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Steel Making

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools


FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundry
coke, broken in small pieces, in an ordinary blacksmith forge with
a few bricks laid over the top to form a hollow fire. The bricks
should be thoroughly heated before tools are heated. Hard coal
may be used very successfully in place of hard coke and will give
a higher heat. It is very easy to give Blue Chip the proper heat
if care is used in making up the fire.

FORGING.--Heat slowly and uniformly to a good forging heat. Do
not hammer the steel after it cools below a bright red. Avoid as
much as possible heating the body of the tool, so as to retain
the natural toughness in the neck of the tool.

HARDENING.--Heat the point of the tool to an extreme white heat
(about 2,200 deg.F.) until the flux runs. This heat should be the highest
possible short of melting the point. Care should be taken to confine
the heat as near to the point as possible so as to leave the annealing
and consequent toughness in the neck of the tool and where the tool
is held in the tool post.

COOL in an air blast, the open air or in oil, depending upon the
tools or the work they are to do.

For roughing tools temper need not be drawn except for work where
the edge tends to crumble on account of being too hard.

For finishing tools draw the temper to suit the purpose for which
they are to be used.

GRIND thoroughly on dry wheel (or wet wheel if care is used to prevent

Next: Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc

Previous: Lathe And Planer Tools

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