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Steel Making

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Application To The Automotive Industry


The information given on the various parts of the Liberty engine
applies with equal force to the corresponding parts in the construction
of an automobile, truck or tractor. We recommend as first choice for
carbon-steel screw-machine parts material produced by the basic
open hearth process and having the following chemical composition;
Carbon, 0.150 to 0.250 per cent; manganese, 0.500 to 0.800 per
cent; phosphorus, 0.045 maximum per cent; sulphur, 0.075 to 0.150
per cent.

This material is very uniform and is nearly as free cutting as
bessemer screw stock. It is sufficiently uniform to be used for
unimportant carburized parts, as well as for non-heat-treated
screw-machine parts. A number of the large automobile manufacturers
are now specifying this material in preference to the regular bessemer

As second choice for carbon-steel screw-machine parts we recommend
ordinary bessemer screw stock, purchased in accordance with S. A.
E. specification No. 1114. The advantage of using No. 1114 steel
lies in the fact that the majority of warehouses carry standard
sizes of this material in stock at all times. The disadvantage
of using this material is due to its lack of uniformity.

The important criterion for transmission gears is resistance to
wear. To secure proper resistance to wear a Brinell hardness of
from 512 to 560 must be obtained. The material selected to obtain
this hardness should be one which can be made most nearly uniform,
will undergo forging operations the easiest, will be the hardest
to overheat or burn, will machine best and will respond to a good
commercial range of heat treatment.

It is a well-known fact that the element chromium, when in the form
of chromium carbide in alloy steel, offers the greatest resistance to
wear of any combination yet developed. It is also a well-known fact that
the element nickel in steel gives excellent shock-resisting properties
as well as resistance to wear but not nearly as great a resistance
to wear as chromium. It has been standard practice for a number of
years for many manufacturers to use a high nickel-chromium steel
for transmission gears. A typical nickel-chromium gear specification
is as follows: Carbon, 0.470 to 0.520 per cent; manganese, 0.500
to 0.800 per cent; phosphorus, 0.040 maximum per cent; sulphur,
0.045 maximum per cent; chromium, 0.700 to 0.950 per cent.

There is no question but that a gear made from material of such an
analysis will give excellent service. However, it is possible to
obtain the same quality of service and at the same time appreciably
reduce the cost of the finished part. The gear steel specified is
of the air-hardening type. It is extremely sensitive to secondary
pipe, as well as seams, and is extremely difficult to forge and
very easy to overheat. The heat-treatment range is very wide, but
the danger from quenching cracks is very great. In regard to the
machineability, this material is the hardest to machine of any
alloy steel known.

Next: Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel

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