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Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Carburizing By Gas


The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page 88,
consists of having a slowly revolving, properly heated, cylindrical
retort into which illuminating gas (a mixture of various hydrocarbons)
is continuously injected under pressure. The spent gases are vented
to insure the greatest speed in carbonizing. The work is constantly
and uniformly exposed to a clean carbonizing atmosphere instead
of partially spent carbonaceous solids which may give off very
complex compounds of phosphorus, sulphur, carbon and nitrogen.

Originally this process was thought to require a gas generator but
it has been discovered that city gas works all right. The gas consists
of vapors derived from petroleum or bituminous coal. Sometimes the
gas supply is diluted by air, to reduce the speed of carburization
and increase the depth.

Next: Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating

Previous: Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels

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