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ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Heat Treatment Of Axles


Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the following
minimum physical properties: Elastic limit, 115,000 lb. per square
inch; elongation in 2 in., 16 per cent; reduction of area, 50 per
cent; Brinell hardness, 277 to 321.

The heat treatment used to secure these physical properties consists
in quenching from a temperature of from 1,520 to 1,540 deg.F. in water
and tempering at a temperature of from 975 to 1,025 deg.F. Where the
axle shaft is a forging, and in the case of steering knuckles and
arms, this heat treatment should be preceded by normalizing the
forgings at a temperature of from 1,550 to 1,600 deg.F. It will be
noted that these physical properties correspond to those worked
out for an ideal aviation engine crankshaft. If parts of this type
are designed with proper sections, so that this range of physical
properties can be used, the part in question will give maximum

One of the most important developments during the Liberty engine
program was the fact that it is not necessary to use a high-analysis
alloy steel to secure a finished part which will give proper service.
This fact should save the automotive industry millions of dollars
on future production.

If the proper authority be given the metallurgical engineer to
govern the handling of the steel from the time it is purchased
until it is assembled into finished product, mild-analysis steels
can be used and the quality of the finished product guaranteed.
It was only through the careful adherence to these fundamental
principles that it was possible to produce 20,000 Liberty engines,
which are considered to be the most highly stressed mechanism ever
produced, without the failure of a single engine from defective
material or heat treatment.

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