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Steel Making

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Carburizing By Gas


The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page 88,
consists of having a slowly revolving, properly heated, cylindrical
retort into which illuminating gas (a mixture of various hydrocarbons)
is continuously injected under pressure. The spent gases are vented
to insure the greatest speed in carbonizing. The work is constantly
and uniformly exposed to a clean carbonizing atmosphere instead
of partially spent carbonaceous solids which may give off very
complex compounds of phosphorus, sulphur, carbon and nitrogen.

Originally this process was thought to require a gas generator but
it has been discovered that city gas works all right. The gas consists
of vapors derived from petroleum or bituminous coal. Sometimes the
gas supply is diluted by air, to reduce the speed of carburization
and increase the depth.

Next: Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating

Previous: Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels

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