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Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools


FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a pipe,
box or muffle. Arrange the steel so as to allow at least 1 in.
of packing, consisting of dry powder ashes, powdered charcoal,
mica, etc., between the pieces and the walls of the box or pipe.
If using a pipe close the ends. Heat slowly and uniformly to a
cherry red, 1,375 to 1,450 deg.F. according to size. Hold the steel at
this temperature until the heat has thoroughly saturated through
the metal, then allow the muffle box and tools to cool very slowly
in a dying furnace or remove the muffle with its charge and bury
in hot ashes or lime. The slower the cooling the softer the steel.

The heating requires from 2 to 10 hr. depending upon the size of
the piece.

HARDENING AND TEMPERING.--It is preferable to use two furnaces
when hardening milling cutters and special shape tools. One furnace
should be maintained at a uniform temperature from 1,375 to 1,450 deg.F.
while the other should be maintained at about 2,250 deg.F. Keep the
tool to be hardened in the low temperature furnace until the tool
has attained the full heat of this furnace. A short time should be
allowed so as to be assured that the center of the tool is as hot
as the outside. Then quickly remove the tool from this preheating
furnace to the full heat furnace. Keep the tool in this furnace only
as long as is necessary for the tool to attain the full temperature
of this furnace. Then quickly remove and quench in oil or in a
dry air blast. Remove before the tool is entirely cold and draw
the temper in an oil bath by raising the temperature of the oil
to from 500 to 750 deg.F. and allow this tool to remain, at this
temperature, in the bath for at least 30 min., insuring uniformity
of temper; then cool in the bath, atmosphere or oil.

If higher drawing temperatures are desired than those possible
with oil, a salt bath can be used. A very excellent bath is made
by mixing two parts by weight of crude potassium nitrate and three
parts crude sodium nitrate. These will melt at about 450 deg.F. and
can be used up to 1,000 deg.F. Before heating the steel in the salt
bath, slowly preheat, preferably in oil. Reheating the hardened
high-speed steel to 1,000 deg.F. will materially increase the life
of lathe tools, but milling and form cutters, taps, dies, etc.,
should not be reheated higher than 500 to 650 deg.F., unless extreme
hardness is required, when 1,100 to 1,000 deg.F., will give the hardest

Next: Instructions For Working High-speed Steel

Previous: Lathe And Planer Tools

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