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Steel Making

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Annealing Alloy Steel


The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, refers
largely to nickel and chromium steel or a combination of both. These
steels are manufactured very largely by the open-hearth process,
although chromium steels are also a crucible product. It is next
to impossible to give proper directions for the proper annealing
of alloy steel unless the composition is known to the operator.

Nickel steels may be annealed at lower temperatures than carbon
steels, depending upon their alloy content. For instance, if a
pearlitic carbon steel may be annealed at 1,450 deg.C., the same analysis
containing 2-1/2 per cent nickel may be annealed at 1,360 deg.C. and
a 5 per cent nickel steel at 1,270 deg..

In order that high chromium steels may be readily machined, they
must be heated at or slightly above the critical for a very long
time, and cooled through the critical at an extremely slow rate.
For a steel containing 0.9 to 1.1 per cent carbon, under 0.50 per
cent manganese, and about 1.0 per cent chromium, Bullens recommends
the following anneal:

1. Heat to 1,700 or 1,750 deg.F.
2. Air cool to about 800 deg.F.
3. Soak at 1,425 to 1,450 deg.F.
4. Cool slowly in furnace.

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Previous: Tool Or Crucible Steel

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