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Steel Making

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Heat-treating Department


The heat-treating department occupies an
L-shaped building. The design is very practical, with the furnace
and the floor on the same level so that there is no lifting of
heavy pots. Fuel oil is used in all the furnaces and gives highly
satisfactory results. The consumption of fuel oil is about 2 gal.
per hour per furnace.

The work is packed in the pots in a room at the entrance to the
heat-treatment building. Before packing, each gear is stamped with
a number which is a key to the records of the analysis and complete
heat treatment of that particular gear. Should a question at any time
arise regarding the treatment of a certain gear, all the necessary
information is available if the number on the gear is legible. For
instance, date of treatment, furnace, carburizing material, position
of the pot in the furnace, position of gear in pot, temperature of
furnace and duration of treatment are all tabulated and filed for

After marking, all holes and parts which are to remain uncarburized
are plugged or luted with a mixture of kaolin and Mellville gravel
clay, and the gear is packed in the carburizing material. Bohnite,
a commercial carburizing compound is used exclusively at this plant.
This does excellent work and is economical. Broadly speaking, the
economy of a carburizing compound depends on its lightness. The
space not occupied by work must be filled with compound; therefore)
other things being equal, a compound weighing 25 lb. would be worth
more than twice as much as one weighing 60 lb. per cubic foot. It
has been claimed that certain compounds can be used over and over
again, but this is only true in a limited way, if good work is
required. There is, of course, some carbon in the compound after
the first use, but for first-class work, new compound must be used
each time.

Next: The Packing Department

Previous: Annealing Method

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