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Steel Making

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Heat Treatment Of Axles


Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the following
minimum physical properties: Elastic limit, 115,000 lb. per square
inch; elongation in 2 in., 16 per cent; reduction of area, 50 per
cent; Brinell hardness, 277 to 321.

The heat treatment used to secure these physical properties consists
in quenching from a temperature of from 1,520 to 1,540 deg.F. in water
and tempering at a temperature of from 975 to 1,025 deg.F. Where the
axle shaft is a forging, and in the case of steering knuckles and
arms, this heat treatment should be preceded by normalizing the
forgings at a temperature of from 1,550 to 1,600 deg.F. It will be
noted that these physical properties correspond to those worked
out for an ideal aviation engine crankshaft. If parts of this type
are designed with proper sections, so that this range of physical
properties can be used, the part in question will give maximum

One of the most important developments during the Liberty engine
program was the fact that it is not necessary to use a high-analysis
alloy steel to secure a finished part which will give proper service.
This fact should save the automotive industry millions of dollars
on future production.

If the proper authority be given the metallurgical engineer to
govern the handling of the steel from the time it is purchased
until it is assembled into finished product, mild-analysis steels
can be used and the quality of the finished product guaranteed.
It was only through the careful adherence to these fundamental
principles that it was possible to produce 20,000 Liberty engines,
which are considered to be the most highly stressed mechanism ever
produced, without the failure of a single engine from defective
material or heat treatment.

Next: Making Steel Balls

Previous: Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel

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