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Steel Making

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Heat-treating Department


The heat-treating department occupies an
L-shaped building. The design is very practical, with the furnace
and the floor on the same level so that there is no lifting of
heavy pots. Fuel oil is used in all the furnaces and gives highly
satisfactory results. The consumption of fuel oil is about 2 gal.
per hour per furnace.

The work is packed in the pots in a room at the entrance to the
heat-treatment building. Before packing, each gear is stamped with
a number which is a key to the records of the analysis and complete
heat treatment of that particular gear. Should a question at any time
arise regarding the treatment of a certain gear, all the necessary
information is available if the number on the gear is legible. For
instance, date of treatment, furnace, carburizing material, position
of the pot in the furnace, position of gear in pot, temperature of
furnace and duration of treatment are all tabulated and filed for

After marking, all holes and parts which are to remain uncarburized
are plugged or luted with a mixture of kaolin and Mellville gravel
clay, and the gear is packed in the carburizing material. Bohnite,
a commercial carburizing compound is used exclusively at this plant.
This does excellent work and is economical. Broadly speaking, the
economy of a carburizing compound depends on its lightness. The
space not occupied by work must be filled with compound; therefore)
other things being equal, a compound weighing 25 lb. would be worth
more than twice as much as one weighing 60 lb. per cubic foot. It
has been claimed that certain compounds can be used over and over
again, but this is only true in a limited way, if good work is
required. There is, of course, some carbon in the compound after
the first use, but for first-class work, new compound must be used
each time.

Next: The Packing Department

Previous: Annealing Method

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