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Steel Making

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks


This section is based on a paper read before the American Gear
Manufacturers' Association at White Sulphur Springs, W. Va., Apr.
18, 1918.

Great advancement has been made in the heat treating and hardening of
gears. In this advancement the chemical and metallurgical laboratory
have played no small part. During this time, however, the condition
of the blanks as they come to the machine shop to be machined has
not received its share of attention.

There are two distinct types of gears, both types having their
champions, namely, carburized and heat-treated. The difference
between the two in the matter of steel composition is entirely in
the carbon content, the carbon never running higher than 25-point
in the carburizing type, while in the heat-treated gears the carbon
is seldom lower than 35-point. The difference in the final gear
is the hardness. The carburized gear is file hard on the surface,
with a soft, tough and ductile core to withstand shock, while the
heat-treated gear has a surface that can be touched by a file with
a core of the same hardness as the outer surface.

Next: Annealing Work

Previous: Judging The Heat Of Steel

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