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Steel Making

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Classifications Of Steel


Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by grade
and temper. The word grade is qualified by many adjectives of
more or less cryptic meaning, but in general they aim to denote
the process and care with which the steel is made.

Temper of a steel refers to the carbon content. This should preferably
be noted by points, as just explained; but unfortunately, a 53-point
steel (containing 0.53 per cent carbon) may locally be called something
like No. 3 temper.

A widely used method of classifying steels was originated by the
Society of Automotive Engineers. Each specification is represented
by a number of 4 digits, the first figure indicating the class, the
second figure the approximate percentage of predominant alloying
element, and the last two the average carbon content in points.
Plain carbon steels are class 1, nickel steels are class 2,
nickel-chromium steels are class 3, chromium steels are class 5,
chromium-vanadium steels are class 6, and silico-manganese steels
are class 9. Thus by this system, steel 2340 would be a 3 per cent
nickel steel with 0.40 per cent carbon; or steel 1025 would be a
0.25 plain carbon steel.

Steel makers have no uniform classification for the various kinds
of steel or steels used for different purposes. The following list
shows the names used by some of the well-known makers:

Air-hardening steel Chrome-vanadium steel
Alloy steel Circular saw plates
Automobile steel Coal auger steel
Awl steel Coal mining pick or cutter steel
Axe and hatchet steel Coal wedge steel
Band knife steel Cone steel
Band saw steel Crucible cast steel
Butcher saw steel Crucible machinery steel
Chisel steel Cutlery steel
Chrome-nickel steel Drawing die steel (Wortle)

Drill rod steel Patent, bush or hammer steel
Facing and welding steel Pick steel
Fork steel Pivot steel
Gin saw steel Plane bit steel
Granite wedge steel Quarry steel
Gun barrel steel Razor steel
Hack saw steel Roll turning steel
High-speed tool steel Saw steel
Hot-rolled sheet steel Scythe steel
Lathe spindle steel Shear knife steel
Lawn mower knife steel Silico-manganese steel
Machine knife steel Spindle steel
Magnet steel Spring steel
Mining drill steel Tool holder steel
Nail die shapes Vanadium tool steel
Nickel-chrome steel Vanadium-chrome steel
Paper knife steel Wortle steel

Passing to the tonnage specifications, the following table from
Tiemann's excellent pocket book on Iron and Steel, will give
an approximate idea of the ordinary designations now in use:

Grades carbon range Common uses

Extra soft 0.08-0.18 Pipe, chain and other welding purposes;
(dead soft) case-hardening purposes; rivets; pressing
and stamping purposes.
Structural (soft) 0.15-0.25 Structural plates, shapes and bars for
(medium) bridges, buildings, cars, locomotives;
boiler (flange) steel; drop forgings; bolts.
Medium 0.20-0.35 Structural purposes (ships); shafting;
automobile parts; drop forgings.
Medium hard 0.35-0.60 Locomotive and similar large forgings; car
axles; rails.
Hard 0.60-0.85 Wrought steel wheels for steam and electric
railway service; locomotive tires; rails;
tools, such as sledges, hammers, pick points,
crowbars, etc.
Spring 0.85-1.05 Automobile and other vehicle springs; tools,
such as hot and cold chisels, rock drills
and shear blades.
Spring 0.90-1.15 Railway springs; general machine shop tools.

Next: Composition And Properties Of Steel

Previous: The Electric Process

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