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Steel Making

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Hardening
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...



Hardening Operation






Category: HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows:
The gear is taken from the furnace by the furnaceman and placed in
the lower die, surrounding the centering jaws, as shown at H in
Fig. 62 and C in Fig. 63. Air is then turned into the cylinder
D, and the piston rod E, the die carrier B, the top die F
and the expander G descend. The pilot H enters a hole in the
center of the lower die, and the expander G enters the centering
jaws I, causing them to expand and center the gear C in the
lower die. On further advance of the piston rod E, the expander
G is forced upward against the pressure of the springs J and
the upper die F comes in contact with the upper surface of the
gear. Further downward movement of the dies, which now clamp the
work securely, overcomes the resistance of the pressure weight
K (which normally keeps up the plunger A), and the gear is
submerged in the oil. The quenching oil is circulated through a
cooling system outside the building and enters the tempering machine
through the inlet pipe L. When the machine is in the position
shown, the oil passes out through the ports M in the lower plunger
to the outer reservoir N, passing to the cooling system by way of
the overflow O. When the lower plunger A is forced downward,
the ports M are automatically closed and the cool quenching oil
from the inlet pipe L, having no other means of escape, passes
through the holes in the lower die and the grooves in the upper,
circulating in contact with the surfaces of the gear and passes to
the overflow. When the air pressure is released, the counterweights
return the parts to the positions shown in Fig. 63, and the operator
removes the gear.

The gear comes out uniformly hard all over and of the same degree of
hardness as when tempered in an open tank. The output of the machine
depends on the amount of metal to be cooled, but will average from
8 to 16 per hour. Each machine is served by one man, two furnaces
being required to heat the work. A slight excess of oil is used
in the firing of the furnaces to give a reducing atmosphere and
to avoid scale.





Next: Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves

Previous: Temperature Recording And Regulation



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