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Steel Making

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Annealing Alloy Steel


The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, refers
largely to nickel and chromium steel or a combination of both. These
steels are manufactured very largely by the open-hearth process,
although chromium steels are also a crucible product. It is next
to impossible to give proper directions for the proper annealing
of alloy steel unless the composition is known to the operator.

Nickel steels may be annealed at lower temperatures than carbon
steels, depending upon their alloy content. For instance, if a
pearlitic carbon steel may be annealed at 1,450 deg.C., the same analysis
containing 2-1/2 per cent nickel may be annealed at 1,360 deg.C. and
a 5 per cent nickel steel at 1,270 deg..

In order that high chromium steels may be readily machined, they
must be heated at or slightly above the critical for a very long
time, and cooled through the critical at an extremely slow rate.
For a steel containing 0.9 to 1.1 per cent carbon, under 0.50 per
cent manganese, and about 1.0 per cent chromium, Bullens recommends
the following anneal:

1. Heat to 1,700 or 1,750 deg.F.
2. Air cool to about 800 deg.F.
3. Soak at 1,425 to 1,450 deg.F.
4. Cool slowly in furnace.

Next: High-carbon Machinery Steel

Previous: Tool Or Crucible Steel

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