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Steel Making

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...



Hardening






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air
or quenching in oil or water from a temperature between 1,650 and
1,750 deg.F.

The physical properties do not vary greatly when the carbon is
within the range of composition given, or when the steel is hardened
and tempered in air, oil, or water.

When used for valves the following specification of physical properties
have been used:

Yield point, pounds per square inch 70,000
Tensile strength, pounds per square inch 90,000
Elongation in 2 in., per cent 18
Reduction of area, per cent 50

The usual heat treatment is to quench in oil from 1,650 deg.F. and
temper or draw at 1,100 to 1,200 deg.F. One valve manufacturer stated
that valves of this steel are hardened by heating the previously
annealed valves to 1,650 deg.F. and cooling in still air. This treatment
gives a scleroscope hardness of about 50.

In addition to use in valves this steel should prove very satisfactory
for shafting for water-pumps and other automobile parts subject to
objectionable corrosion.

TABLE 2.--COMPARISON OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES FOR HIGH-CHROMIUM
STEELS OF DIFFERENT CARBON CONTENT --------------------------------------------------------------------------
C 0.20 C 0.27 C 0.50
Mn 0.45 Mn 0.50
Cr 12.56 Cr 12.24 Cr 14.84
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Quenched in oil from degrees Fahrenheit 1,600 1,600 1,650
Tempered at degrees Fahrenheit 1,160 1,080 1,100
Yield point, pounds per square inch 78,300 75,000 91,616
Tensile strength, pounds per square inch 104,600 104,250 123,648
Elongation in 2 in., per cent 25.0 23.5 14.5
Reduction of area, per cent 52.5 51.4 33.5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

TABLE 3.--COMPARISON OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES BETWEEN AIR, OIL AND
WATER-HARDENED STEEL HAVING CHEMICAL ANALYSIS IN
PERCENTAGE OF
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Carbon 0.24
Manganese 0.30
Phosphorus 0.035
Sulphur 0.035
Chromium 12.85
Silicon 0.20

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hardened Elastic Tensile
Hardening from, Tempered limit, strength,ElongationReduction
medium degrees at, degrees per lb. lb. Per in 2 in. of area,
FahrenheitFahrenheit sq. in. sq. in. per cent per cent
-------------------------------------------------------------------
930 158,815 192,415 13.0 40.5
1,100 99,680 120,065 21.0 59.2
Air 1,650 1,300 70,785 101,250 26.0 64.6
1,380 66,080 98,335 28.0 63.6
1,470 70,785 96,990 27.0 64.7
-------------------------------------------------------------------
930 163,070 202,720 8.0 18.2
Oil 1,650 1,100 88,255 116,480 20.0 56.9
1,300 77,950 105,505 25.5 63.8
1,380 88,255 98,785 27.0 66.3
-------------------------------------------------------------------
930 158,815 202,050 12.0 34.2
Water 1,650 1,100 90,270 120,735 22.0 59.8
1,300 66,080 102,590 25.8 64.8
1,380 67,200 97,890 27.0 65.2
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

This steel can be drawn into wire, rolled into sheets and strips
and drawn into seamless tubes.





Next: Corrosion

Previous: Annealing



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