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Steel Making

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Heat-treating Department


The heat-treating department occupies an
L-shaped building. The design is very practical, with the furnace
and the floor on the same level so that there is no lifting of
heavy pots. Fuel oil is used in all the furnaces and gives highly
satisfactory results. The consumption of fuel oil is about 2 gal.
per hour per furnace.

The work is packed in the pots in a room at the entrance to the
heat-treatment building. Before packing, each gear is stamped with
a number which is a key to the records of the analysis and complete
heat treatment of that particular gear. Should a question at any time
arise regarding the treatment of a certain gear, all the necessary
information is available if the number on the gear is legible. For
instance, date of treatment, furnace, carburizing material, position
of the pot in the furnace, position of gear in pot, temperature of
furnace and duration of treatment are all tabulated and filed for

After marking, all holes and parts which are to remain uncarburized
are plugged or luted with a mixture of kaolin and Mellville gravel
clay, and the gear is packed in the carburizing material. Bohnite,
a commercial carburizing compound is used exclusively at this plant.
This does excellent work and is economical. Broadly speaking, the
economy of a carburizing compound depends on its lightness. The
space not occupied by work must be filled with compound; therefore)
other things being equal, a compound weighing 25 lb. would be worth
more than twice as much as one weighing 60 lb. per cubic foot. It
has been claimed that certain compounds can be used over and over
again, but this is only true in a limited way, if good work is
required. There is, of course, some carbon in the compound after
the first use, but for first-class work, new compound must be used
each time.

Next: The Packing Department

Previous: Annealing Method

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