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Steel Making

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Annealing Alloy Steel


The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, refers
largely to nickel and chromium steel or a combination of both. These
steels are manufactured very largely by the open-hearth process,
although chromium steels are also a crucible product. It is next
to impossible to give proper directions for the proper annealing
of alloy steel unless the composition is known to the operator.

Nickel steels may be annealed at lower temperatures than carbon
steels, depending upon their alloy content. For instance, if a
pearlitic carbon steel may be annealed at 1,450 deg.C., the same analysis
containing 2-1/2 per cent nickel may be annealed at 1,360 deg.C. and
a 5 per cent nickel steel at 1,270 deg..

In order that high chromium steels may be readily machined, they
must be heated at or slightly above the critical for a very long
time, and cooled through the critical at an extremely slow rate.
For a steel containing 0.9 to 1.1 per cent carbon, under 0.50 per
cent manganese, and about 1.0 per cent chromium, Bullens recommends
the following anneal:

1. Heat to 1,700 or 1,750 deg.F.
2. Air cool to about 800 deg.F.
3. Soak at 1,425 to 1,450 deg.F.
4. Cool slowly in furnace.

Next: High-carbon Machinery Steel

Previous: Tool Or Crucible Steel

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