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Steel Making

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Hardening
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...



For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools






Category: HIGH-SPEED STEEL

FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a pipe,
box or muffle. Arrange the steel so as to allow at least 1 in.
of packing, consisting of dry powder ashes, powdered charcoal,
mica, etc., between the pieces and the walls of the box or pipe.
If using a pipe close the ends. Heat slowly and uniformly to a
cherry red, 1,375 to 1,450 deg.F. according to size. Hold the steel at
this temperature until the heat has thoroughly saturated through
the metal, then allow the muffle box and tools to cool very slowly
in a dying furnace or remove the muffle with its charge and bury
in hot ashes or lime. The slower the cooling the softer the steel.

The heating requires from 2 to 10 hr. depending upon the size of
the piece.

HARDENING AND TEMPERING.--It is preferable to use two furnaces
when hardening milling cutters and special shape tools. One furnace
should be maintained at a uniform temperature from 1,375 to 1,450 deg.F.
while the other should be maintained at about 2,250 deg.F. Keep the
tool to be hardened in the low temperature furnace until the tool
has attained the full heat of this furnace. A short time should be
allowed so as to be assured that the center of the tool is as hot
as the outside. Then quickly remove the tool from this preheating
furnace to the full heat furnace. Keep the tool in this furnace only
as long as is necessary for the tool to attain the full temperature
of this furnace. Then quickly remove and quench in oil or in a
dry air blast. Remove before the tool is entirely cold and draw
the temper in an oil bath by raising the temperature of the oil
to from 500 to 750 deg.F. and allow this tool to remain, at this
temperature, in the bath for at least 30 min., insuring uniformity
of temper; then cool in the bath, atmosphere or oil.

If higher drawing temperatures are desired than those possible
with oil, a salt bath can be used. A very excellent bath is made
by mixing two parts by weight of crude potassium nitrate and three
parts crude sodium nitrate. These will melt at about 450 deg.F. and
can be used up to 1,000 deg.F. Before heating the steel in the salt
bath, slowly preheat, preferably in oil. Reheating the hardened
high-speed steel to 1,000 deg.F. will materially increase the life
of lathe tools, but milling and form cutters, taps, dies, etc.,
should not be reheated higher than 500 to 650 deg.F., unless extreme
hardness is required, when 1,100 to 1,000 deg.F., will give the hardest
edge.





Next: Instructions For Working High-speed Steel

Previous: Lathe And Planer Tools



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