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Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Carburizing By Gas


The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page 88,
consists of having a slowly revolving, properly heated, cylindrical
retort into which illuminating gas (a mixture of various hydrocarbons)
is continuously injected under pressure. The spent gases are vented
to insure the greatest speed in carbonizing. The work is constantly
and uniformly exposed to a clean carbonizing atmosphere instead
of partially spent carbonaceous solids which may give off very
complex compounds of phosphorus, sulphur, carbon and nitrogen.

Originally this process was thought to require a gas generator but
it has been discovered that city gas works all right. The gas consists
of vapors derived from petroleum or bituminous coal. Sometimes the
gas supply is diluted by air, to reduce the speed of carburization
and increase the depth.

Next: Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating

Previous: Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels

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