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Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Pyrometers
Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...



Hardening






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air
or quenching in oil or water from a temperature between 1,650 and
1,750 deg.F.

The physical properties do not vary greatly when the carbon is
within the range of composition given, or when the steel is hardened
and tempered in air, oil, or water.

When used for valves the following specification of physical properties
have been used:

Yield point, pounds per square inch 70,000
Tensile strength, pounds per square inch 90,000
Elongation in 2 in., per cent 18
Reduction of area, per cent 50

The usual heat treatment is to quench in oil from 1,650 deg.F. and
temper or draw at 1,100 to 1,200 deg.F. One valve manufacturer stated
that valves of this steel are hardened by heating the previously
annealed valves to 1,650 deg.F. and cooling in still air. This treatment
gives a scleroscope hardness of about 50.

In addition to use in valves this steel should prove very satisfactory
for shafting for water-pumps and other automobile parts subject to
objectionable corrosion.

TABLE 2.--COMPARISON OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES FOR HIGH-CHROMIUM
STEELS OF DIFFERENT CARBON CONTENT --------------------------------------------------------------------------
C 0.20 C 0.27 C 0.50
Mn 0.45 Mn 0.50
Cr 12.56 Cr 12.24 Cr 14.84
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Quenched in oil from degrees Fahrenheit 1,600 1,600 1,650
Tempered at degrees Fahrenheit 1,160 1,080 1,100
Yield point, pounds per square inch 78,300 75,000 91,616
Tensile strength, pounds per square inch 104,600 104,250 123,648
Elongation in 2 in., per cent 25.0 23.5 14.5
Reduction of area, per cent 52.5 51.4 33.5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

TABLE 3.--COMPARISON OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES BETWEEN AIR, OIL AND
WATER-HARDENED STEEL HAVING CHEMICAL ANALYSIS IN
PERCENTAGE OF
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Carbon 0.24
Manganese 0.30
Phosphorus 0.035
Sulphur 0.035
Chromium 12.85
Silicon 0.20

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hardened Elastic Tensile
Hardening from, Tempered limit, strength,ElongationReduction
medium degrees at, degrees per lb. lb. Per in 2 in. of area,
FahrenheitFahrenheit sq. in. sq. in. per cent per cent
-------------------------------------------------------------------
930 158,815 192,415 13.0 40.5
1,100 99,680 120,065 21.0 59.2
Air 1,650 1,300 70,785 101,250 26.0 64.6
1,380 66,080 98,335 28.0 63.6
1,470 70,785 96,990 27.0 64.7
-------------------------------------------------------------------
930 163,070 202,720 8.0 18.2
Oil 1,650 1,100 88,255 116,480 20.0 56.9
1,300 77,950 105,505 25.5 63.8
1,380 88,255 98,785 27.0 66.3
-------------------------------------------------------------------
930 158,815 202,050 12.0 34.2
Water 1,650 1,100 90,270 120,735 22.0 59.8
1,300 66,080 102,590 25.8 64.8
1,380 67,200 97,890 27.0 65.2
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

This steel can be drawn into wire, rolled into sheets and strips
and drawn into seamless tubes.





Next: Corrosion

Previous: Annealing



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