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Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks


This section is based on a paper read before the American Gear
Manufacturers' Association at White Sulphur Springs, W. Va., Apr.
18, 1918.

Great advancement has been made in the heat treating and hardening of
gears. In this advancement the chemical and metallurgical laboratory
have played no small part. During this time, however, the condition
of the blanks as they come to the machine shop to be machined has
not received its share of attention.

There are two distinct types of gears, both types having their
champions, namely, carburized and heat-treated. The difference
between the two in the matter of steel composition is entirely in
the carbon content, the carbon never running higher than 25-point
in the carburizing type, while in the heat-treated gears the carbon
is seldom lower than 35-point. The difference in the final gear
is the hardness. The carburized gear is file hard on the surface,
with a soft, tough and ductile core to withstand shock, while the
heat-treated gear has a surface that can be touched by a file with
a core of the same hardness as the outer surface.

Next: Annealing Work

Previous: Judging The Heat Of Steel

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