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Steel Making

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Heat-treating Department


The heat-treating department occupies an
L-shaped building. The design is very practical, with the furnace
and the floor on the same level so that there is no lifting of
heavy pots. Fuel oil is used in all the furnaces and gives highly
satisfactory results. The consumption of fuel oil is about 2 gal.
per hour per furnace.

The work is packed in the pots in a room at the entrance to the
heat-treatment building. Before packing, each gear is stamped with
a number which is a key to the records of the analysis and complete
heat treatment of that particular gear. Should a question at any time
arise regarding the treatment of a certain gear, all the necessary
information is available if the number on the gear is legible. For
instance, date of treatment, furnace, carburizing material, position
of the pot in the furnace, position of gear in pot, temperature of
furnace and duration of treatment are all tabulated and filed for

After marking, all holes and parts which are to remain uncarburized
are plugged or luted with a mixture of kaolin and Mellville gravel
clay, and the gear is packed in the carburizing material. Bohnite,
a commercial carburizing compound is used exclusively at this plant.
This does excellent work and is economical. Broadly speaking, the
economy of a carburizing compound depends on its lightness. The
space not occupied by work must be filled with compound; therefore)
other things being equal, a compound weighing 25 lb. would be worth
more than twice as much as one weighing 60 lb. per cubic foot. It
has been claimed that certain compounds can be used over and over
again, but this is only true in a limited way, if good work is
required. There is, of course, some carbon in the compound after
the first use, but for first-class work, new compound must be used
each time.

Next: The Packing Department

Previous: Annealing Method

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