and passes to
the overflow. When the air pressure is released, the counterweights
return the parts to the positions shown in Fig. 63, and the operator
removes the gear.

The gear comes out uniformly hard all over and of the same degree of
hardness as when tempered in an open tank. The output of the machine
depends on the amount of metal to be cooled, but will average from
8 to 16 per hour. Each machine is served by one man, two furnaces
being required to heat the work. A slight excess of oil is used
in the firing of the furnaces to give a reducing atmosphere and
to avoid scale.





Next: Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves

Previous: Temperature Recording And Regulation



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