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Steel Making

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Heat Treatment Of Axles


Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the following
minimum physical properties: Elastic limit, 115,000 lb. per square
inch; elongation in 2 in., 16 per cent; reduction of area, 50 per
cent; Brinell hardness, 277 to 321.

The heat treatment used to secure these physical properties consists
in quenching from a temperature of from 1,520 to 1,540 deg.F. in water
and tempering at a temperature of from 975 to 1,025 deg.F. Where the
axle shaft is a forging, and in the case of steering knuckles and
arms, this heat treatment should be preceded by normalizing the
forgings at a temperature of from 1,550 to 1,600 deg.F. It will be
noted that these physical properties correspond to those worked
out for an ideal aviation engine crankshaft. If parts of this type
are designed with proper sections, so that this range of physical
properties can be used, the part in question will give maximum

One of the most important developments during the Liberty engine
program was the fact that it is not necessary to use a high-analysis
alloy steel to secure a finished part which will give proper service.
This fact should save the automotive industry millions of dollars
on future production.

If the proper authority be given the metallurgical engineer to
govern the handling of the steel from the time it is purchased
until it is assembled into finished product, mild-analysis steels
can be used and the quality of the finished product guaranteed.
It was only through the careful adherence to these fundamental
principles that it was possible to produce 20,000 Liberty engines,
which are considered to be the most highly stressed mechanism ever
produced, without the failure of a single engine from defective
material or heat treatment.

Next: Making Steel Balls

Previous: Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel

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