Take a piece of parchment or fine quality writing paper and inscribe the name of the target. Write it in a circle twice, so the ends meet. As you do this, concentrate on the person's face and your desire that they call you. Then, while still conce... Read more of To get someone to call you at White Magic.caInformational Site Network Informational
Privacy
   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Hardening
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Machineability
Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...



Conclusions








Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor of
discovering the atmospheric process of making steel. In the present
state of the record, it is not an unreasonable assumption that his
patent was never seriously exploited and that the Ebbw Vale Iron Works
hoped to use it, in conjunction with the Mushet patents, to upset
Bessemer's patents.

The position of Mushet is not so clear, and it is hoped that further
research can eventually throw a clearer light on his relationship with
the Ebbw Vale Iron Works. It may well be that the "opinion of
metallurgists in later years"[119] is sound, and that both Mushet and
Bessemer had successfully worked at the same problem. The study of
Mushet's letters to the technical press and of the attitude of the
editors of those papers to Mushet suggests the possibility that he,
too, was used by Ebbw Vale for the purposes of their attacks on
Bessemer. Mushet admits that he was not a free agent in respect of
these patents, and the failure of Ebbw Vale to ensure their full life
under English patent law indicates clearly enough that by 1859 the firm
had realized that their position was not strong enough to warrant a
legal suit for infringement against Bessemer. Their purchase of the
Uchatius process and their final attempt to develop Martien's ideas
through the Parry patents, which exposed them to a very real risk of a
suit by Bessemer, are also indications of the politics in the case.
Mushet seems to have been a willing enough victim of Ebbw Vale's
scheming. His letters show an almost presumptuous assumption of the
mantle of his father; while his sometimes absurd claims to priority of
invention (and demonstration) of practically every new idea in the
manufacturing of iron and steel progressively reduced the respect for
his name. Bessemer claims an impressive array of precedents for the use
of manganese in steel making and, given his attitude to patents and his
reliance on professional advice in this respect, he should perhaps, be
given the benefit of the doubt. A dispassionate judgment would be that
Bessemer owed more to the development work of his Swedish licensees
than to Mushet.

[119] William T. Jeans, The creators of the age of steel,
London, 1884.

Kelly's right to be adjudged the joint inventor of what is now often
called the Kelly-Bessemer process is questionable.[120] Admittedly, he
experimented in the treatment of molten metal with air blasts, but it
is by no means clear, on the evidence, that he got beyond the
experimental stage. It is certain that he never had the objective of
making steel, which was Bessemer's primary aim. Nor is there evidence
that his process was taken beyond the experimental stage by the Cambria
Works. The rejection of his "apparatus" by W. F. Durfee must have been
based, to some extent at least, upon the Johnstown trials. There are
strong grounds then, for agreeing with one historian[121] who
concludes:

The fact that Kelly was an American is evidently the principal
reason why certain popular writers have made much of an invention
that, had not Bessemer developed his process, would never have
attracted notice. Kelly's patent proved very useful to industrial
interests in this country as a bargaining weapon in negotiations
with the Bessemer group for the exchange of patent rights.

[120] Bessemer dealt with Kelly's claim to priority in a letter
to Engineering, 1896, vol. 61, p. 367.

[121] Louis C. Hunter, "The heavy industries since 1860," in H.
F. Williamson (editor), The growth of the American economy, New
York, 1944, p. 469.

Kelly's suggestion[122] that some British puddlers may have
communicated his secret to Bessemer can, probably, never be verified.
All that can be said is that Bessemer was not an ironman; his contacts
with the iron trade were, so far as can be ascertained, nonexistent
until he himself invaded Sheffield. So it is unlikely that such a
secret would have been taken to him, even if he were a well-known
inventor.

[122] Later developed into a dramatic story by Boucher, op.
cit. (footnote 97).






Previous: William Kelly's Air-boiling Process



Add to del.icio.us Add to Reddit Add to Digg Add to Del.icio.us Add to Google Add to Twitter Add to Stumble Upon
Add to Informational Site Network
Report
Privacy
SHAREADD TO EBOOK


Viewed 3361