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Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Carburizing By Gas


The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page 88,
consists of having a slowly revolving, properly heated, cylindrical
retort into which illuminating gas (a mixture of various hydrocarbons)
is continuously injected under pressure. The spent gases are vented
to insure the greatest speed in carbonizing. The work is constantly
and uniformly exposed to a clean carbonizing atmosphere instead
of partially spent carbonaceous solids which may give off very
complex compounds of phosphorus, sulphur, carbon and nitrogen.

Originally this process was thought to require a gas generator but
it has been discovered that city gas works all right. The gas consists
of vapors derived from petroleum or bituminous coal. Sometimes the
gas supply is diluted by air, to reduce the speed of carburization
and increase the depth.

Next: Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating

Previous: Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels

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