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Steel Making

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks


This section is based on a paper read before the American Gear
Manufacturers' Association at White Sulphur Springs, W. Va., Apr.
18, 1918.

Great advancement has been made in the heat treating and hardening of
gears. In this advancement the chemical and metallurgical laboratory
have played no small part. During this time, however, the condition
of the blanks as they come to the machine shop to be machined has
not received its share of attention.

There are two distinct types of gears, both types having their
champions, namely, carburized and heat-treated. The difference
between the two in the matter of steel composition is entirely in
the carbon content, the carbon never running higher than 25-point
in the carburizing type, while in the heat-treated gears the carbon
is seldom lower than 35-point. The difference in the final gear
is the hardness. The carburized gear is file hard on the surface,
with a soft, tough and ductile core to withstand shock, while the
heat-treated gear has a surface that can be touched by a file with
a core of the same hardness as the outer surface.

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