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Steel Making

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools


FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundry
coke, broken in small pieces, in an ordinary blacksmith forge with
a few bricks laid over the top to form a hollow fire. The bricks
should be thoroughly heated before tools are heated. Hard coal
may be used very successfully in place of hard coke and will give
a higher heat. It is very easy to give Blue Chip the proper heat
if care is used in making up the fire.

FORGING.--Heat slowly and uniformly to a good forging heat. Do
not hammer the steel after it cools below a bright red. Avoid as
much as possible heating the body of the tool, so as to retain
the natural toughness in the neck of the tool.

HARDENING.--Heat the point of the tool to an extreme white heat
(about 2,200 deg.F.) until the flux runs. This heat should be the highest
possible short of melting the point. Care should be taken to confine
the heat as near to the point as possible so as to leave the annealing
and consequent toughness in the neck of the tool and where the tool
is held in the tool post.

COOL in an air blast, the open air or in oil, depending upon the
tools or the work they are to do.

For roughing tools temper need not be drawn except for work where
the edge tends to crumble on account of being too hard.

For finishing tools draw the temper to suit the purpose for which
they are to be used.

GRIND thoroughly on dry wheel (or wet wheel if care is used to prevent

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