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Steel Making

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks


This section is based on a paper read before the American Gear
Manufacturers' Association at White Sulphur Springs, W. Va., Apr.
18, 1918.

Great advancement has been made in the heat treating and hardening of
gears. In this advancement the chemical and metallurgical laboratory
have played no small part. During this time, however, the condition
of the blanks as they come to the machine shop to be machined has
not received its share of attention.

There are two distinct types of gears, both types having their
champions, namely, carburized and heat-treated. The difference
between the two in the matter of steel composition is entirely in
the carbon content, the carbon never running higher than 25-point
in the carburizing type, while in the heat-treated gears the carbon
is seldom lower than 35-point. The difference in the final gear
is the hardness. The carburized gear is file hard on the surface,
with a soft, tough and ductile core to withstand shock, while the
heat-treated gear has a surface that can be touched by a file with
a core of the same hardness as the outer surface.

Next: Annealing Work

Previous: Judging The Heat Of Steel

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