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Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Annealing
There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Machineability
Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...



Heat Treatment Of Axles






Category: APPLICATION OF LIBERTY ENGINE MATERIALS TO THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the following
minimum physical properties: Elastic limit, 115,000 lb. per square
inch; elongation in 2 in., 16 per cent; reduction of area, 50 per
cent; Brinell hardness, 277 to 321.

The heat treatment used to secure these physical properties consists
in quenching from a temperature of from 1,520 to 1,540 deg.F. in water
and tempering at a temperature of from 975 to 1,025 deg.F. Where the
axle shaft is a forging, and in the case of steering knuckles and
arms, this heat treatment should be preceded by normalizing the
forgings at a temperature of from 1,550 to 1,600 deg.F. It will be
noted that these physical properties correspond to those worked
out for an ideal aviation engine crankshaft. If parts of this type
are designed with proper sections, so that this range of physical
properties can be used, the part in question will give maximum
service.

One of the most important developments during the Liberty engine
program was the fact that it is not necessary to use a high-analysis
alloy steel to secure a finished part which will give proper service.
This fact should save the automotive industry millions of dollars
on future production.

If the proper authority be given the metallurgical engineer to
govern the handling of the steel from the time it is purchased
until it is assembled into finished product, mild-analysis steels
can be used and the quality of the finished product guaranteed.
It was only through the careful adherence to these fundamental
principles that it was possible to produce 20,000 Liberty engines,
which are considered to be the most highly stressed mechanism ever
produced, without the failure of a single engine from defective
material or heat treatment.





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