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Steel Making

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Heat Treatment Of Axles


Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the following
minimum physical properties: Elastic limit, 115,000 lb. per square
inch; elongation in 2 in., 16 per cent; reduction of area, 50 per
cent; Brinell hardness, 277 to 321.

The heat treatment used to secure these physical properties consists
in quenching from a temperature of from 1,520 to 1,540 deg.F. in water
and tempering at a temperature of from 975 to 1,025 deg.F. Where the
axle shaft is a forging, and in the case of steering knuckles and
arms, this heat treatment should be preceded by normalizing the
forgings at a temperature of from 1,550 to 1,600 deg.F. It will be
noted that these physical properties correspond to those worked
out for an ideal aviation engine crankshaft. If parts of this type
are designed with proper sections, so that this range of physical
properties can be used, the part in question will give maximum

One of the most important developments during the Liberty engine
program was the fact that it is not necessary to use a high-analysis
alloy steel to secure a finished part which will give proper service.
This fact should save the automotive industry millions of dollars
on future production.

If the proper authority be given the metallurgical engineer to
govern the handling of the steel from the time it is purchased
until it is assembled into finished product, mild-analysis steels
can be used and the quality of the finished product guaranteed.
It was only through the careful adherence to these fundamental
principles that it was possible to produce 20,000 Liberty engines,
which are considered to be the most highly stressed mechanism ever
produced, without the failure of a single engine from defective
material or heat treatment.

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