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   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...



Heat Treatment Of Axles






Category: APPLICATION OF LIBERTY ENGINE MATERIALS TO THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the following
minimum physical properties: Elastic limit, 115,000 lb. per square
inch; elongation in 2 in., 16 per cent; reduction of area, 50 per
cent; Brinell hardness, 277 to 321.

The heat treatment used to secure these physical properties consists
in quenching from a temperature of from 1,520 to 1,540 deg.F. in water
and tempering at a temperature of from 975 to 1,025 deg.F. Where the
axle shaft is a forging, and in the case of steering knuckles and
arms, this heat treatment should be preceded by normalizing the
forgings at a temperature of from 1,550 to 1,600 deg.F. It will be
noted that these physical properties correspond to those worked
out for an ideal aviation engine crankshaft. If parts of this type
are designed with proper sections, so that this range of physical
properties can be used, the part in question will give maximum
service.

One of the most important developments during the Liberty engine
program was the fact that it is not necessary to use a high-analysis
alloy steel to secure a finished part which will give proper service.
This fact should save the automotive industry millions of dollars
on future production.

If the proper authority be given the metallurgical engineer to
govern the handling of the steel from the time it is purchased
until it is assembled into finished product, mild-analysis steels
can be used and the quality of the finished product guaranteed.
It was only through the careful adherence to these fundamental
principles that it was possible to produce 20,000 Liberty engines,
which are considered to be the most highly stressed mechanism ever
produced, without the failure of a single engine from defective
material or heat treatment.





Next: Making Steel Balls

Previous: Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel



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