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Steel Making

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Annealing Work


With the exception of several of the higher types
of alloy steels, where the percentages of special elements run quite
high, which causes a slight air-hardening action, the carburizing
steels are soft enough for machining when air cooled from any
temperature, including the finishing temperature at the hammer.
This condition has led many drop-forge and manufacturing concerns
to consider annealing as an unnecessary operation and expense.
In many cases the drop forging has only been heated to a low
temperature, often just until the piece showed color, to relieve
the so-called hammer strains. While this has been only a compromise
it has been better than no reheating at all, although it has not
properly refined the grain, which is necessary for good machining

Annealing is heating to a temperature slightly above the highest
critical point and cooling slowly either in the air or in the furnace.
Annealing is done to accomplish two purposes: (1) to relieve mechanical
strains and (2) to soften and produce a maximum refinement of grain.

Next: Process Of Carburizing

Previous: Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks

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