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Steel Making

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Hardening Operation


Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows:
The gear is taken from the furnace by the furnaceman and placed in
the lower die, surrounding the centering jaws, as shown at H in
Fig. 62 and C in Fig. 63. Air is then turned into the cylinder
D, and the piston rod E, the die carrier B, the top die F
and the expander G descend. The pilot H enters a hole in the
center of the lower die, and the expander G enters the centering
jaws I, causing them to expand and center the gear C in the
lower die. On further advance of the piston rod E, the expander
G is forced upward against the pressure of the springs J and
the upper die F comes in contact with the upper surface of the
gear. Further downward movement of the dies, which now clamp the
work securely, overcomes the resistance of the pressure weight
K (which normally keeps up the plunger A), and the gear is
submerged in the oil. The quenching oil is circulated through a
cooling system outside the building and enters the tempering machine
through the inlet pipe L. When the machine is in the position
shown, the oil passes out through the ports M in the lower plunger
to the outer reservoir N, passing to the cooling system by way of
the overflow O. When the lower plunger A is forced downward,
the ports M are automatically closed and the cool quenching oil
from the inlet pipe L, having no other means of escape, passes
through the holes in the lower die and the grooves in the upper,
circulating in contact with the surfaces of the gear and passes to
the overflow. When the air pressure is released, the counterweights
return the parts to the positions shown in Fig. 63, and the operator
removes the gear.

The gear comes out uniformly hard all over and of the same degree of
hardness as when tempered in an open tank. The output of the machine
depends on the amount of metal to be cooled, but will average from
8 to 16 per hour. Each machine is served by one man, two furnaces
being required to heat the work. A slight excess of oil is used
in the firing of the furnaces to give a reducing atmosphere and
to avoid scale.

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Previous: Temperature Recording And Regulation

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