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Steel Making

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools


FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundry
coke, broken in small pieces, in an ordinary blacksmith forge with
a few bricks laid over the top to form a hollow fire. The bricks
should be thoroughly heated before tools are heated. Hard coal
may be used very successfully in place of hard coke and will give
a higher heat. It is very easy to give Blue Chip the proper heat
if care is used in making up the fire.

FORGING.--Heat slowly and uniformly to a good forging heat. Do
not hammer the steel after it cools below a bright red. Avoid as
much as possible heating the body of the tool, so as to retain
the natural toughness in the neck of the tool.

HARDENING.--Heat the point of the tool to an extreme white heat
(about 2,200 deg.F.) until the flux runs. This heat should be the highest
possible short of melting the point. Care should be taken to confine
the heat as near to the point as possible so as to leave the annealing
and consequent toughness in the neck of the tool and where the tool
is held in the tool post.

COOL in an air blast, the open air or in oil, depending upon the
tools or the work they are to do.

For roughing tools temper need not be drawn except for work where
the edge tends to crumble on account of being too hard.

For finishing tools draw the temper to suit the purpose for which
they are to be used.

GRIND thoroughly on dry wheel (or wet wheel if care is used to prevent

Next: Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc

Previous: Lathe And Planer Tools

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