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Steel Making

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Heat-treating Department


The heat-treating department occupies an
L-shaped building. The design is very practical, with the furnace
and the floor on the same level so that there is no lifting of
heavy pots. Fuel oil is used in all the furnaces and gives highly
satisfactory results. The consumption of fuel oil is about 2 gal.
per hour per furnace.

The work is packed in the pots in a room at the entrance to the
heat-treatment building. Before packing, each gear is stamped with
a number which is a key to the records of the analysis and complete
heat treatment of that particular gear. Should a question at any time
arise regarding the treatment of a certain gear, all the necessary
information is available if the number on the gear is legible. For
instance, date of treatment, furnace, carburizing material, position
of the pot in the furnace, position of gear in pot, temperature of
furnace and duration of treatment are all tabulated and filed for

After marking, all holes and parts which are to remain uncarburized
are plugged or luted with a mixture of kaolin and Mellville gravel
clay, and the gear is packed in the carburizing material. Bohnite,
a commercial carburizing compound is used exclusively at this plant.
This does excellent work and is economical. Broadly speaking, the
economy of a carburizing compound depends on its lightness. The
space not occupied by work must be filled with compound; therefore)
other things being equal, a compound weighing 25 lb. would be worth
more than twice as much as one weighing 60 lb. per cubic foot. It
has been claimed that certain compounds can be used over and over
again, but this is only true in a limited way, if good work is
required. There is, of course, some carbon in the compound after
the first use, but for first-class work, new compound must be used
each time.

Next: The Packing Department

Previous: Annealing Method

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