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Steel Making

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Crankshaft
The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...



Hardening






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air
or quenching in oil or water from a temperature between 1,650 and
1,750 deg.F.

The physical properties do not vary greatly when the carbon is
within the range of composition given, or when the steel is hardened
and tempered in air, oil, or water.

When used for valves the following specification of physical properties
have been used:

Yield point, pounds per square inch 70,000
Tensile strength, pounds per square inch 90,000
Elongation in 2 in., per cent 18
Reduction of area, per cent 50

The usual heat treatment is to quench in oil from 1,650 deg.F. and
temper or draw at 1,100 to 1,200 deg.F. One valve manufacturer stated
that valves of this steel are hardened by heating the previously
annealed valves to 1,650 deg.F. and cooling in still air. This treatment
gives a scleroscope hardness of about 50.

In addition to use in valves this steel should prove very satisfactory
for shafting for water-pumps and other automobile parts subject to
objectionable corrosion.

TABLE 2.--COMPARISON OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES FOR HIGH-CHROMIUM
STEELS OF DIFFERENT CARBON CONTENT --------------------------------------------------------------------------
C 0.20 C 0.27 C 0.50
Mn 0.45 Mn 0.50
Cr 12.56 Cr 12.24 Cr 14.84
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Quenched in oil from degrees Fahrenheit 1,600 1,600 1,650
Tempered at degrees Fahrenheit 1,160 1,080 1,100
Yield point, pounds per square inch 78,300 75,000 91,616
Tensile strength, pounds per square inch 104,600 104,250 123,648
Elongation in 2 in., per cent 25.0 23.5 14.5
Reduction of area, per cent 52.5 51.4 33.5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

TABLE 3.--COMPARISON OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES BETWEEN AIR, OIL AND
WATER-HARDENED STEEL HAVING CHEMICAL ANALYSIS IN
PERCENTAGE OF
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Carbon 0.24
Manganese 0.30
Phosphorus 0.035
Sulphur 0.035
Chromium 12.85
Silicon 0.20

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hardened Elastic Tensile
Hardening from, Tempered limit, strength,ElongationReduction
medium degrees at, degrees per lb. lb. Per in 2 in. of area,
FahrenheitFahrenheit sq. in. sq. in. per cent per cent
-------------------------------------------------------------------
930 158,815 192,415 13.0 40.5
1,100 99,680 120,065 21.0 59.2
Air 1,650 1,300 70,785 101,250 26.0 64.6
1,380 66,080 98,335 28.0 63.6
1,470 70,785 96,990 27.0 64.7
-------------------------------------------------------------------
930 163,070 202,720 8.0 18.2
Oil 1,650 1,100 88,255 116,480 20.0 56.9
1,300 77,950 105,505 25.5 63.8
1,380 88,255 98,785 27.0 66.3
-------------------------------------------------------------------
930 158,815 202,050 12.0 34.2
Water 1,650 1,100 90,270 120,735 22.0 59.8
1,300 66,080 102,590 25.8 64.8
1,380 67,200 97,890 27.0 65.2
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

This steel can be drawn into wire, rolled into sheets and strips
and drawn into seamless tubes.





Next: Corrosion

Previous: Annealing



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