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Steel Making

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Heat Treatment Of Axles


Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the following
minimum physical properties: Elastic limit, 115,000 lb. per square
inch; elongation in 2 in., 16 per cent; reduction of area, 50 per
cent; Brinell hardness, 277 to 321.

The heat treatment used to secure these physical properties consists
in quenching from a temperature of from 1,520 to 1,540 deg.F. in water
and tempering at a temperature of from 975 to 1,025 deg.F. Where the
axle shaft is a forging, and in the case of steering knuckles and
arms, this heat treatment should be preceded by normalizing the
forgings at a temperature of from 1,550 to 1,600 deg.F. It will be
noted that these physical properties correspond to those worked
out for an ideal aviation engine crankshaft. If parts of this type
are designed with proper sections, so that this range of physical
properties can be used, the part in question will give maximum

One of the most important developments during the Liberty engine
program was the fact that it is not necessary to use a high-analysis
alloy steel to secure a finished part which will give proper service.
This fact should save the automotive industry millions of dollars
on future production.

If the proper authority be given the metallurgical engineer to
govern the handling of the steel from the time it is purchased
until it is assembled into finished product, mild-analysis steels
can be used and the quality of the finished product guaranteed.
It was only through the careful adherence to these fundamental
principles that it was possible to produce 20,000 Liberty engines,
which are considered to be the most highly stressed mechanism ever
produced, without the failure of a single engine from defective
material or heat treatment.

Next: Making Steel Balls

Previous: Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel

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