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Steel Making

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Heat-treating Department


The heat-treating department occupies an
L-shaped building. The design is very practical, with the furnace
and the floor on the same level so that there is no lifting of
heavy pots. Fuel oil is used in all the furnaces and gives highly
satisfactory results. The consumption of fuel oil is about 2 gal.
per hour per furnace.

The work is packed in the pots in a room at the entrance to the
heat-treatment building. Before packing, each gear is stamped with
a number which is a key to the records of the analysis and complete
heat treatment of that particular gear. Should a question at any time
arise regarding the treatment of a certain gear, all the necessary
information is available if the number on the gear is legible. For
instance, date of treatment, furnace, carburizing material, position
of the pot in the furnace, position of gear in pot, temperature of
furnace and duration of treatment are all tabulated and filed for

After marking, all holes and parts which are to remain uncarburized
are plugged or luted with a mixture of kaolin and Mellville gravel
clay, and the gear is packed in the carburizing material. Bohnite,
a commercial carburizing compound is used exclusively at this plant.
This does excellent work and is economical. Broadly speaking, the
economy of a carburizing compound depends on its lightness. The
space not occupied by work must be filled with compound; therefore)
other things being equal, a compound weighing 25 lb. would be worth
more than twice as much as one weighing 60 lb. per cubic foot. It
has been claimed that certain compounds can be used over and over
again, but this is only true in a limited way, if good work is
required. There is, of course, some carbon in the compound after
the first use, but for first-class work, new compound must be used
each time.

Next: The Packing Department

Previous: Annealing Method

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