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Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Annealing
ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...



Classifications Of Steel






Category: COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF STEEL

Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by grade
and temper. The word grade is qualified by many adjectives of
more or less cryptic meaning, but in general they aim to denote
the process and care with which the steel is made.

Temper of a steel refers to the carbon content. This should preferably
be noted by points, as just explained; but unfortunately, a 53-point
steel (containing 0.53 per cent carbon) may locally be called something
like No. 3 temper.

A widely used method of classifying steels was originated by the
Society of Automotive Engineers. Each specification is represented
by a number of 4 digits, the first figure indicating the class, the
second figure the approximate percentage of predominant alloying
element, and the last two the average carbon content in points.
Plain carbon steels are class 1, nickel steels are class 2,
nickel-chromium steels are class 3, chromium steels are class 5,
chromium-vanadium steels are class 6, and silico-manganese steels
are class 9. Thus by this system, steel 2340 would be a 3 per cent
nickel steel with 0.40 per cent carbon; or steel 1025 would be a
0.25 plain carbon steel.

Steel makers have no uniform classification for the various kinds
of steel or steels used for different purposes. The following list
shows the names used by some of the well-known makers:

Air-hardening steel Chrome-vanadium steel
Alloy steel Circular saw plates
Automobile steel Coal auger steel
Awl steel Coal mining pick or cutter steel
Axe and hatchet steel Coal wedge steel
Band knife steel Cone steel
Band saw steel Crucible cast steel
Butcher saw steel Crucible machinery steel
Chisel steel Cutlery steel
Chrome-nickel steel Drawing die steel (Wortle)

Drill rod steel Patent, bush or hammer steel
Facing and welding steel Pick steel
Fork steel Pivot steel
Gin saw steel Plane bit steel
Granite wedge steel Quarry steel
Gun barrel steel Razor steel
Hack saw steel Roll turning steel
High-speed tool steel Saw steel
Hot-rolled sheet steel Scythe steel
Lathe spindle steel Shear knife steel
Lawn mower knife steel Silico-manganese steel
Machine knife steel Spindle steel
Magnet steel Spring steel
Mining drill steel Tool holder steel
Nail die shapes Vanadium tool steel
Nickel-chrome steel Vanadium-chrome steel
Paper knife steel Wortle steel

Passing to the tonnage specifications, the following table from
Tiemann's excellent pocket book on Iron and Steel, will give
an approximate idea of the ordinary designations now in use:

Approximate
Grades carbon range Common uses

Extra soft 0.08-0.18 Pipe, chain and other welding purposes;
(dead soft) case-hardening purposes; rivets; pressing
and stamping purposes.
Structural (soft) 0.15-0.25 Structural plates, shapes and bars for
(medium) bridges, buildings, cars, locomotives;
boiler (flange) steel; drop forgings; bolts.
Medium 0.20-0.35 Structural purposes (ships); shafting;
automobile parts; drop forgings.
Medium hard 0.35-0.60 Locomotive and similar large forgings; car
axles; rails.
Hard 0.60-0.85 Wrought steel wheels for steam and electric
railway service; locomotive tires; rails;
tools, such as sledges, hammers, pick points,
crowbars, etc.
Spring 0.85-1.05 Automobile and other vehicle springs; tools,
such as hot and cold chisels, rock drills
and shear blades.
Spring 0.90-1.15 Railway springs; general machine shop tools.





Next: Composition And Properties Of Steel

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