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Steel Making

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Heat-treating Department


The heat-treating department occupies an
L-shaped building. The design is very practical, with the furnace
and the floor on the same level so that there is no lifting of
heavy pots. Fuel oil is used in all the furnaces and gives highly
satisfactory results. The consumption of fuel oil is about 2 gal.
per hour per furnace.

The work is packed in the pots in a room at the entrance to the
heat-treatment building. Before packing, each gear is stamped with
a number which is a key to the records of the analysis and complete
heat treatment of that particular gear. Should a question at any time
arise regarding the treatment of a certain gear, all the necessary
information is available if the number on the gear is legible. For
instance, date of treatment, furnace, carburizing material, position
of the pot in the furnace, position of gear in pot, temperature of
furnace and duration of treatment are all tabulated and filed for

After marking, all holes and parts which are to remain uncarburized
are plugged or luted with a mixture of kaolin and Mellville gravel
clay, and the gear is packed in the carburizing material. Bohnite,
a commercial carburizing compound is used exclusively at this plant.
This does excellent work and is economical. Broadly speaking, the
economy of a carburizing compound depends on its lightness. The
space not occupied by work must be filled with compound; therefore)
other things being equal, a compound weighing 25 lb. would be worth
more than twice as much as one weighing 60 lb. per cubic foot. It
has been claimed that certain compounds can be used over and over
again, but this is only true in a limited way, if good work is
required. There is, of course, some carbon in the compound after
the first use, but for first-class work, new compound must be used
each time.

Next: The Packing Department

Previous: Annealing Method

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