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Steel Making

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Annealing Alloy Steel


The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, refers
largely to nickel and chromium steel or a combination of both. These
steels are manufactured very largely by the open-hearth process,
although chromium steels are also a crucible product. It is next
to impossible to give proper directions for the proper annealing
of alloy steel unless the composition is known to the operator.

Nickel steels may be annealed at lower temperatures than carbon
steels, depending upon their alloy content. For instance, if a
pearlitic carbon steel may be annealed at 1,450 deg.C., the same analysis
containing 2-1/2 per cent nickel may be annealed at 1,360 deg.C. and
a 5 per cent nickel steel at 1,270 deg..

In order that high chromium steels may be readily machined, they
must be heated at or slightly above the critical for a very long
time, and cooled through the critical at an extremely slow rate.
For a steel containing 0.9 to 1.1 per cent carbon, under 0.50 per
cent manganese, and about 1.0 per cent chromium, Bullens recommends
the following anneal:

1. Heat to 1,700 or 1,750 deg.F.
2. Air cool to about 800 deg.F.
3. Soak at 1,425 to 1,450 deg.F.
4. Cool slowly in furnace.

Next: High-carbon Machinery Steel

Previous: Tool Or Crucible Steel

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