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A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...



Heat Treatment Of Axles






Category: APPLICATION OF LIBERTY ENGINE MATERIALS TO THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the following
minimum physical properties: Elastic limit, 115,000 lb. per square
inch; elongation in 2 in., 16 per cent; reduction of area, 50 per
cent; Brinell hardness, 277 to 321.

The heat treatment used to secure these physical properties consists
in quenching from a temperature of from 1,520 to 1,540 deg.F. in water
and tempering at a temperature of from 975 to 1,025 deg.F. Where the
axle shaft is a forging, and in the case of steering knuckles and
arms, this heat treatment should be preceded by normalizing the
forgings at a temperature of from 1,550 to 1,600 deg.F. It will be
noted that these physical properties correspond to those worked
out for an ideal aviation engine crankshaft. If parts of this type
are designed with proper sections, so that this range of physical
properties can be used, the part in question will give maximum
service.

One of the most important developments during the Liberty engine
program was the fact that it is not necessary to use a high-analysis
alloy steel to secure a finished part which will give proper service.
This fact should save the automotive industry millions of dollars
on future production.

If the proper authority be given the metallurgical engineer to
govern the handling of the steel from the time it is purchased
until it is assembled into finished product, mild-analysis steels
can be used and the quality of the finished product guaranteed.
It was only through the careful adherence to these fundamental
principles that it was possible to produce 20,000 Liberty engines,
which are considered to be the most highly stressed mechanism ever
produced, without the failure of a single engine from defective
material or heat treatment.





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Previous: Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel



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