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Steel Making

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...



Classifications Of Steel






Category: COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF STEEL

Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by grade
and temper. The word grade is qualified by many adjectives of
more or less cryptic meaning, but in general they aim to denote
the process and care with which the steel is made.

Temper of a steel refers to the carbon content. This should preferably
be noted by points, as just explained; but unfortunately, a 53-point
steel (containing 0.53 per cent carbon) may locally be called something
like No. 3 temper.

A widely used method of classifying steels was originated by the
Society of Automotive Engineers. Each specification is represented
by a number of 4 digits, the first figure indicating the class, the
second figure the approximate percentage of predominant alloying
element, and the last two the average carbon content in points.
Plain carbon steels are class 1, nickel steels are class 2,
nickel-chromium steels are class 3, chromium steels are class 5,
chromium-vanadium steels are class 6, and silico-manganese steels
are class 9. Thus by this system, steel 2340 would be a 3 per cent
nickel steel with 0.40 per cent carbon; or steel 1025 would be a
0.25 plain carbon steel.

Steel makers have no uniform classification for the various kinds
of steel or steels used for different purposes. The following list
shows the names used by some of the well-known makers:

Air-hardening steel Chrome-vanadium steel
Alloy steel Circular saw plates
Automobile steel Coal auger steel
Awl steel Coal mining pick or cutter steel
Axe and hatchet steel Coal wedge steel
Band knife steel Cone steel
Band saw steel Crucible cast steel
Butcher saw steel Crucible machinery steel
Chisel steel Cutlery steel
Chrome-nickel steel Drawing die steel (Wortle)

Drill rod steel Patent, bush or hammer steel
Facing and welding steel Pick steel
Fork steel Pivot steel
Gin saw steel Plane bit steel
Granite wedge steel Quarry steel
Gun barrel steel Razor steel
Hack saw steel Roll turning steel
High-speed tool steel Saw steel
Hot-rolled sheet steel Scythe steel
Lathe spindle steel Shear knife steel
Lawn mower knife steel Silico-manganese steel
Machine knife steel Spindle steel
Magnet steel Spring steel
Mining drill steel Tool holder steel
Nail die shapes Vanadium tool steel
Nickel-chrome steel Vanadium-chrome steel
Paper knife steel Wortle steel

Passing to the tonnage specifications, the following table from
Tiemann's excellent pocket book on Iron and Steel, will give
an approximate idea of the ordinary designations now in use:

Approximate
Grades carbon range Common uses

Extra soft 0.08-0.18 Pipe, chain and other welding purposes;
(dead soft) case-hardening purposes; rivets; pressing
and stamping purposes.
Structural (soft) 0.15-0.25 Structural plates, shapes and bars for
(medium) bridges, buildings, cars, locomotives;
boiler (flange) steel; drop forgings; bolts.
Medium 0.20-0.35 Structural purposes (ships); shafting;
automobile parts; drop forgings.
Medium hard 0.35-0.60 Locomotive and similar large forgings; car
axles; rails.
Hard 0.60-0.85 Wrought steel wheels for steam and electric
railway service; locomotive tires; rails;
tools, such as sledges, hammers, pick points,
crowbars, etc.
Spring 0.85-1.05 Automobile and other vehicle springs; tools,
such as hot and cold chisels, rock drills
and shear blades.
Spring 0.90-1.15 Railway springs; general machine shop tools.





Next: Composition And Properties Of Steel

Previous: The Electric Process



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