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It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Heat Treatment Of Axles


Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the following
minimum physical properties: Elastic limit, 115,000 lb. per square
inch; elongation in 2 in., 16 per cent; reduction of area, 50 per
cent; Brinell hardness, 277 to 321.

The heat treatment used to secure these physical properties consists
in quenching from a temperature of from 1,520 to 1,540 deg.F. in water
and tempering at a temperature of from 975 to 1,025 deg.F. Where the
axle shaft is a forging, and in the case of steering knuckles and
arms, this heat treatment should be preceded by normalizing the
forgings at a temperature of from 1,550 to 1,600 deg.F. It will be
noted that these physical properties correspond to those worked
out for an ideal aviation engine crankshaft. If parts of this type
are designed with proper sections, so that this range of physical
properties can be used, the part in question will give maximum

One of the most important developments during the Liberty engine
program was the fact that it is not necessary to use a high-analysis
alloy steel to secure a finished part which will give proper service.
This fact should save the automotive industry millions of dollars
on future production.

If the proper authority be given the metallurgical engineer to
govern the handling of the steel from the time it is purchased
until it is assembled into finished product, mild-analysis steels
can be used and the quality of the finished product guaranteed.
It was only through the careful adherence to these fundamental
principles that it was possible to produce 20,000 Liberty engines,
which are considered to be the most highly stressed mechanism ever
produced, without the failure of a single engine from defective
material or heat treatment.

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