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Steel Making

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools


FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a pipe,
box or muffle. Arrange the steel so as to allow at least 1 in.
of packing, consisting of dry powder ashes, powdered charcoal,
mica, etc., between the pieces and the walls of the box or pipe.
If using a pipe close the ends. Heat slowly and uniformly to a
cherry red, 1,375 to 1,450 deg.F. according to size. Hold the steel at
this temperature until the heat has thoroughly saturated through
the metal, then allow the muffle box and tools to cool very slowly
in a dying furnace or remove the muffle with its charge and bury
in hot ashes or lime. The slower the cooling the softer the steel.

The heating requires from 2 to 10 hr. depending upon the size of
the piece.

HARDENING AND TEMPERING.--It is preferable to use two furnaces
when hardening milling cutters and special shape tools. One furnace
should be maintained at a uniform temperature from 1,375 to 1,450 deg.F.
while the other should be maintained at about 2,250 deg.F. Keep the
tool to be hardened in the low temperature furnace until the tool
has attained the full heat of this furnace. A short time should be
allowed so as to be assured that the center of the tool is as hot
as the outside. Then quickly remove the tool from this preheating
furnace to the full heat furnace. Keep the tool in this furnace only
as long as is necessary for the tool to attain the full temperature
of this furnace. Then quickly remove and quench in oil or in a
dry air blast. Remove before the tool is entirely cold and draw
the temper in an oil bath by raising the temperature of the oil
to from 500 to 750 deg.F. and allow this tool to remain, at this
temperature, in the bath for at least 30 min., insuring uniformity
of temper; then cool in the bath, atmosphere or oil.

If higher drawing temperatures are desired than those possible
with oil, a salt bath can be used. A very excellent bath is made
by mixing two parts by weight of crude potassium nitrate and three
parts crude sodium nitrate. These will melt at about 450 deg.F. and
can be used up to 1,000 deg.F. Before heating the steel in the salt
bath, slowly preheat, preferably in oil. Reheating the hardened
high-speed steel to 1,000 deg.F. will materially increase the life
of lathe tools, but milling and form cutters, taps, dies, etc.,
should not be reheated higher than 500 to 650 deg.F., unless extreme
hardness is required, when 1,100 to 1,000 deg.F., will give the hardest

Next: Instructions For Working High-speed Steel

Previous: Lathe And Planer Tools

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