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Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Annealing
There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...



Heat Treatment Of Axles






Category: APPLICATION OF LIBERTY ENGINE MATERIALS TO THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the following
minimum physical properties: Elastic limit, 115,000 lb. per square
inch; elongation in 2 in., 16 per cent; reduction of area, 50 per
cent; Brinell hardness, 277 to 321.

The heat treatment used to secure these physical properties consists
in quenching from a temperature of from 1,520 to 1,540 deg.F. in water
and tempering at a temperature of from 975 to 1,025 deg.F. Where the
axle shaft is a forging, and in the case of steering knuckles and
arms, this heat treatment should be preceded by normalizing the
forgings at a temperature of from 1,550 to 1,600 deg.F. It will be
noted that these physical properties correspond to those worked
out for an ideal aviation engine crankshaft. If parts of this type
are designed with proper sections, so that this range of physical
properties can be used, the part in question will give maximum
service.

One of the most important developments during the Liberty engine
program was the fact that it is not necessary to use a high-analysis
alloy steel to secure a finished part which will give proper service.
This fact should save the automotive industry millions of dollars
on future production.

If the proper authority be given the metallurgical engineer to
govern the handling of the steel from the time it is purchased
until it is assembled into finished product, mild-analysis steels
can be used and the quality of the finished product guaranteed.
It was only through the careful adherence to these fundamental
principles that it was possible to produce 20,000 Liberty engines,
which are considered to be the most highly stressed mechanism ever
produced, without the failure of a single engine from defective
material or heat treatment.





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