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   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Pyrometers
Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Hardening
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...



Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempered
will, if complex in shape, contain many internal stresses which may
later cause it to break. They may be eased off by slight heating
without materially lessening the hardness of the piece. One way
to do this is to hold the piece over a fire and test it with a
moistened finger. Another way is to dip the piece in boiling water
after it has first been quenched in a cold bath. Such steps are
not necessary with articles which will afterward be tempered and
in which the strains are thus reduced.

In annealing steels the operation is similar to hardening, as far
as heating is concerned. The critical temperatures are the proper
ones for annealing as well as hardening. From this point on there
is a difference, for annealing consists in cooling as slowly as
possible. The slower the cooling the softer will be the steel.

Annealing may be done in the open air, in furnaces, in hot ashes
or lime, in powdered charcoal, in burnt bone, in charred leather
and in water. Open-air annealing will do as a crude measure in
cases where it is desired to take the internal stresses out of
a piece. Care must be taken in using this method that the piece
is not exposed to drafts or placed on some cold substance that
will chill it. Furnace annealing is much better and consists in
heating the piece in a furnace to the critical temperature and
then allowing the work and the furnace to cool together.

When lime or ashes are used as materials to keep air away from
the steel and retain the heat, they should be first heated to make
sure that they are dry. Powdered charcoal is used for high-grade
annealing, the piece being packed in this substance in an iron box
and both the work and the box raised to the critical temperature
and then allowed to cool slowly. Machinery steel may be annealed in
spent ground-bone that has been used in casehardening; but tool
steel must never be annealed in this way, as it will be injured
by the phosphorus contained in the bone. Charred leather is the
best annealing material for high-carbon steel, because it prevents
decarbonizing taking place.





Next: Double Annealing

Previous: Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel



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