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Steel Making

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks


This section is based on a paper read before the American Gear
Manufacturers' Association at White Sulphur Springs, W. Va., Apr.
18, 1918.

Great advancement has been made in the heat treating and hardening of
gears. In this advancement the chemical and metallurgical laboratory
have played no small part. During this time, however, the condition
of the blanks as they come to the machine shop to be machined has
not received its share of attention.

There are two distinct types of gears, both types having their
champions, namely, carburized and heat-treated. The difference
between the two in the matter of steel composition is entirely in
the carbon content, the carbon never running higher than 25-point
in the carburizing type, while in the heat-treated gears the carbon
is seldom lower than 35-point. The difference in the final gear
is the hardness. The carburized gear is file hard on the surface,
with a soft, tough and ductile core to withstand shock, while the
heat-treated gear has a surface that can be touched by a file with
a core of the same hardness as the outer surface.

Next: Annealing Work

Previous: Judging The Heat Of Steel

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