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Steel Making

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks


This section is based on a paper read before the American Gear
Manufacturers' Association at White Sulphur Springs, W. Va., Apr.
18, 1918.

Great advancement has been made in the heat treating and hardening of
gears. In this advancement the chemical and metallurgical laboratory
have played no small part. During this time, however, the condition
of the blanks as they come to the machine shop to be machined has
not received its share of attention.

There are two distinct types of gears, both types having their
champions, namely, carburized and heat-treated. The difference
between the two in the matter of steel composition is entirely in
the carbon content, the carbon never running higher than 25-point
in the carburizing type, while in the heat-treated gears the carbon
is seldom lower than 35-point. The difference in the final gear
is the hardness. The carburized gear is file hard on the surface,
with a soft, tough and ductile core to withstand shock, while the
heat-treated gear has a surface that can be touched by a file with
a core of the same hardness as the outer surface.

Next: Annealing Work

Previous: Judging The Heat Of Steel

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