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Steel Making

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Care In Annealing


Not only will benefits in machining be found
by careful annealing of forgings but the subsequent troubles in
the hardening plant will be greatly reduced. The advantages in
the hardening start with the carburizing operation, as a steel of
uniform and fine grain size will carburize more uniformly, producing
a more even hardness and less chances for soft spots. The holes in
the gears will also close in more uniformly, not causing some
gears to require excessive grinding and others with just enough
stock. Also all strains will have been removed from the forging,
eliminating to a great extent distortion and the noisy gears which
are the result.

With the steels used, for the heat-treated gears, always of a higher
carbon content, treatment after forging is necessary for machining, as
it would be impossible to get the required production from untreated
forgings, especially in the alloy steels. The treatment is more
delicate, due to the higher percentage of carbon and the natural
increase in cementite together with complex carbides which are
present in some of the higher types of alloys.

Where poor machining conditions in heat-treated steels are present
they are generally due to incomplete solution of cementite rather
than bands of free ferrite, as in the case of case-hardening steels.
This segregation of carbon, as it is sometimes referred to, causes
hard spots which, in the forming of the tooth, cause the cutter
to ride over the hard metal, producing high spots on the face of
the tooth, which are as detrimental to satisfactory gear cutting
as the drops or low spots produced on the face of the teeth when
the pearlite is coarse-grained or in a banded condition.

In the simpler carburized steels it is not necessary to test the
forgings for hardness after annealing, but with the high percentages
of alloys in the carburizing steels and the heat-treated steels
a hardness test is essential.

To obtain the best results in machining, the microstructure of the
metal should be determined and a hardness range set that covers
the variations in structure that produce good machining results.
By careful control of the heat-treating operation and with the aid
of the Brinell hardness tester and the microscope it is possible
to continually give forgings that will machine uniformly and be
soft enough to give desired production. The following gives a few
of the hardness numerals on steel used in gear manufacture that
produce good machining qualities:

0.20 per cent carbon, 3 per cent nickel, 1-1/4; per cent
chromium--Brinell 156 to 170.

0.50 per cent carbon, 3 per cent nickel, 1 per cent chromium--Brinell
179 to 187.

0.50 per cent carbon chrome-vanadium--Brinell 170 to 179.

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Previous: Temperature For Annealing

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