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Steel Making

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Pyrometers
Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...



Care In Annealing






Category: HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

Not only will benefits in machining be found
by careful annealing of forgings but the subsequent troubles in
the hardening plant will be greatly reduced. The advantages in
the hardening start with the carburizing operation, as a steel of
uniform and fine grain size will carburize more uniformly, producing
a more even hardness and less chances for soft spots. The holes in
the gears will also close in more uniformly, not causing some
gears to require excessive grinding and others with just enough
stock. Also all strains will have been removed from the forging,
eliminating to a great extent distortion and the noisy gears which
are the result.

With the steels used, for the heat-treated gears, always of a higher
carbon content, treatment after forging is necessary for machining, as
it would be impossible to get the required production from untreated
forgings, especially in the alloy steels. The treatment is more
delicate, due to the higher percentage of carbon and the natural
increase in cementite together with complex carbides which are
present in some of the higher types of alloys.

Where poor machining conditions in heat-treated steels are present
they are generally due to incomplete solution of cementite rather
than bands of free ferrite, as in the case of case-hardening steels.
This segregation of carbon, as it is sometimes referred to, causes
hard spots which, in the forming of the tooth, cause the cutter
to ride over the hard metal, producing high spots on the face of
the tooth, which are as detrimental to satisfactory gear cutting
as the drops or low spots produced on the face of the teeth when
the pearlite is coarse-grained or in a banded condition.

In the simpler carburized steels it is not necessary to test the
forgings for hardness after annealing, but with the high percentages
of alloys in the carburizing steels and the heat-treated steels
a hardness test is essential.

To obtain the best results in machining, the microstructure of the
metal should be determined and a hardness range set that covers
the variations in structure that produce good machining results.
By careful control of the heat-treating operation and with the aid
of the Brinell hardness tester and the microscope it is possible
to continually give forgings that will machine uniformly and be
soft enough to give desired production. The following gives a few
of the hardness numerals on steel used in gear manufacture that
produce good machining qualities:

0.20 per cent carbon, 3 per cent nickel, 1-1/4; per cent
chromium--Brinell 156 to 170.

0.50 per cent carbon, 3 per cent nickel, 1 per cent chromium--Brinell
179 to 187.

0.50 per cent carbon chrome-vanadium--Brinell 170 to 179.





Next: The Influence Of Size

Previous: Temperature For Annealing



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