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The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Machineability
Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...



Heat Treatment Of Axles






Category: APPLICATION OF LIBERTY ENGINE MATERIALS TO THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the following
minimum physical properties: Elastic limit, 115,000 lb. per square
inch; elongation in 2 in., 16 per cent; reduction of area, 50 per
cent; Brinell hardness, 277 to 321.

The heat treatment used to secure these physical properties consists
in quenching from a temperature of from 1,520 to 1,540 deg.F. in water
and tempering at a temperature of from 975 to 1,025 deg.F. Where the
axle shaft is a forging, and in the case of steering knuckles and
arms, this heat treatment should be preceded by normalizing the
forgings at a temperature of from 1,550 to 1,600 deg.F. It will be
noted that these physical properties correspond to those worked
out for an ideal aviation engine crankshaft. If parts of this type
are designed with proper sections, so that this range of physical
properties can be used, the part in question will give maximum
service.

One of the most important developments during the Liberty engine
program was the fact that it is not necessary to use a high-analysis
alloy steel to secure a finished part which will give proper service.
This fact should save the automotive industry millions of dollars
on future production.

If the proper authority be given the metallurgical engineer to
govern the handling of the steel from the time it is purchased
until it is assembled into finished product, mild-analysis steels
can be used and the quality of the finished product guaranteed.
It was only through the careful adherence to these fundamental
principles that it was possible to produce 20,000 Liberty engines,
which are considered to be the most highly stressed mechanism ever
produced, without the failure of a single engine from defective
material or heat treatment.





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