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Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Crankshaft
The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...



Hardening Operation






Category: HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows:
The gear is taken from the furnace by the furnaceman and placed in
the lower die, surrounding the centering jaws, as shown at H in
Fig. 62 and C in Fig. 63. Air is then turned into the cylinder
D, and the piston rod E, the die carrier B, the top die F
and the expander G descend. The pilot H enters a hole in the
center of the lower die, and the expander G enters the centering
jaws I, causing them to expand and center the gear C in the
lower die. On further advance of the piston rod E, the expander
G is forced upward against the pressure of the springs J and
the upper die F comes in contact with the upper surface of the
gear. Further downward movement of the dies, which now clamp the
work securely, overcomes the resistance of the pressure weight
K (which normally keeps up the plunger A), and the gear is
submerged in the oil. The quenching oil is circulated through a
cooling system outside the building and enters the tempering machine
through the inlet pipe L. When the machine is in the position
shown, the oil passes out through the ports M in the lower plunger
to the outer reservoir N, passing to the cooling system by way of
the overflow O. When the lower plunger A is forced downward,
the ports M are automatically closed and the cool quenching oil
from the inlet pipe L, having no other means of escape, passes
through the holes in the lower die and the grooves in the upper,
circulating in contact with the surfaces of the gear and passes to
the overflow. When the air pressure is released, the counterweights
return the parts to the positions shown in Fig. 63, and the operator
removes the gear.

The gear comes out uniformly hard all over and of the same degree of
hardness as when tempered in an open tank. The output of the machine
depends on the amount of metal to be cooled, but will average from
8 to 16 per hour. Each machine is served by one man, two furnaces
being required to heat the work. A slight excess of oil is used
in the firing of the furnaces to give a reducing atmosphere and
to avoid scale.





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Previous: Temperature Recording And Regulation



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