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Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Annealing
There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Crankshaft
The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...



Application To The Automotive Industry






Category: APPLICATION OF LIBERTY ENGINE MATERIALS TO THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

The information given on the various parts of the Liberty engine
applies with equal force to the corresponding parts in the construction
of an automobile, truck or tractor. We recommend as first choice for
carbon-steel screw-machine parts material produced by the basic
open hearth process and having the following chemical composition;
Carbon, 0.150 to 0.250 per cent; manganese, 0.500 to 0.800 per
cent; phosphorus, 0.045 maximum per cent; sulphur, 0.075 to 0.150
per cent.

This material is very uniform and is nearly as free cutting as
bessemer screw stock. It is sufficiently uniform to be used for
unimportant carburized parts, as well as for non-heat-treated
screw-machine parts. A number of the large automobile manufacturers
are now specifying this material in preference to the regular bessemer
grades.

As second choice for carbon-steel screw-machine parts we recommend
ordinary bessemer screw stock, purchased in accordance with S. A.
E. specification No. 1114. The advantage of using No. 1114 steel
lies in the fact that the majority of warehouses carry standard
sizes of this material in stock at all times. The disadvantage
of using this material is due to its lack of uniformity.

The important criterion for transmission gears is resistance to
wear. To secure proper resistance to wear a Brinell hardness of
from 512 to 560 must be obtained. The material selected to obtain
this hardness should be one which can be made most nearly uniform,
will undergo forging operations the easiest, will be the hardest
to overheat or burn, will machine best and will respond to a good
commercial range of heat treatment.

It is a well-known fact that the element chromium, when in the form
of chromium carbide in alloy steel, offers the greatest resistance to
wear of any combination yet developed. It is also a well-known fact that
the element nickel in steel gives excellent shock-resisting properties
as well as resistance to wear but not nearly as great a resistance
to wear as chromium. It has been standard practice for a number of
years for many manufacturers to use a high nickel-chromium steel
for transmission gears. A typical nickel-chromium gear specification
is as follows: Carbon, 0.470 to 0.520 per cent; manganese, 0.500
to 0.800 per cent; phosphorus, 0.040 maximum per cent; sulphur,
0.045 maximum per cent; chromium, 0.700 to 0.950 per cent.

There is no question but that a gear made from material of such an
analysis will give excellent service. However, it is possible to
obtain the same quality of service and at the same time appreciably
reduce the cost of the finished part. The gear steel specified is
of the air-hardening type. It is extremely sensitive to secondary
pipe, as well as seams, and is extremely difficult to forge and
very easy to overheat. The heat-treatment range is very wide, but
the danger from quenching cracks is very great. In regard to the
machineability, this material is the hardest to machine of any
alloy steel known.





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