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   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Annealing Alloy Steel


The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, refers
largely to nickel and chromium steel or a combination of both. These
steels are manufactured very largely by the open-hearth process,
although chromium steels are also a crucible product. It is next
to impossible to give proper directions for the proper annealing
of alloy steel unless the composition is known to the operator.

Nickel steels may be annealed at lower temperatures than carbon
steels, depending upon their alloy content. For instance, if a
pearlitic carbon steel may be annealed at 1,450 deg.C., the same analysis
containing 2-1/2 per cent nickel may be annealed at 1,360 deg.C. and
a 5 per cent nickel steel at 1,270 deg..

In order that high chromium steels may be readily machined, they
must be heated at or slightly above the critical for a very long
time, and cooled through the critical at an extremely slow rate.
For a steel containing 0.9 to 1.1 per cent carbon, under 0.50 per
cent manganese, and about 1.0 per cent chromium, Bullens recommends
the following anneal:

1. Heat to 1,700 or 1,750 deg.F.
2. Air cool to about 800 deg.F.
3. Soak at 1,425 to 1,450 deg.F.
4. Cool slowly in furnace.

Next: High-carbon Machinery Steel

Previous: Tool Or Crucible Steel

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