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Steel Making

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Annealing Alloy Steel


The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, refers
largely to nickel and chromium steel or a combination of both. These
steels are manufactured very largely by the open-hearth process,
although chromium steels are also a crucible product. It is next
to impossible to give proper directions for the proper annealing
of alloy steel unless the composition is known to the operator.

Nickel steels may be annealed at lower temperatures than carbon
steels, depending upon their alloy content. For instance, if a
pearlitic carbon steel may be annealed at 1,450 deg.C., the same analysis
containing 2-1/2 per cent nickel may be annealed at 1,360 deg.C. and
a 5 per cent nickel steel at 1,270 deg..

In order that high chromium steels may be readily machined, they
must be heated at or slightly above the critical for a very long
time, and cooled through the critical at an extremely slow rate.
For a steel containing 0.9 to 1.1 per cent carbon, under 0.50 per
cent manganese, and about 1.0 per cent chromium, Bullens recommends
the following anneal:

1. Heat to 1,700 or 1,750 deg.F.
2. Air cool to about 800 deg.F.
3. Soak at 1,425 to 1,450 deg.F.
4. Cool slowly in furnace.

Next: High-carbon Machinery Steel

Previous: Tool Or Crucible Steel

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