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Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Application To The Automotive Industry


The information given on the various parts of the Liberty engine
applies with equal force to the corresponding parts in the construction
of an automobile, truck or tractor. We recommend as first choice for
carbon-steel screw-machine parts material produced by the basic
open hearth process and having the following chemical composition;
Carbon, 0.150 to 0.250 per cent; manganese, 0.500 to 0.800 per
cent; phosphorus, 0.045 maximum per cent; sulphur, 0.075 to 0.150
per cent.

This material is very uniform and is nearly as free cutting as
bessemer screw stock. It is sufficiently uniform to be used for
unimportant carburized parts, as well as for non-heat-treated
screw-machine parts. A number of the large automobile manufacturers
are now specifying this material in preference to the regular bessemer

As second choice for carbon-steel screw-machine parts we recommend
ordinary bessemer screw stock, purchased in accordance with S. A.
E. specification No. 1114. The advantage of using No. 1114 steel
lies in the fact that the majority of warehouses carry standard
sizes of this material in stock at all times. The disadvantage
of using this material is due to its lack of uniformity.

The important criterion for transmission gears is resistance to
wear. To secure proper resistance to wear a Brinell hardness of
from 512 to 560 must be obtained. The material selected to obtain
this hardness should be one which can be made most nearly uniform,
will undergo forging operations the easiest, will be the hardest
to overheat or burn, will machine best and will respond to a good
commercial range of heat treatment.

It is a well-known fact that the element chromium, when in the form
of chromium carbide in alloy steel, offers the greatest resistance to
wear of any combination yet developed. It is also a well-known fact that
the element nickel in steel gives excellent shock-resisting properties
as well as resistance to wear but not nearly as great a resistance
to wear as chromium. It has been standard practice for a number of
years for many manufacturers to use a high nickel-chromium steel
for transmission gears. A typical nickel-chromium gear specification
is as follows: Carbon, 0.470 to 0.520 per cent; manganese, 0.500
to 0.800 per cent; phosphorus, 0.040 maximum per cent; sulphur,
0.045 maximum per cent; chromium, 0.700 to 0.950 per cent.

There is no question but that a gear made from material of such an
analysis will give excellent service. However, it is possible to
obtain the same quality of service and at the same time appreciably
reduce the cost of the finished part. The gear steel specified is
of the air-hardening type. It is extremely sensitive to secondary
pipe, as well as seams, and is extremely difficult to forge and
very easy to overheat. The heat-treatment range is very wide, but
the danger from quenching cracks is very great. In regard to the
machineability, this material is the hardest to machine of any
alloy steel known.

Next: Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel

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