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Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Annealing Alloy Steel


The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, refers
largely to nickel and chromium steel or a combination of both. These
steels are manufactured very largely by the open-hearth process,
although chromium steels are also a crucible product. It is next
to impossible to give proper directions for the proper annealing
of alloy steel unless the composition is known to the operator.

Nickel steels may be annealed at lower temperatures than carbon
steels, depending upon their alloy content. For instance, if a
pearlitic carbon steel may be annealed at 1,450 deg.C., the same analysis
containing 2-1/2 per cent nickel may be annealed at 1,360 deg.C. and
a 5 per cent nickel steel at 1,270 deg..

In order that high chromium steels may be readily machined, they
must be heated at or slightly above the critical for a very long
time, and cooled through the critical at an extremely slow rate.
For a steel containing 0.9 to 1.1 per cent carbon, under 0.50 per
cent manganese, and about 1.0 per cent chromium, Bullens recommends
the following anneal:

1. Heat to 1,700 or 1,750 deg.F.
2. Air cool to about 800 deg.F.
3. Soak at 1,425 to 1,450 deg.F.
4. Cool slowly in furnace.

Next: High-carbon Machinery Steel

Previous: Tool Or Crucible Steel

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