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Steel Making

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Hardening Operation


Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows:
The gear is taken from the furnace by the furnaceman and placed in
the lower die, surrounding the centering jaws, as shown at H in
Fig. 62 and C in Fig. 63. Air is then turned into the cylinder
D, and the piston rod E, the die carrier B, the top die F
and the expander G descend. The pilot H enters a hole in the
center of the lower die, and the expander G enters the centering
jaws I, causing them to expand and center the gear C in the
lower die. On further advance of the piston rod E, the expander
G is forced upward against the pressure of the springs J and
the upper die F comes in contact with the upper surface of the
gear. Further downward movement of the dies, which now clamp the
work securely, overcomes the resistance of the pressure weight
K (which normally keeps up the plunger A), and the gear is
submerged in the oil. The quenching oil is circulated through a
cooling system outside the building and enters the tempering machine
through the inlet pipe L. When the machine is in the position
shown, the oil passes out through the ports M in the lower plunger
to the outer reservoir N, passing to the cooling system by way of
the overflow O. When the lower plunger A is forced downward,
the ports M are automatically closed and the cool quenching oil
from the inlet pipe L, having no other means of escape, passes
through the holes in the lower die and the grooves in the upper,
circulating in contact with the surfaces of the gear and passes to
the overflow. When the air pressure is released, the counterweights
return the parts to the positions shown in Fig. 63, and the operator
removes the gear.

The gear comes out uniformly hard all over and of the same degree of
hardness as when tempered in an open tank. The output of the machine
depends on the amount of metal to be cooled, but will average from
8 to 16 per hour. Each machine is served by one man, two furnaces
being required to heat the work. A slight excess of oil is used
in the firing of the furnaces to give a reducing atmosphere and
to avoid scale.

Next: Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves

Previous: Temperature Recording And Regulation

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