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Steel Making

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Annealing Alloy Steel


The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, refers
largely to nickel and chromium steel or a combination of both. These
steels are manufactured very largely by the open-hearth process,
although chromium steels are also a crucible product. It is next
to impossible to give proper directions for the proper annealing
of alloy steel unless the composition is known to the operator.

Nickel steels may be annealed at lower temperatures than carbon
steels, depending upon their alloy content. For instance, if a
pearlitic carbon steel may be annealed at 1,450 deg.C., the same analysis
containing 2-1/2 per cent nickel may be annealed at 1,360 deg.C. and
a 5 per cent nickel steel at 1,270 deg..

In order that high chromium steels may be readily machined, they
must be heated at or slightly above the critical for a very long
time, and cooled through the critical at an extremely slow rate.
For a steel containing 0.9 to 1.1 per cent carbon, under 0.50 per
cent manganese, and about 1.0 per cent chromium, Bullens recommends
the following anneal:

1. Heat to 1,700 or 1,750 deg.F.
2. Air cool to about 800 deg.F.
3. Soak at 1,425 to 1,450 deg.F.
4. Cool slowly in furnace.

Next: High-carbon Machinery Steel

Previous: Tool Or Crucible Steel

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