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Steel Making

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Heat Treatment Of Axles


Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the following
minimum physical properties: Elastic limit, 115,000 lb. per square
inch; elongation in 2 in., 16 per cent; reduction of area, 50 per
cent; Brinell hardness, 277 to 321.

The heat treatment used to secure these physical properties consists
in quenching from a temperature of from 1,520 to 1,540 deg.F. in water
and tempering at a temperature of from 975 to 1,025 deg.F. Where the
axle shaft is a forging, and in the case of steering knuckles and
arms, this heat treatment should be preceded by normalizing the
forgings at a temperature of from 1,550 to 1,600 deg.F. It will be
noted that these physical properties correspond to those worked
out for an ideal aviation engine crankshaft. If parts of this type
are designed with proper sections, so that this range of physical
properties can be used, the part in question will give maximum

One of the most important developments during the Liberty engine
program was the fact that it is not necessary to use a high-analysis
alloy steel to secure a finished part which will give proper service.
This fact should save the automotive industry millions of dollars
on future production.

If the proper authority be given the metallurgical engineer to
govern the handling of the steel from the time it is purchased
until it is assembled into finished product, mild-analysis steels
can be used and the quality of the finished product guaranteed.
It was only through the careful adherence to these fundamental
principles that it was possible to produce 20,000 Liberty engines,
which are considered to be the most highly stressed mechanism ever
produced, without the failure of a single engine from defective
material or heat treatment.

Next: Making Steel Balls

Previous: Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel

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