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Steel Making

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools


FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundry
coke, broken in small pieces, in an ordinary blacksmith forge with
a few bricks laid over the top to form a hollow fire. The bricks
should be thoroughly heated before tools are heated. Hard coal
may be used very successfully in place of hard coke and will give
a higher heat. It is very easy to give Blue Chip the proper heat
if care is used in making up the fire.

FORGING.--Heat slowly and uniformly to a good forging heat. Do
not hammer the steel after it cools below a bright red. Avoid as
much as possible heating the body of the tool, so as to retain
the natural toughness in the neck of the tool.

HARDENING.--Heat the point of the tool to an extreme white heat
(about 2,200 deg.F.) until the flux runs. This heat should be the highest
possible short of melting the point. Care should be taken to confine
the heat as near to the point as possible so as to leave the annealing
and consequent toughness in the neck of the tool and where the tool
is held in the tool post.

COOL in an air blast, the open air or in oil, depending upon the
tools or the work they are to do.

For roughing tools temper need not be drawn except for work where
the edge tends to crumble on account of being too hard.

For finishing tools draw the temper to suit the purpose for which
they are to be used.

GRIND thoroughly on dry wheel (or wet wheel if care is used to prevent

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