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Steel Making

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Annealing Work


With the exception of several of the higher types
of alloy steels, where the percentages of special elements run quite
high, which causes a slight air-hardening action, the carburizing
steels are soft enough for machining when air cooled from any
temperature, including the finishing temperature at the hammer.
This condition has led many drop-forge and manufacturing concerns
to consider annealing as an unnecessary operation and expense.
In many cases the drop forging has only been heated to a low
temperature, often just until the piece showed color, to relieve
the so-called hammer strains. While this has been only a compromise
it has been better than no reheating at all, although it has not
properly refined the grain, which is necessary for good machining

Annealing is heating to a temperature slightly above the highest
critical point and cooling slowly either in the air or in the furnace.
Annealing is done to accomplish two purposes: (1) to relieve mechanical
strains and (2) to soften and produce a maximum refinement of grain.

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