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Steel Making

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Heat Treatment Of Axles


Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the following
minimum physical properties: Elastic limit, 115,000 lb. per square
inch; elongation in 2 in., 16 per cent; reduction of area, 50 per
cent; Brinell hardness, 277 to 321.

The heat treatment used to secure these physical properties consists
in quenching from a temperature of from 1,520 to 1,540 deg.F. in water
and tempering at a temperature of from 975 to 1,025 deg.F. Where the
axle shaft is a forging, and in the case of steering knuckles and
arms, this heat treatment should be preceded by normalizing the
forgings at a temperature of from 1,550 to 1,600 deg.F. It will be
noted that these physical properties correspond to those worked
out for an ideal aviation engine crankshaft. If parts of this type
are designed with proper sections, so that this range of physical
properties can be used, the part in question will give maximum

One of the most important developments during the Liberty engine
program was the fact that it is not necessary to use a high-analysis
alloy steel to secure a finished part which will give proper service.
This fact should save the automotive industry millions of dollars
on future production.

If the proper authority be given the metallurgical engineer to
govern the handling of the steel from the time it is purchased
until it is assembled into finished product, mild-analysis steels
can be used and the quality of the finished product guaranteed.
It was only through the careful adherence to these fundamental
principles that it was possible to produce 20,000 Liberty engines,
which are considered to be the most highly stressed mechanism ever
produced, without the failure of a single engine from defective
material or heat treatment.

Next: Making Steel Balls

Previous: Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel

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