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Steel Making

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...



Annealing Work






Category: HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

With the exception of several of the higher types
of alloy steels, where the percentages of special elements run quite
high, which causes a slight air-hardening action, the carburizing
steels are soft enough for machining when air cooled from any
temperature, including the finishing temperature at the hammer.
This condition has led many drop-forge and manufacturing concerns
to consider annealing as an unnecessary operation and expense.
In many cases the drop forging has only been heated to a low
temperature, often just until the piece showed color, to relieve
the so-called hammer strains. While this has been only a compromise
it has been better than no reheating at all, although it has not
properly refined the grain, which is necessary for good machining
conditions.

Annealing is heating to a temperature slightly above the highest
critical point and cooling slowly either in the air or in the furnace.
Annealing is done to accomplish two purposes: (1) to relieve mechanical
strains and (2) to soften and produce a maximum refinement of grain.





Next: Process Of Carburizing

Previous: Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks



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