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Steel Making

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools


FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundry
coke, broken in small pieces, in an ordinary blacksmith forge with
a few bricks laid over the top to form a hollow fire. The bricks
should be thoroughly heated before tools are heated. Hard coal
may be used very successfully in place of hard coke and will give
a higher heat. It is very easy to give Blue Chip the proper heat
if care is used in making up the fire.

FORGING.--Heat slowly and uniformly to a good forging heat. Do
not hammer the steel after it cools below a bright red. Avoid as
much as possible heating the body of the tool, so as to retain
the natural toughness in the neck of the tool.

HARDENING.--Heat the point of the tool to an extreme white heat
(about 2,200 deg.F.) until the flux runs. This heat should be the highest
possible short of melting the point. Care should be taken to confine
the heat as near to the point as possible so as to leave the annealing
and consequent toughness in the neck of the tool and where the tool
is held in the tool post.

COOL in an air blast, the open air or in oil, depending upon the
tools or the work they are to do.

For roughing tools temper need not be drawn except for work where
the edge tends to crumble on account of being too hard.

For finishing tools draw the temper to suit the purpose for which
they are to be used.

GRIND thoroughly on dry wheel (or wet wheel if care is used to prevent

Next: Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc

Previous: Lathe And Planer Tools

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