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Steel Making

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...



Heat Treatment Of Axles






Category: APPLICATION OF LIBERTY ENGINE MATERIALS TO THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the following
minimum physical properties: Elastic limit, 115,000 lb. per square
inch; elongation in 2 in., 16 per cent; reduction of area, 50 per
cent; Brinell hardness, 277 to 321.

The heat treatment used to secure these physical properties consists
in quenching from a temperature of from 1,520 to 1,540 deg.F. in water
and tempering at a temperature of from 975 to 1,025 deg.F. Where the
axle shaft is a forging, and in the case of steering knuckles and
arms, this heat treatment should be preceded by normalizing the
forgings at a temperature of from 1,550 to 1,600 deg.F. It will be
noted that these physical properties correspond to those worked
out for an ideal aviation engine crankshaft. If parts of this type
are designed with proper sections, so that this range of physical
properties can be used, the part in question will give maximum
service.

One of the most important developments during the Liberty engine
program was the fact that it is not necessary to use a high-analysis
alloy steel to secure a finished part which will give proper service.
This fact should save the automotive industry millions of dollars
on future production.

If the proper authority be given the metallurgical engineer to
govern the handling of the steel from the time it is purchased
until it is assembled into finished product, mild-analysis steels
can be used and the quality of the finished product guaranteed.
It was only through the careful adherence to these fundamental
principles that it was possible to produce 20,000 Liberty engines,
which are considered to be the most highly stressed mechanism ever
produced, without the failure of a single engine from defective
material or heat treatment.





Next: Making Steel Balls

Previous: Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel



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