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Annealing
There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...



Application To The Automotive Industry






Category: APPLICATION OF LIBERTY ENGINE MATERIALS TO THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

The information given on the various parts of the Liberty engine
applies with equal force to the corresponding parts in the construction
of an automobile, truck or tractor. We recommend as first choice for
carbon-steel screw-machine parts material produced by the basic
open hearth process and having the following chemical composition;
Carbon, 0.150 to 0.250 per cent; manganese, 0.500 to 0.800 per
cent; phosphorus, 0.045 maximum per cent; sulphur, 0.075 to 0.150
per cent.

This material is very uniform and is nearly as free cutting as
bessemer screw stock. It is sufficiently uniform to be used for
unimportant carburized parts, as well as for non-heat-treated
screw-machine parts. A number of the large automobile manufacturers
are now specifying this material in preference to the regular bessemer
grades.

As second choice for carbon-steel screw-machine parts we recommend
ordinary bessemer screw stock, purchased in accordance with S. A.
E. specification No. 1114. The advantage of using No. 1114 steel
lies in the fact that the majority of warehouses carry standard
sizes of this material in stock at all times. The disadvantage
of using this material is due to its lack of uniformity.

The important criterion for transmission gears is resistance to
wear. To secure proper resistance to wear a Brinell hardness of
from 512 to 560 must be obtained. The material selected to obtain
this hardness should be one which can be made most nearly uniform,
will undergo forging operations the easiest, will be the hardest
to overheat or burn, will machine best and will respond to a good
commercial range of heat treatment.

It is a well-known fact that the element chromium, when in the form
of chromium carbide in alloy steel, offers the greatest resistance to
wear of any combination yet developed. It is also a well-known fact that
the element nickel in steel gives excellent shock-resisting properties
as well as resistance to wear but not nearly as great a resistance
to wear as chromium. It has been standard practice for a number of
years for many manufacturers to use a high nickel-chromium steel
for transmission gears. A typical nickel-chromium gear specification
is as follows: Carbon, 0.470 to 0.520 per cent; manganese, 0.500
to 0.800 per cent; phosphorus, 0.040 maximum per cent; sulphur,
0.045 maximum per cent; chromium, 0.700 to 0.950 per cent.

There is no question but that a gear made from material of such an
analysis will give excellent service. However, it is possible to
obtain the same quality of service and at the same time appreciably
reduce the cost of the finished part. The gear steel specified is
of the air-hardening type. It is extremely sensitive to secondary
pipe, as well as seams, and is extremely difficult to forge and
very easy to overheat. The heat-treatment range is very wide, but
the danger from quenching cracks is very great. In regard to the
machineability, this material is the hardest to machine of any
alloy steel known.





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