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Steel Making

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Heat-treating Department


The heat-treating department occupies an
L-shaped building. The design is very practical, with the furnace
and the floor on the same level so that there is no lifting of
heavy pots. Fuel oil is used in all the furnaces and gives highly
satisfactory results. The consumption of fuel oil is about 2 gal.
per hour per furnace.

The work is packed in the pots in a room at the entrance to the
heat-treatment building. Before packing, each gear is stamped with
a number which is a key to the records of the analysis and complete
heat treatment of that particular gear. Should a question at any time
arise regarding the treatment of a certain gear, all the necessary
information is available if the number on the gear is legible. For
instance, date of treatment, furnace, carburizing material, position
of the pot in the furnace, position of gear in pot, temperature of
furnace and duration of treatment are all tabulated and filed for

After marking, all holes and parts which are to remain uncarburized
are plugged or luted with a mixture of kaolin and Mellville gravel
clay, and the gear is packed in the carburizing material. Bohnite,
a commercial carburizing compound is used exclusively at this plant.
This does excellent work and is economical. Broadly speaking, the
economy of a carburizing compound depends on its lightness. The
space not occupied by work must be filled with compound; therefore)
other things being equal, a compound weighing 25 lb. would be worth
more than twice as much as one weighing 60 lb. per cubic foot. It
has been claimed that certain compounds can be used over and over
again, but this is only true in a limited way, if good work is
required. There is, of course, some carbon in the compound after
the first use, but for first-class work, new compound must be used
each time.

Next: The Packing Department

Previous: Annealing Method

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