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Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Carburizing By Gas


The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page 88,
consists of having a slowly revolving, properly heated, cylindrical
retort into which illuminating gas (a mixture of various hydrocarbons)
is continuously injected under pressure. The spent gases are vented
to insure the greatest speed in carbonizing. The work is constantly
and uniformly exposed to a clean carbonizing atmosphere instead
of partially spent carbonaceous solids which may give off very
complex compounds of phosphorus, sulphur, carbon and nitrogen.

Originally this process was thought to require a gas generator but
it has been discovered that city gas works all right. The gas consists
of vapors derived from petroleum or bituminous coal. Sometimes the
gas supply is diluted by air, to reduce the speed of carburization
and increase the depth.

Next: Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating

Previous: Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels

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