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Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Manganese
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Hardening
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...



Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempered
will, if complex in shape, contain many internal stresses which may
later cause it to break. They may be eased off by slight heating
without materially lessening the hardness of the piece. One way
to do this is to hold the piece over a fire and test it with a
moistened finger. Another way is to dip the piece in boiling water
after it has first been quenched in a cold bath. Such steps are
not necessary with articles which will afterward be tempered and
in which the strains are thus reduced.

In annealing steels the operation is similar to hardening, as far
as heating is concerned. The critical temperatures are the proper
ones for annealing as well as hardening. From this point on there
is a difference, for annealing consists in cooling as slowly as
possible. The slower the cooling the softer will be the steel.

Annealing may be done in the open air, in furnaces, in hot ashes
or lime, in powdered charcoal, in burnt bone, in charred leather
and in water. Open-air annealing will do as a crude measure in
cases where it is desired to take the internal stresses out of
a piece. Care must be taken in using this method that the piece
is not exposed to drafts or placed on some cold substance that
will chill it. Furnace annealing is much better and consists in
heating the piece in a furnace to the critical temperature and
then allowing the work and the furnace to cool together.

When lime or ashes are used as materials to keep air away from
the steel and retain the heat, they should be first heated to make
sure that they are dry. Powdered charcoal is used for high-grade
annealing, the piece being packed in this substance in an iron box
and both the work and the box raised to the critical temperature
and then allowed to cool slowly. Machinery steel may be annealed in
spent ground-bone that has been used in casehardening; but tool
steel must never be annealed in this way, as it will be injured
by the phosphorus contained in the bone. Charred leather is the
best annealing material for high-carbon steel, because it prevents
decarbonizing taking place.





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Previous: Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel



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