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Steel Making

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks


This section is based on a paper read before the American Gear
Manufacturers' Association at White Sulphur Springs, W. Va., Apr.
18, 1918.

Great advancement has been made in the heat treating and hardening of
gears. In this advancement the chemical and metallurgical laboratory
have played no small part. During this time, however, the condition
of the blanks as they come to the machine shop to be machined has
not received its share of attention.

There are two distinct types of gears, both types having their
champions, namely, carburized and heat-treated. The difference
between the two in the matter of steel composition is entirely in
the carbon content, the carbon never running higher than 25-point
in the carburizing type, while in the heat-treated gears the carbon
is seldom lower than 35-point. The difference in the final gear
is the hardness. The carburized gear is file hard on the surface,
with a soft, tough and ductile core to withstand shock, while the
heat-treated gear has a surface that can be touched by a file with
a core of the same hardness as the outer surface.

Next: Annealing Work

Previous: Judging The Heat Of Steel

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