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Steel Making

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

High Speed Steel


For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed down
from father to son. The manufacture of tool steel is still an art
which, by the aid of science, has lost much of its secrecy; yet
tool steel is today made by practical men skilled as melters,
hammer-men, and rollers, each knowing his art. These practical
men willingly accept guidance from the chemist and metallurgists.

A knowledge of conditions existing today in the manufacture of
high-speed steel is essential to steel treaters. It is well for
the manufacturer to have steel treaters understand some of his
troubles and difficulties, so that they will better comprehend the
necessity of certain trade customs and practices, and, realizing
the manufacturer's desire to cooperate with them, will reciprocate.

The manufacturer of high-speed steel knows and appreciates the
troubles and difficulties that may sometimes arise in the heat-treating
of his product. His aim is to make a uniform steel that will best
meet the requirements of the average machine shop on general work,
and at the same time allow the widest variation in heat treatment
to give desired results.

High speed steel is one of the most complex alloys known. A
representative steel contains approximately 24 per cent of alloying
metals, namely, tungsten, chromium, vanadium, silicon, manganese,
and in addition there is often found cobalt, molybdenum, uranium,
nickel, tin, copper and arsenic.

Next: Standard Analysis

Previous: Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels

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