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Steel Making

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Heat-treating Department


The heat-treating department occupies an
L-shaped building. The design is very practical, with the furnace
and the floor on the same level so that there is no lifting of
heavy pots. Fuel oil is used in all the furnaces and gives highly
satisfactory results. The consumption of fuel oil is about 2 gal.
per hour per furnace.

The work is packed in the pots in a room at the entrance to the
heat-treatment building. Before packing, each gear is stamped with
a number which is a key to the records of the analysis and complete
heat treatment of that particular gear. Should a question at any time
arise regarding the treatment of a certain gear, all the necessary
information is available if the number on the gear is legible. For
instance, date of treatment, furnace, carburizing material, position
of the pot in the furnace, position of gear in pot, temperature of
furnace and duration of treatment are all tabulated and filed for

After marking, all holes and parts which are to remain uncarburized
are plugged or luted with a mixture of kaolin and Mellville gravel
clay, and the gear is packed in the carburizing material. Bohnite,
a commercial carburizing compound is used exclusively at this plant.
This does excellent work and is economical. Broadly speaking, the
economy of a carburizing compound depends on its lightness. The
space not occupied by work must be filled with compound; therefore)
other things being equal, a compound weighing 25 lb. would be worth
more than twice as much as one weighing 60 lb. per cubic foot. It
has been claimed that certain compounds can be used over and over
again, but this is only true in a limited way, if good work is
required. There is, of course, some carbon in the compound after
the first use, but for first-class work, new compound must be used
each time.

Next: The Packing Department

Previous: Annealing Method

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