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Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Pyrometers
Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...



Heat Treatment Of Axles






Category: APPLICATION OF LIBERTY ENGINE MATERIALS TO THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the following
minimum physical properties: Elastic limit, 115,000 lb. per square
inch; elongation in 2 in., 16 per cent; reduction of area, 50 per
cent; Brinell hardness, 277 to 321.

The heat treatment used to secure these physical properties consists
in quenching from a temperature of from 1,520 to 1,540 deg.F. in water
and tempering at a temperature of from 975 to 1,025 deg.F. Where the
axle shaft is a forging, and in the case of steering knuckles and
arms, this heat treatment should be preceded by normalizing the
forgings at a temperature of from 1,550 to 1,600 deg.F. It will be
noted that these physical properties correspond to those worked
out for an ideal aviation engine crankshaft. If parts of this type
are designed with proper sections, so that this range of physical
properties can be used, the part in question will give maximum
service.

One of the most important developments during the Liberty engine
program was the fact that it is not necessary to use a high-analysis
alloy steel to secure a finished part which will give proper service.
This fact should save the automotive industry millions of dollars
on future production.

If the proper authority be given the metallurgical engineer to
govern the handling of the steel from the time it is purchased
until it is assembled into finished product, mild-analysis steels
can be used and the quality of the finished product guaranteed.
It was only through the careful adherence to these fundamental
principles that it was possible to produce 20,000 Liberty engines,
which are considered to be the most highly stressed mechanism ever
produced, without the failure of a single engine from defective
material or heat treatment.





Next: Making Steel Balls

Previous: Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel



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