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Steel Making

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks


This section is based on a paper read before the American Gear
Manufacturers' Association at White Sulphur Springs, W. Va., Apr.
18, 1918.

Great advancement has been made in the heat treating and hardening of
gears. In this advancement the chemical and metallurgical laboratory
have played no small part. During this time, however, the condition
of the blanks as they come to the machine shop to be machined has
not received its share of attention.

There are two distinct types of gears, both types having their
champions, namely, carburized and heat-treated. The difference
between the two in the matter of steel composition is entirely in
the carbon content, the carbon never running higher than 25-point
in the carburizing type, while in the heat-treated gears the carbon
is seldom lower than 35-point. The difference in the final gear
is the hardness. The carburized gear is file hard on the surface,
with a soft, tough and ductile core to withstand shock, while the
heat-treated gear has a surface that can be touched by a file with
a core of the same hardness as the outer surface.

Next: Annealing Work

Previous: Judging The Heat Of Steel

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