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Steel Making

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Carburizing By Gas


The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page 88,
consists of having a slowly revolving, properly heated, cylindrical
retort into which illuminating gas (a mixture of various hydrocarbons)
is continuously injected under pressure. The spent gases are vented
to insure the greatest speed in carbonizing. The work is constantly
and uniformly exposed to a clean carbonizing atmosphere instead
of partially spent carbonaceous solids which may give off very
complex compounds of phosphorus, sulphur, carbon and nitrogen.

Originally this process was thought to require a gas generator but
it has been discovered that city gas works all right. The gas consists
of vapors derived from petroleum or bituminous coal. Sometimes the
gas supply is diluted by air, to reduce the speed of carburization
and increase the depth.

Next: Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating

Previous: Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels

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