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Steel Making

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...



Annealing Work






Category: HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

With the exception of several of the higher types
of alloy steels, where the percentages of special elements run quite
high, which causes a slight air-hardening action, the carburizing
steels are soft enough for machining when air cooled from any
temperature, including the finishing temperature at the hammer.
This condition has led many drop-forge and manufacturing concerns
to consider annealing as an unnecessary operation and expense.
In many cases the drop forging has only been heated to a low
temperature, often just until the piece showed color, to relieve
the so-called hammer strains. While this has been only a compromise
it has been better than no reheating at all, although it has not
properly refined the grain, which is necessary for good machining
conditions.

Annealing is heating to a temperature slightly above the highest
critical point and cooling slowly either in the air or in the furnace.
Annealing is done to accomplish two purposes: (1) to relieve mechanical
strains and (2) to soften and produce a maximum refinement of grain.





Next: Process Of Carburizing

Previous: Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks



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