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Steel Making

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Annealing Work


With the exception of several of the higher types
of alloy steels, where the percentages of special elements run quite
high, which causes a slight air-hardening action, the carburizing
steels are soft enough for machining when air cooled from any
temperature, including the finishing temperature at the hammer.
This condition has led many drop-forge and manufacturing concerns
to consider annealing as an unnecessary operation and expense.
In many cases the drop forging has only been heated to a low
temperature, often just until the piece showed color, to relieve
the so-called hammer strains. While this has been only a compromise
it has been better than no reheating at all, although it has not
properly refined the grain, which is necessary for good machining

Annealing is heating to a temperature slightly above the highest
critical point and cooling slowly either in the air or in the furnace.
Annealing is done to accomplish two purposes: (1) to relieve mechanical
strains and (2) to soften and produce a maximum refinement of grain.

Next: Process Of Carburizing

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