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Steel Making

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Pyrometers
Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...



Carburizing By Gas






Category: CASE-HARDENING OR SURFACE-CARBURIZING

The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page 88,
consists of having a slowly revolving, properly heated, cylindrical
retort into which illuminating gas (a mixture of various hydrocarbons)
is continuously injected under pressure. The spent gases are vented
to insure the greatest speed in carbonizing. The work is constantly
and uniformly exposed to a clean carbonizing atmosphere instead
of partially spent carbonaceous solids which may give off very
complex compounds of phosphorus, sulphur, carbon and nitrogen.

Originally this process was thought to require a gas generator but
it has been discovered that city gas works all right. The gas consists
of vapors derived from petroleum or bituminous coal. Sometimes the
gas supply is diluted by air, to reduce the speed of carburization
and increase the depth.





Next: Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating

Previous: Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels



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