The mechanical construction of a letter, whether social, friendly, or business, falls into six or seven parts. This arrangement has become established by the best custom. The divisions are as follows: 1. Heading 2. Inside address (Always used... Read more of The Parts Of A Letter at Business Letter.caInformational Site Network Informational
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Steel Making

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Carburizing By Gas


The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page 88,
consists of having a slowly revolving, properly heated, cylindrical
retort into which illuminating gas (a mixture of various hydrocarbons)
is continuously injected under pressure. The spent gases are vented
to insure the greatest speed in carbonizing. The work is constantly
and uniformly exposed to a clean carbonizing atmosphere instead
of partially spent carbonaceous solids which may give off very
complex compounds of phosphorus, sulphur, carbon and nitrogen.

Originally this process was thought to require a gas generator but
it has been discovered that city gas works all right. The gas consists
of vapors derived from petroleum or bituminous coal. Sometimes the
gas supply is diluted by air, to reduce the speed of carburization
and increase the depth.

Next: Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating

Previous: Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels

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