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Steel Making

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...



Classifications Of Steel






Category: COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF STEEL

Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by grade
and temper. The word grade is qualified by many adjectives of
more or less cryptic meaning, but in general they aim to denote
the process and care with which the steel is made.

Temper of a steel refers to the carbon content. This should preferably
be noted by points, as just explained; but unfortunately, a 53-point
steel (containing 0.53 per cent carbon) may locally be called something
like No. 3 temper.

A widely used method of classifying steels was originated by the
Society of Automotive Engineers. Each specification is represented
by a number of 4 digits, the first figure indicating the class, the
second figure the approximate percentage of predominant alloying
element, and the last two the average carbon content in points.
Plain carbon steels are class 1, nickel steels are class 2,
nickel-chromium steels are class 3, chromium steels are class 5,
chromium-vanadium steels are class 6, and silico-manganese steels
are class 9. Thus by this system, steel 2340 would be a 3 per cent
nickel steel with 0.40 per cent carbon; or steel 1025 would be a
0.25 plain carbon steel.

Steel makers have no uniform classification for the various kinds
of steel or steels used for different purposes. The following list
shows the names used by some of the well-known makers:

Air-hardening steel Chrome-vanadium steel
Alloy steel Circular saw plates
Automobile steel Coal auger steel
Awl steel Coal mining pick or cutter steel
Axe and hatchet steel Coal wedge steel
Band knife steel Cone steel
Band saw steel Crucible cast steel
Butcher saw steel Crucible machinery steel
Chisel steel Cutlery steel
Chrome-nickel steel Drawing die steel (Wortle)

Drill rod steel Patent, bush or hammer steel
Facing and welding steel Pick steel
Fork steel Pivot steel
Gin saw steel Plane bit steel
Granite wedge steel Quarry steel
Gun barrel steel Razor steel
Hack saw steel Roll turning steel
High-speed tool steel Saw steel
Hot-rolled sheet steel Scythe steel
Lathe spindle steel Shear knife steel
Lawn mower knife steel Silico-manganese steel
Machine knife steel Spindle steel
Magnet steel Spring steel
Mining drill steel Tool holder steel
Nail die shapes Vanadium tool steel
Nickel-chrome steel Vanadium-chrome steel
Paper knife steel Wortle steel

Passing to the tonnage specifications, the following table from
Tiemann's excellent pocket book on Iron and Steel, will give
an approximate idea of the ordinary designations now in use:

Approximate
Grades carbon range Common uses

Extra soft 0.08-0.18 Pipe, chain and other welding purposes;
(dead soft) case-hardening purposes; rivets; pressing
and stamping purposes.
Structural (soft) 0.15-0.25 Structural plates, shapes and bars for
(medium) bridges, buildings, cars, locomotives;
boiler (flange) steel; drop forgings; bolts.
Medium 0.20-0.35 Structural purposes (ships); shafting;
automobile parts; drop forgings.
Medium hard 0.35-0.60 Locomotive and similar large forgings; car
axles; rails.
Hard 0.60-0.85 Wrought steel wheels for steam and electric
railway service; locomotive tires; rails;
tools, such as sledges, hammers, pick points,
crowbars, etc.
Spring 0.85-1.05 Automobile and other vehicle springs; tools,
such as hot and cold chisels, rock drills
and shear blades.
Spring 0.90-1.15 Railway springs; general machine shop tools.





Next: Composition And Properties Of Steel

Previous: The Electric Process



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