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Steel Making

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Annealing Work


With the exception of several of the higher types
of alloy steels, where the percentages of special elements run quite
high, which causes a slight air-hardening action, the carburizing
steels are soft enough for machining when air cooled from any
temperature, including the finishing temperature at the hammer.
This condition has led many drop-forge and manufacturing concerns
to consider annealing as an unnecessary operation and expense.
In many cases the drop forging has only been heated to a low
temperature, often just until the piece showed color, to relieve
the so-called hammer strains. While this has been only a compromise
it has been better than no reheating at all, although it has not
properly refined the grain, which is necessary for good machining

Annealing is heating to a temperature slightly above the highest
critical point and cooling slowly either in the air or in the furnace.
Annealing is done to accomplish two purposes: (1) to relieve mechanical
strains and (2) to soften and produce a maximum refinement of grain.

Next: Process Of Carburizing

Previous: Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks

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