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Steel Making

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Carburizing By Gas


The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page 88,
consists of having a slowly revolving, properly heated, cylindrical
retort into which illuminating gas (a mixture of various hydrocarbons)
is continuously injected under pressure. The spent gases are vented
to insure the greatest speed in carbonizing. The work is constantly
and uniformly exposed to a clean carbonizing atmosphere instead
of partially spent carbonaceous solids which may give off very
complex compounds of phosphorus, sulphur, carbon and nitrogen.

Originally this process was thought to require a gas generator but
it has been discovered that city gas works all right. The gas consists
of vapors derived from petroleum or bituminous coal. Sometimes the
gas supply is diluted by air, to reduce the speed of carburization
and increase the depth.

Next: Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating

Previous: Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels

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