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Steel Making

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Annealing Alloy Steel


The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, refers
largely to nickel and chromium steel or a combination of both. These
steels are manufactured very largely by the open-hearth process,
although chromium steels are also a crucible product. It is next
to impossible to give proper directions for the proper annealing
of alloy steel unless the composition is known to the operator.

Nickel steels may be annealed at lower temperatures than carbon
steels, depending upon their alloy content. For instance, if a
pearlitic carbon steel may be annealed at 1,450 deg.C., the same analysis
containing 2-1/2 per cent nickel may be annealed at 1,360 deg.C. and
a 5 per cent nickel steel at 1,270 deg..

In order that high chromium steels may be readily machined, they
must be heated at or slightly above the critical for a very long
time, and cooled through the critical at an extremely slow rate.
For a steel containing 0.9 to 1.1 per cent carbon, under 0.50 per
cent manganese, and about 1.0 per cent chromium, Bullens recommends
the following anneal:

1. Heat to 1,700 or 1,750 deg.F.
2. Air cool to about 800 deg.F.
3. Soak at 1,425 to 1,450 deg.F.
4. Cool slowly in furnace.

Next: High-carbon Machinery Steel

Previous: Tool Or Crucible Steel

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