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Steel Making

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools


FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a pipe,
box or muffle. Arrange the steel so as to allow at least 1 in.
of packing, consisting of dry powder ashes, powdered charcoal,
mica, etc., between the pieces and the walls of the box or pipe.
If using a pipe close the ends. Heat slowly and uniformly to a
cherry red, 1,375 to 1,450 deg.F. according to size. Hold the steel at
this temperature until the heat has thoroughly saturated through
the metal, then allow the muffle box and tools to cool very slowly
in a dying furnace or remove the muffle with its charge and bury
in hot ashes or lime. The slower the cooling the softer the steel.

The heating requires from 2 to 10 hr. depending upon the size of
the piece.

HARDENING AND TEMPERING.--It is preferable to use two furnaces
when hardening milling cutters and special shape tools. One furnace
should be maintained at a uniform temperature from 1,375 to 1,450 deg.F.
while the other should be maintained at about 2,250 deg.F. Keep the
tool to be hardened in the low temperature furnace until the tool
has attained the full heat of this furnace. A short time should be
allowed so as to be assured that the center of the tool is as hot
as the outside. Then quickly remove the tool from this preheating
furnace to the full heat furnace. Keep the tool in this furnace only
as long as is necessary for the tool to attain the full temperature
of this furnace. Then quickly remove and quench in oil or in a
dry air blast. Remove before the tool is entirely cold and draw
the temper in an oil bath by raising the temperature of the oil
to from 500 to 750 deg.F. and allow this tool to remain, at this
temperature, in the bath for at least 30 min., insuring uniformity
of temper; then cool in the bath, atmosphere or oil.

If higher drawing temperatures are desired than those possible
with oil, a salt bath can be used. A very excellent bath is made
by mixing two parts by weight of crude potassium nitrate and three
parts crude sodium nitrate. These will melt at about 450 deg.F. and
can be used up to 1,000 deg.F. Before heating the steel in the salt
bath, slowly preheat, preferably in oil. Reheating the hardened
high-speed steel to 1,000 deg.F. will materially increase the life
of lathe tools, but milling and form cutters, taps, dies, etc.,
should not be reheated higher than 500 to 650 deg.F., unless extreme
hardness is required, when 1,100 to 1,000 deg.F., will give the hardest

Next: Instructions For Working High-speed Steel

Previous: Lathe And Planer Tools

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