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   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Annealing
There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...



Application To The Automotive Industry






Category: APPLICATION OF LIBERTY ENGINE MATERIALS TO THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

The information given on the various parts of the Liberty engine
applies with equal force to the corresponding parts in the construction
of an automobile, truck or tractor. We recommend as first choice for
carbon-steel screw-machine parts material produced by the basic
open hearth process and having the following chemical composition;
Carbon, 0.150 to 0.250 per cent; manganese, 0.500 to 0.800 per
cent; phosphorus, 0.045 maximum per cent; sulphur, 0.075 to 0.150
per cent.

This material is very uniform and is nearly as free cutting as
bessemer screw stock. It is sufficiently uniform to be used for
unimportant carburized parts, as well as for non-heat-treated
screw-machine parts. A number of the large automobile manufacturers
are now specifying this material in preference to the regular bessemer
grades.

As second choice for carbon-steel screw-machine parts we recommend
ordinary bessemer screw stock, purchased in accordance with S. A.
E. specification No. 1114. The advantage of using No. 1114 steel
lies in the fact that the majority of warehouses carry standard
sizes of this material in stock at all times. The disadvantage
of using this material is due to its lack of uniformity.

The important criterion for transmission gears is resistance to
wear. To secure proper resistance to wear a Brinell hardness of
from 512 to 560 must be obtained. The material selected to obtain
this hardness should be one which can be made most nearly uniform,
will undergo forging operations the easiest, will be the hardest
to overheat or burn, will machine best and will respond to a good
commercial range of heat treatment.

It is a well-known fact that the element chromium, when in the form
of chromium carbide in alloy steel, offers the greatest resistance to
wear of any combination yet developed. It is also a well-known fact that
the element nickel in steel gives excellent shock-resisting properties
as well as resistance to wear but not nearly as great a resistance
to wear as chromium. It has been standard practice for a number of
years for many manufacturers to use a high nickel-chromium steel
for transmission gears. A typical nickel-chromium gear specification
is as follows: Carbon, 0.470 to 0.520 per cent; manganese, 0.500
to 0.800 per cent; phosphorus, 0.040 maximum per cent; sulphur,
0.045 maximum per cent; chromium, 0.700 to 0.950 per cent.

There is no question but that a gear made from material of such an
analysis will give excellent service. However, it is possible to
obtain the same quality of service and at the same time appreciably
reduce the cost of the finished part. The gear steel specified is
of the air-hardening type. It is extremely sensitive to secondary
pipe, as well as seams, and is extremely difficult to forge and
very easy to overheat. The heat-treatment range is very wide, but
the danger from quenching cracks is very great. In regard to the
machineability, this material is the hardest to machine of any
alloy steel known.





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