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Steel Making

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Annealing Work


With the exception of several of the higher types
of alloy steels, where the percentages of special elements run quite
high, which causes a slight air-hardening action, the carburizing
steels are soft enough for machining when air cooled from any
temperature, including the finishing temperature at the hammer.
This condition has led many drop-forge and manufacturing concerns
to consider annealing as an unnecessary operation and expense.
In many cases the drop forging has only been heated to a low
temperature, often just until the piece showed color, to relieve
the so-called hammer strains. While this has been only a compromise
it has been better than no reheating at all, although it has not
properly refined the grain, which is necessary for good machining

Annealing is heating to a temperature slightly above the highest
critical point and cooling slowly either in the air or in the furnace.
Annealing is done to accomplish two purposes: (1) to relieve mechanical
strains and (2) to soften and produce a maximum refinement of grain.

Next: Process Of Carburizing

Previous: Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks

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