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Steel Making

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Annealing Alloy Steel


The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, refers
largely to nickel and chromium steel or a combination of both. These
steels are manufactured very largely by the open-hearth process,
although chromium steels are also a crucible product. It is next
to impossible to give proper directions for the proper annealing
of alloy steel unless the composition is known to the operator.

Nickel steels may be annealed at lower temperatures than carbon
steels, depending upon their alloy content. For instance, if a
pearlitic carbon steel may be annealed at 1,450 deg.C., the same analysis
containing 2-1/2 per cent nickel may be annealed at 1,360 deg.C. and
a 5 per cent nickel steel at 1,270 deg..

In order that high chromium steels may be readily machined, they
must be heated at or slightly above the critical for a very long
time, and cooled through the critical at an extremely slow rate.
For a steel containing 0.9 to 1.1 per cent carbon, under 0.50 per
cent manganese, and about 1.0 per cent chromium, Bullens recommends
the following anneal:

1. Heat to 1,700 or 1,750 deg.F.
2. Air cool to about 800 deg.F.
3. Soak at 1,425 to 1,450 deg.F.
4. Cool slowly in furnace.

Next: High-carbon Machinery Steel

Previous: Tool Or Crucible Steel

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