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Steel Making

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...



Hardening Operation






Category: HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows:
The gear is taken from the furnace by the furnaceman and placed in
the lower die, surrounding the centering jaws, as shown at H in
Fig. 62 and C in Fig. 63. Air is then turned into the cylinder
D, and the piston rod E, the die carrier B, the top die F
and the expander G descend. The pilot H enters a hole in the
center of the lower die, and the expander G enters the centering
jaws I, causing them to expand and center the gear C in the
lower die. On further advance of the piston rod E, the expander
G is forced upward against the pressure of the springs J and
the upper die F comes in contact with the upper surface of the
gear. Further downward movement of the dies, which now clamp the
work securely, overcomes the resistance of the pressure weight
K (which normally keeps up the plunger A), and the gear is
submerged in the oil. The quenching oil is circulated through a
cooling system outside the building and enters the tempering machine
through the inlet pipe L. When the machine is in the position
shown, the oil passes out through the ports M in the lower plunger
to the outer reservoir N, passing to the cooling system by way of
the overflow O. When the lower plunger A is forced downward,
the ports M are automatically closed and the cool quenching oil
from the inlet pipe L, having no other means of escape, passes
through the holes in the lower die and the grooves in the upper,
circulating in contact with the surfaces of the gear and passes to
the overflow. When the air pressure is released, the counterweights
return the parts to the positions shown in Fig. 63, and the operator
removes the gear.

The gear comes out uniformly hard all over and of the same degree of
hardness as when tempered in an open tank. The output of the machine
depends on the amount of metal to be cooled, but will average from
8 to 16 per hour. Each machine is served by one man, two furnaces
being required to heat the work. A slight excess of oil is used
in the firing of the furnaces to give a reducing atmosphere and
to avoid scale.





Next: Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves

Previous: Temperature Recording And Regulation



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