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Steel Making

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Carburizing By Gas


The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page 88,
consists of having a slowly revolving, properly heated, cylindrical
retort into which illuminating gas (a mixture of various hydrocarbons)
is continuously injected under pressure. The spent gases are vented
to insure the greatest speed in carbonizing. The work is constantly
and uniformly exposed to a clean carbonizing atmosphere instead
of partially spent carbonaceous solids which may give off very
complex compounds of phosphorus, sulphur, carbon and nitrogen.

Originally this process was thought to require a gas generator but
it has been discovered that city gas works all right. The gas consists
of vapors derived from petroleum or bituminous coal. Sometimes the
gas supply is diluted by air, to reduce the speed of carburization
and increase the depth.

Next: Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating

Previous: Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels

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