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Steel Making

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...



Heat Treatment Of Axles






Category: APPLICATION OF LIBERTY ENGINE MATERIALS TO THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the following
minimum physical properties: Elastic limit, 115,000 lb. per square
inch; elongation in 2 in., 16 per cent; reduction of area, 50 per
cent; Brinell hardness, 277 to 321.

The heat treatment used to secure these physical properties consists
in quenching from a temperature of from 1,520 to 1,540 deg.F. in water
and tempering at a temperature of from 975 to 1,025 deg.F. Where the
axle shaft is a forging, and in the case of steering knuckles and
arms, this heat treatment should be preceded by normalizing the
forgings at a temperature of from 1,550 to 1,600 deg.F. It will be
noted that these physical properties correspond to those worked
out for an ideal aviation engine crankshaft. If parts of this type
are designed with proper sections, so that this range of physical
properties can be used, the part in question will give maximum
service.

One of the most important developments during the Liberty engine
program was the fact that it is not necessary to use a high-analysis
alloy steel to secure a finished part which will give proper service.
This fact should save the automotive industry millions of dollars
on future production.

If the proper authority be given the metallurgical engineer to
govern the handling of the steel from the time it is purchased
until it is assembled into finished product, mild-analysis steels
can be used and the quality of the finished product guaranteed.
It was only through the careful adherence to these fundamental
principles that it was possible to produce 20,000 Liberty engines,
which are considered to be the most highly stressed mechanism ever
produced, without the failure of a single engine from defective
material or heat treatment.





Next: Making Steel Balls

Previous: Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel



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