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Steel Making

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Heat Treatment Of Axles


Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the following
minimum physical properties: Elastic limit, 115,000 lb. per square
inch; elongation in 2 in., 16 per cent; reduction of area, 50 per
cent; Brinell hardness, 277 to 321.

The heat treatment used to secure these physical properties consists
in quenching from a temperature of from 1,520 to 1,540 deg.F. in water
and tempering at a temperature of from 975 to 1,025 deg.F. Where the
axle shaft is a forging, and in the case of steering knuckles and
arms, this heat treatment should be preceded by normalizing the
forgings at a temperature of from 1,550 to 1,600 deg.F. It will be
noted that these physical properties correspond to those worked
out for an ideal aviation engine crankshaft. If parts of this type
are designed with proper sections, so that this range of physical
properties can be used, the part in question will give maximum

One of the most important developments during the Liberty engine
program was the fact that it is not necessary to use a high-analysis
alloy steel to secure a finished part which will give proper service.
This fact should save the automotive industry millions of dollars
on future production.

If the proper authority be given the metallurgical engineer to
govern the handling of the steel from the time it is purchased
until it is assembled into finished product, mild-analysis steels
can be used and the quality of the finished product guaranteed.
It was only through the careful adherence to these fundamental
principles that it was possible to produce 20,000 Liberty engines,
which are considered to be the most highly stressed mechanism ever
produced, without the failure of a single engine from defective
material or heat treatment.

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