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Steel Making

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Heat Treatment Of Axles


Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the following
minimum physical properties: Elastic limit, 115,000 lb. per square
inch; elongation in 2 in., 16 per cent; reduction of area, 50 per
cent; Brinell hardness, 277 to 321.

The heat treatment used to secure these physical properties consists
in quenching from a temperature of from 1,520 to 1,540 deg.F. in water
and tempering at a temperature of from 975 to 1,025 deg.F. Where the
axle shaft is a forging, and in the case of steering knuckles and
arms, this heat treatment should be preceded by normalizing the
forgings at a temperature of from 1,550 to 1,600 deg.F. It will be
noted that these physical properties correspond to those worked
out for an ideal aviation engine crankshaft. If parts of this type
are designed with proper sections, so that this range of physical
properties can be used, the part in question will give maximum

One of the most important developments during the Liberty engine
program was the fact that it is not necessary to use a high-analysis
alloy steel to secure a finished part which will give proper service.
This fact should save the automotive industry millions of dollars
on future production.

If the proper authority be given the metallurgical engineer to
govern the handling of the steel from the time it is purchased
until it is assembled into finished product, mild-analysis steels
can be used and the quality of the finished product guaranteed.
It was only through the careful adherence to these fundamental
principles that it was possible to produce 20,000 Liberty engines,
which are considered to be the most highly stressed mechanism ever
produced, without the failure of a single engine from defective
material or heat treatment.

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