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Steel Making

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Heat-treating Department


The heat-treating department occupies an
L-shaped building. The design is very practical, with the furnace
and the floor on the same level so that there is no lifting of
heavy pots. Fuel oil is used in all the furnaces and gives highly
satisfactory results. The consumption of fuel oil is about 2 gal.
per hour per furnace.

The work is packed in the pots in a room at the entrance to the
heat-treatment building. Before packing, each gear is stamped with
a number which is a key to the records of the analysis and complete
heat treatment of that particular gear. Should a question at any time
arise regarding the treatment of a certain gear, all the necessary
information is available if the number on the gear is legible. For
instance, date of treatment, furnace, carburizing material, position
of the pot in the furnace, position of gear in pot, temperature of
furnace and duration of treatment are all tabulated and filed for

After marking, all holes and parts which are to remain uncarburized
are plugged or luted with a mixture of kaolin and Mellville gravel
clay, and the gear is packed in the carburizing material. Bohnite,
a commercial carburizing compound is used exclusively at this plant.
This does excellent work and is economical. Broadly speaking, the
economy of a carburizing compound depends on its lightness. The
space not occupied by work must be filled with compound; therefore)
other things being equal, a compound weighing 25 lb. would be worth
more than twice as much as one weighing 60 lb. per cubic foot. It
has been claimed that certain compounds can be used over and over
again, but this is only true in a limited way, if good work is
required. There is, of course, some carbon in the compound after
the first use, but for first-class work, new compound must be used
each time.

Next: The Packing Department

Previous: Annealing Method

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