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Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Hardening
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...



Annealing Work






Category: HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

With the exception of several of the higher types
of alloy steels, where the percentages of special elements run quite
high, which causes a slight air-hardening action, the carburizing
steels are soft enough for machining when air cooled from any
temperature, including the finishing temperature at the hammer.
This condition has led many drop-forge and manufacturing concerns
to consider annealing as an unnecessary operation and expense.
In many cases the drop forging has only been heated to a low
temperature, often just until the piece showed color, to relieve
the so-called hammer strains. While this has been only a compromise
it has been better than no reheating at all, although it has not
properly refined the grain, which is necessary for good machining
conditions.

Annealing is heating to a temperature slightly above the highest
critical point and cooling slowly either in the air or in the furnace.
Annealing is done to accomplish two purposes: (1) to relieve mechanical
strains and (2) to soften and produce a maximum refinement of grain.





Next: Process Of Carburizing

Previous: Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks



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