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Steel Making

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Hardening Operation


Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows:
The gear is taken from the furnace by the furnaceman and placed in
the lower die, surrounding the centering jaws, as shown at H in
Fig. 62 and C in Fig. 63. Air is then turned into the cylinder
D, and the piston rod E, the die carrier B, the top die F
and the expander G descend. The pilot H enters a hole in the
center of the lower die, and the expander G enters the centering
jaws I, causing them to expand and center the gear C in the
lower die. On further advance of the piston rod E, the expander
G is forced upward against the pressure of the springs J and
the upper die F comes in contact with the upper surface of the
gear. Further downward movement of the dies, which now clamp the
work securely, overcomes the resistance of the pressure weight
K (which normally keeps up the plunger A), and the gear is
submerged in the oil. The quenching oil is circulated through a
cooling system outside the building and enters the tempering machine
through the inlet pipe L. When the machine is in the position
shown, the oil passes out through the ports M in the lower plunger
to the outer reservoir N, passing to the cooling system by way of
the overflow O. When the lower plunger A is forced downward,
the ports M are automatically closed and the cool quenching oil
from the inlet pipe L, having no other means of escape, passes
through the holes in the lower die and the grooves in the upper,
circulating in contact with the surfaces of the gear and passes to
the overflow. When the air pressure is released, the counterweights
return the parts to the positions shown in Fig. 63, and the operator
removes the gear.

The gear comes out uniformly hard all over and of the same degree of
hardness as when tempered in an open tank. The output of the machine
depends on the amount of metal to be cooled, but will average from
8 to 16 per hour. Each machine is served by one man, two furnaces
being required to heat the work. A slight excess of oil is used
in the firing of the furnaces to give a reducing atmosphere and
to avoid scale.

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