The Litchfield, Captain Barton, left Ireland on the 11th of November, 1758, in company with several other men of war and transports, under the command of Commodore Keppel, intended for the reduction of Goree. The voyage was prosperous till th... Read more of Loss Of His Majesty's Ship Litchfield at Sea Stories.caInformational Site Network Informational
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High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Annealing Alloy Steel


The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, refers
largely to nickel and chromium steel or a combination of both. These
steels are manufactured very largely by the open-hearth process,
although chromium steels are also a crucible product. It is next
to impossible to give proper directions for the proper annealing
of alloy steel unless the composition is known to the operator.

Nickel steels may be annealed at lower temperatures than carbon
steels, depending upon their alloy content. For instance, if a
pearlitic carbon steel may be annealed at 1,450 deg.C., the same analysis
containing 2-1/2 per cent nickel may be annealed at 1,360 deg.C. and
a 5 per cent nickel steel at 1,270 deg..

In order that high chromium steels may be readily machined, they
must be heated at or slightly above the critical for a very long
time, and cooled through the critical at an extremely slow rate.
For a steel containing 0.9 to 1.1 per cent carbon, under 0.50 per
cent manganese, and about 1.0 per cent chromium, Bullens recommends
the following anneal:

1. Heat to 1,700 or 1,750 deg.F.
2. Air cool to about 800 deg.F.
3. Soak at 1,425 to 1,450 deg.F.
4. Cool slowly in furnace.

Next: High-carbon Machinery Steel

Previous: Tool Or Crucible Steel

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