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Steel Making

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Heat-treating Department


The heat-treating department occupies an
L-shaped building. The design is very practical, with the furnace
and the floor on the same level so that there is no lifting of
heavy pots. Fuel oil is used in all the furnaces and gives highly
satisfactory results. The consumption of fuel oil is about 2 gal.
per hour per furnace.

The work is packed in the pots in a room at the entrance to the
heat-treatment building. Before packing, each gear is stamped with
a number which is a key to the records of the analysis and complete
heat treatment of that particular gear. Should a question at any time
arise regarding the treatment of a certain gear, all the necessary
information is available if the number on the gear is legible. For
instance, date of treatment, furnace, carburizing material, position
of the pot in the furnace, position of gear in pot, temperature of
furnace and duration of treatment are all tabulated and filed for

After marking, all holes and parts which are to remain uncarburized
are plugged or luted with a mixture of kaolin and Mellville gravel
clay, and the gear is packed in the carburizing material. Bohnite,
a commercial carburizing compound is used exclusively at this plant.
This does excellent work and is economical. Broadly speaking, the
economy of a carburizing compound depends on its lightness. The
space not occupied by work must be filled with compound; therefore)
other things being equal, a compound weighing 25 lb. would be worth
more than twice as much as one weighing 60 lb. per cubic foot. It
has been claimed that certain compounds can be used over and over
again, but this is only true in a limited way, if good work is
required. There is, of course, some carbon in the compound after
the first use, but for first-class work, new compound must be used
each time.

Next: The Packing Department

Previous: Annealing Method

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