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Steel Making

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Heat-treating Department


The heat-treating department occupies an
L-shaped building. The design is very practical, with the furnace
and the floor on the same level so that there is no lifting of
heavy pots. Fuel oil is used in all the furnaces and gives highly
satisfactory results. The consumption of fuel oil is about 2 gal.
per hour per furnace.

The work is packed in the pots in a room at the entrance to the
heat-treatment building. Before packing, each gear is stamped with
a number which is a key to the records of the analysis and complete
heat treatment of that particular gear. Should a question at any time
arise regarding the treatment of a certain gear, all the necessary
information is available if the number on the gear is legible. For
instance, date of treatment, furnace, carburizing material, position
of the pot in the furnace, position of gear in pot, temperature of
furnace and duration of treatment are all tabulated and filed for

After marking, all holes and parts which are to remain uncarburized
are plugged or luted with a mixture of kaolin and Mellville gravel
clay, and the gear is packed in the carburizing material. Bohnite,
a commercial carburizing compound is used exclusively at this plant.
This does excellent work and is economical. Broadly speaking, the
economy of a carburizing compound depends on its lightness. The
space not occupied by work must be filled with compound; therefore)
other things being equal, a compound weighing 25 lb. would be worth
more than twice as much as one weighing 60 lb. per cubic foot. It
has been claimed that certain compounds can be used over and over
again, but this is only true in a limited way, if good work is
required. There is, of course, some carbon in the compound after
the first use, but for first-class work, new compound must be used
each time.

Next: The Packing Department

Previous: Annealing Method

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