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Steel Making

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Application To The Automotive Industry


The information given on the various parts of the Liberty engine
applies with equal force to the corresponding parts in the construction
of an automobile, truck or tractor. We recommend as first choice for
carbon-steel screw-machine parts material produced by the basic
open hearth process and having the following chemical composition;
Carbon, 0.150 to 0.250 per cent; manganese, 0.500 to 0.800 per
cent; phosphorus, 0.045 maximum per cent; sulphur, 0.075 to 0.150
per cent.

This material is very uniform and is nearly as free cutting as
bessemer screw stock. It is sufficiently uniform to be used for
unimportant carburized parts, as well as for non-heat-treated
screw-machine parts. A number of the large automobile manufacturers
are now specifying this material in preference to the regular bessemer

As second choice for carbon-steel screw-machine parts we recommend
ordinary bessemer screw stock, purchased in accordance with S. A.
E. specification No. 1114. The advantage of using No. 1114 steel
lies in the fact that the majority of warehouses carry standard
sizes of this material in stock at all times. The disadvantage
of using this material is due to its lack of uniformity.

The important criterion for transmission gears is resistance to
wear. To secure proper resistance to wear a Brinell hardness of
from 512 to 560 must be obtained. The material selected to obtain
this hardness should be one which can be made most nearly uniform,
will undergo forging operations the easiest, will be the hardest
to overheat or burn, will machine best and will respond to a good
commercial range of heat treatment.

It is a well-known fact that the element chromium, when in the form
of chromium carbide in alloy steel, offers the greatest resistance to
wear of any combination yet developed. It is also a well-known fact that
the element nickel in steel gives excellent shock-resisting properties
as well as resistance to wear but not nearly as great a resistance
to wear as chromium. It has been standard practice for a number of
years for many manufacturers to use a high nickel-chromium steel
for transmission gears. A typical nickel-chromium gear specification
is as follows: Carbon, 0.470 to 0.520 per cent; manganese, 0.500
to 0.800 per cent; phosphorus, 0.040 maximum per cent; sulphur,
0.045 maximum per cent; chromium, 0.700 to 0.950 per cent.

There is no question but that a gear made from material of such an
analysis will give excellent service. However, it is possible to
obtain the same quality of service and at the same time appreciably
reduce the cost of the finished part. The gear steel specified is
of the air-hardening type. It is extremely sensitive to secondary
pipe, as well as seams, and is extremely difficult to forge and
very easy to overheat. The heat-treatment range is very wide, but
the danger from quenching cracks is very great. In regard to the
machineability, this material is the hardest to machine of any
alloy steel known.

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