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   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Hardening
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...



Heat Treatment Of Axles






Category: APPLICATION OF LIBERTY ENGINE MATERIALS TO THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the following
minimum physical properties: Elastic limit, 115,000 lb. per square
inch; elongation in 2 in., 16 per cent; reduction of area, 50 per
cent; Brinell hardness, 277 to 321.

The heat treatment used to secure these physical properties consists
in quenching from a temperature of from 1,520 to 1,540 deg.F. in water
and tempering at a temperature of from 975 to 1,025 deg.F. Where the
axle shaft is a forging, and in the case of steering knuckles and
arms, this heat treatment should be preceded by normalizing the
forgings at a temperature of from 1,550 to 1,600 deg.F. It will be
noted that these physical properties correspond to those worked
out for an ideal aviation engine crankshaft. If parts of this type
are designed with proper sections, so that this range of physical
properties can be used, the part in question will give maximum
service.

One of the most important developments during the Liberty engine
program was the fact that it is not necessary to use a high-analysis
alloy steel to secure a finished part which will give proper service.
This fact should save the automotive industry millions of dollars
on future production.

If the proper authority be given the metallurgical engineer to
govern the handling of the steel from the time it is purchased
until it is assembled into finished product, mild-analysis steels
can be used and the quality of the finished product guaranteed.
It was only through the careful adherence to these fundamental
principles that it was possible to produce 20,000 Liberty engines,
which are considered to be the most highly stressed mechanism ever
produced, without the failure of a single engine from defective
material or heat treatment.





Next: Making Steel Balls

Previous: Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel



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