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   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...



Application To The Automotive Industry






Category: APPLICATION OF LIBERTY ENGINE MATERIALS TO THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

The information given on the various parts of the Liberty engine
applies with equal force to the corresponding parts in the construction
of an automobile, truck or tractor. We recommend as first choice for
carbon-steel screw-machine parts material produced by the basic
open hearth process and having the following chemical composition;
Carbon, 0.150 to 0.250 per cent; manganese, 0.500 to 0.800 per
cent; phosphorus, 0.045 maximum per cent; sulphur, 0.075 to 0.150
per cent.

This material is very uniform and is nearly as free cutting as
bessemer screw stock. It is sufficiently uniform to be used for
unimportant carburized parts, as well as for non-heat-treated
screw-machine parts. A number of the large automobile manufacturers
are now specifying this material in preference to the regular bessemer
grades.

As second choice for carbon-steel screw-machine parts we recommend
ordinary bessemer screw stock, purchased in accordance with S. A.
E. specification No. 1114. The advantage of using No. 1114 steel
lies in the fact that the majority of warehouses carry standard
sizes of this material in stock at all times. The disadvantage
of using this material is due to its lack of uniformity.

The important criterion for transmission gears is resistance to
wear. To secure proper resistance to wear a Brinell hardness of
from 512 to 560 must be obtained. The material selected to obtain
this hardness should be one which can be made most nearly uniform,
will undergo forging operations the easiest, will be the hardest
to overheat or burn, will machine best and will respond to a good
commercial range of heat treatment.

It is a well-known fact that the element chromium, when in the form
of chromium carbide in alloy steel, offers the greatest resistance to
wear of any combination yet developed. It is also a well-known fact that
the element nickel in steel gives excellent shock-resisting properties
as well as resistance to wear but not nearly as great a resistance
to wear as chromium. It has been standard practice for a number of
years for many manufacturers to use a high nickel-chromium steel
for transmission gears. A typical nickel-chromium gear specification
is as follows: Carbon, 0.470 to 0.520 per cent; manganese, 0.500
to 0.800 per cent; phosphorus, 0.040 maximum per cent; sulphur,
0.045 maximum per cent; chromium, 0.700 to 0.950 per cent.

There is no question but that a gear made from material of such an
analysis will give excellent service. However, it is possible to
obtain the same quality of service and at the same time appreciably
reduce the cost of the finished part. The gear steel specified is
of the air-hardening type. It is extremely sensitive to secondary
pipe, as well as seams, and is extremely difficult to forge and
very easy to overheat. The heat-treatment range is very wide, but
the danger from quenching cracks is very great. In regard to the
machineability, this material is the hardest to machine of any
alloy steel known.





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