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Steel Making

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Annealing
ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...



Annealing Work






Category: HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

With the exception of several of the higher types
of alloy steels, where the percentages of special elements run quite
high, which causes a slight air-hardening action, the carburizing
steels are soft enough for machining when air cooled from any
temperature, including the finishing temperature at the hammer.
This condition has led many drop-forge and manufacturing concerns
to consider annealing as an unnecessary operation and expense.
In many cases the drop forging has only been heated to a low
temperature, often just until the piece showed color, to relieve
the so-called hammer strains. While this has been only a compromise
it has been better than no reheating at all, although it has not
properly refined the grain, which is necessary for good machining
conditions.

Annealing is heating to a temperature slightly above the highest
critical point and cooling slowly either in the air or in the furnace.
Annealing is done to accomplish two purposes: (1) to relieve mechanical
strains and (2) to soften and produce a maximum refinement of grain.





Next: Process Of Carburizing

Previous: Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks



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