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   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...



For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools






Category: HIGH-SPEED STEEL

FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a pipe,
box or muffle. Arrange the steel so as to allow at least 1 in.
of packing, consisting of dry powder ashes, powdered charcoal,
mica, etc., between the pieces and the walls of the box or pipe.
If using a pipe close the ends. Heat slowly and uniformly to a
cherry red, 1,375 to 1,450 deg.F. according to size. Hold the steel at
this temperature until the heat has thoroughly saturated through
the metal, then allow the muffle box and tools to cool very slowly
in a dying furnace or remove the muffle with its charge and bury
in hot ashes or lime. The slower the cooling the softer the steel.

The heating requires from 2 to 10 hr. depending upon the size of
the piece.

HARDENING AND TEMPERING.--It is preferable to use two furnaces
when hardening milling cutters and special shape tools. One furnace
should be maintained at a uniform temperature from 1,375 to 1,450 deg.F.
while the other should be maintained at about 2,250 deg.F. Keep the
tool to be hardened in the low temperature furnace until the tool
has attained the full heat of this furnace. A short time should be
allowed so as to be assured that the center of the tool is as hot
as the outside. Then quickly remove the tool from this preheating
furnace to the full heat furnace. Keep the tool in this furnace only
as long as is necessary for the tool to attain the full temperature
of this furnace. Then quickly remove and quench in oil or in a
dry air blast. Remove before the tool is entirely cold and draw
the temper in an oil bath by raising the temperature of the oil
to from 500 to 750 deg.F. and allow this tool to remain, at this
temperature, in the bath for at least 30 min., insuring uniformity
of temper; then cool in the bath, atmosphere or oil.

If higher drawing temperatures are desired than those possible
with oil, a salt bath can be used. A very excellent bath is made
by mixing two parts by weight of crude potassium nitrate and three
parts crude sodium nitrate. These will melt at about 450 deg.F. and
can be used up to 1,000 deg.F. Before heating the steel in the salt
bath, slowly preheat, preferably in oil. Reheating the hardened
high-speed steel to 1,000 deg.F. will materially increase the life
of lathe tools, but milling and form cutters, taps, dies, etc.,
should not be reheated higher than 500 to 650 deg.F., unless extreme
hardness is required, when 1,100 to 1,000 deg.F., will give the hardest
edge.





Next: Instructions For Working High-speed Steel

Previous: Lathe And Planer Tools



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