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Steel Making

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Annealing Work


With the exception of several of the higher types
of alloy steels, where the percentages of special elements run quite
high, which causes a slight air-hardening action, the carburizing
steels are soft enough for machining when air cooled from any
temperature, including the finishing temperature at the hammer.
This condition has led many drop-forge and manufacturing concerns
to consider annealing as an unnecessary operation and expense.
In many cases the drop forging has only been heated to a low
temperature, often just until the piece showed color, to relieve
the so-called hammer strains. While this has been only a compromise
it has been better than no reheating at all, although it has not
properly refined the grain, which is necessary for good machining

Annealing is heating to a temperature slightly above the highest
critical point and cooling slowly either in the air or in the furnace.
Annealing is done to accomplish two purposes: (1) to relieve mechanical
strains and (2) to soften and produce a maximum refinement of grain.

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