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Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...



Application To The Automotive Industry






Category: APPLICATION OF LIBERTY ENGINE MATERIALS TO THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

The information given on the various parts of the Liberty engine
applies with equal force to the corresponding parts in the construction
of an automobile, truck or tractor. We recommend as first choice for
carbon-steel screw-machine parts material produced by the basic
open hearth process and having the following chemical composition;
Carbon, 0.150 to 0.250 per cent; manganese, 0.500 to 0.800 per
cent; phosphorus, 0.045 maximum per cent; sulphur, 0.075 to 0.150
per cent.

This material is very uniform and is nearly as free cutting as
bessemer screw stock. It is sufficiently uniform to be used for
unimportant carburized parts, as well as for non-heat-treated
screw-machine parts. A number of the large automobile manufacturers
are now specifying this material in preference to the regular bessemer
grades.

As second choice for carbon-steel screw-machine parts we recommend
ordinary bessemer screw stock, purchased in accordance with S. A.
E. specification No. 1114. The advantage of using No. 1114 steel
lies in the fact that the majority of warehouses carry standard
sizes of this material in stock at all times. The disadvantage
of using this material is due to its lack of uniformity.

The important criterion for transmission gears is resistance to
wear. To secure proper resistance to wear a Brinell hardness of
from 512 to 560 must be obtained. The material selected to obtain
this hardness should be one which can be made most nearly uniform,
will undergo forging operations the easiest, will be the hardest
to overheat or burn, will machine best and will respond to a good
commercial range of heat treatment.

It is a well-known fact that the element chromium, when in the form
of chromium carbide in alloy steel, offers the greatest resistance to
wear of any combination yet developed. It is also a well-known fact that
the element nickel in steel gives excellent shock-resisting properties
as well as resistance to wear but not nearly as great a resistance
to wear as chromium. It has been standard practice for a number of
years for many manufacturers to use a high nickel-chromium steel
for transmission gears. A typical nickel-chromium gear specification
is as follows: Carbon, 0.470 to 0.520 per cent; manganese, 0.500
to 0.800 per cent; phosphorus, 0.040 maximum per cent; sulphur,
0.045 maximum per cent; chromium, 0.700 to 0.950 per cent.

There is no question but that a gear made from material of such an
analysis will give excellent service. However, it is possible to
obtain the same quality of service and at the same time appreciably
reduce the cost of the finished part. The gear steel specified is
of the air-hardening type. It is extremely sensitive to secondary
pipe, as well as seams, and is extremely difficult to forge and
very easy to overheat. The heat-treatment range is very wide, but
the danger from quenching cracks is very great. In regard to the
machineability, this material is the hardest to machine of any
alloy steel known.





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