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Steel Making

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Heat-treating Department


The heat-treating department occupies an
L-shaped building. The design is very practical, with the furnace
and the floor on the same level so that there is no lifting of
heavy pots. Fuel oil is used in all the furnaces and gives highly
satisfactory results. The consumption of fuel oil is about 2 gal.
per hour per furnace.

The work is packed in the pots in a room at the entrance to the
heat-treatment building. Before packing, each gear is stamped with
a number which is a key to the records of the analysis and complete
heat treatment of that particular gear. Should a question at any time
arise regarding the treatment of a certain gear, all the necessary
information is available if the number on the gear is legible. For
instance, date of treatment, furnace, carburizing material, position
of the pot in the furnace, position of gear in pot, temperature of
furnace and duration of treatment are all tabulated and filed for

After marking, all holes and parts which are to remain uncarburized
are plugged or luted with a mixture of kaolin and Mellville gravel
clay, and the gear is packed in the carburizing material. Bohnite,
a commercial carburizing compound is used exclusively at this plant.
This does excellent work and is economical. Broadly speaking, the
economy of a carburizing compound depends on its lightness. The
space not occupied by work must be filled with compound; therefore)
other things being equal, a compound weighing 25 lb. would be worth
more than twice as much as one weighing 60 lb. per cubic foot. It
has been claimed that certain compounds can be used over and over
again, but this is only true in a limited way, if good work is
required. There is, of course, some carbon in the compound after
the first use, but for first-class work, new compound must be used
each time.

Next: The Packing Department

Previous: Annealing Method

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