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Steel Making

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools


FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a pipe,
box or muffle. Arrange the steel so as to allow at least 1 in.
of packing, consisting of dry powder ashes, powdered charcoal,
mica, etc., between the pieces and the walls of the box or pipe.
If using a pipe close the ends. Heat slowly and uniformly to a
cherry red, 1,375 to 1,450 deg.F. according to size. Hold the steel at
this temperature until the heat has thoroughly saturated through
the metal, then allow the muffle box and tools to cool very slowly
in a dying furnace or remove the muffle with its charge and bury
in hot ashes or lime. The slower the cooling the softer the steel.

The heating requires from 2 to 10 hr. depending upon the size of
the piece.

HARDENING AND TEMPERING.--It is preferable to use two furnaces
when hardening milling cutters and special shape tools. One furnace
should be maintained at a uniform temperature from 1,375 to 1,450 deg.F.
while the other should be maintained at about 2,250 deg.F. Keep the
tool to be hardened in the low temperature furnace until the tool
has attained the full heat of this furnace. A short time should be
allowed so as to be assured that the center of the tool is as hot
as the outside. Then quickly remove the tool from this preheating
furnace to the full heat furnace. Keep the tool in this furnace only
as long as is necessary for the tool to attain the full temperature
of this furnace. Then quickly remove and quench in oil or in a
dry air blast. Remove before the tool is entirely cold and draw
the temper in an oil bath by raising the temperature of the oil
to from 500 to 750 deg.F. and allow this tool to remain, at this
temperature, in the bath for at least 30 min., insuring uniformity
of temper; then cool in the bath, atmosphere or oil.

If higher drawing temperatures are desired than those possible
with oil, a salt bath can be used. A very excellent bath is made
by mixing two parts by weight of crude potassium nitrate and three
parts crude sodium nitrate. These will melt at about 450 deg.F. and
can be used up to 1,000 deg.F. Before heating the steel in the salt
bath, slowly preheat, preferably in oil. Reheating the hardened
high-speed steel to 1,000 deg.F. will materially increase the life
of lathe tools, but milling and form cutters, taps, dies, etc.,
should not be reheated higher than 500 to 650 deg.F., unless extreme
hardness is required, when 1,100 to 1,000 deg.F., will give the hardest

Next: Instructions For Working High-speed Steel

Previous: Lathe And Planer Tools

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